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Invertebrate I - Biologie

Invertebrate I - Biologie



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Ongewerwelde I

Ongewerwelde Biologie

Die Invertebrate Biology-versamelings bestaan ​​hoofsaaklik uit 'n malakologie-versameling wat bestaan ​​uit meer as 14 500 baie onlangse en fossielmonsters, meestal gedroogde skulpe. Ongeveer 70% van die materiaal is terrestriële buikpotiges, 25% varswaterweekdiere en 5% mariene vorms. Geografiese dekking is meestal vir New Mexico (ongeveer 80%), maar daar is ook aansienlike besit vir Kansas, Mexiko, Oklahoma en Texas. Hierdie taksonomiese en geografiese samestelling het ontstaan ​​as gevolg van die vernaamste navorsingsbelangstellings en aktiwiteite van dr. Artie L. Metcalf, en sy studente.

 UTEP invertebratehoewes bevat ook 'n versameling rotifers saamgestel deur Dr. Elizabeth Walsh. Dr Walsh’s laboratorium gebruik molekulêre tegnieke om evolusionêre en ekologiese vrae aan te spreek. Ander doelwitte in Dr Walsh’ se laboratorium sluit in die ontwikkeling van 'n molekulêre filogenie van die belangrikste families van Rotifera, voltooiing van 'n ekologiese studie van rotifer bevolkings by Hueco Tanks State Park en Historiese Site, en bepaling van gemeenskapstruktuur en filogeografie van soöplankton in Chihuahuan woestynbronne.

Gedeeltes van beide ongewerwelde versamelings is aanlyn beskikbaar aangesien migrasie na Arctos tans aan die gang is. Alhoewel taksonomie, monster-identifikasies en gepaardgaande data voortdurend hersien word, kom foute soos verouderde name, verkeerde identifikasies en foutiewe versamelingsgebeurtenisinligting wel in ons databasis voor. Ondersoekers moet identifikasies verifieer deur monsters te ondersoek. 

Kontak asseblief die versamelingsbestuurder vir inligting wat verband hou met die biologieversameling van ongewerweldes.


Wat is die gemiddelde salaris vir ongewerwelde bioloog?

Ongewerwelde Bioloë word as dierkundiges en wildbioloë geklassifiseer ter wille van BLS-klassifikasie. Hul salarisse sal byna identies wees. In Mei 2015 was die mediaan salaris vir wildbioloë $59 680. Die laagste 10% het onder $39,180 verdien en die hoogste het meer as $97,390 verdien. Die hoogste betalende sektor was die federale regering met 'n jaarlikse mediaan van $74,190. Daar is 'n aansienlike daling tot ongeveer $61 000 (net bo die gemiddelde) vir navorsing en ontwikkeling in die fisiese wetenskappe. Wetenskaplike bestuur, kolleges en universiteite en staatsregering het almal in die omgewing van $56 000 betaal - net onder die mediaan.


Inleiding tot ongewerwelde biologie en medisyne (Verrigtinge)

Ongewerwelde diere beslaan 95% van die diereryk se spesies, maar nie-parasitiese ongewerwelde diere is grootliks onderverteenwoordig in die tipiese veeartsenykundige skoolkurrikulum. Hierdie aantekeninge en die gepaardgaande lesing bied 'n kort inleiding tot sommige van die meer prominente ongewerwelde groepe (koelenterate, weekdiere, skaaldiere, stekelhuidjies, insekte, die hoefysterkrap en spinnekoppe) en hersien die stand van die wetenskap met betrekking tot kliniese tegnieke.

Hierdie notas is gewysig en aansienlik hersien vanaf 'n 2004 Spesiale Spesiesimposium-uitdeelstuk en daarna die 2006 Internasionale Konferensie oor Eksotiese Verrigtinge en die 2007 en 2008 AVMA-konvensies.

Inleiding

Ongewerwelde diere beslaan 95% van die diereryk se spesies, maar nie-parasitiese ongewerwelde diere is grootliks onderverteenwoordig in die tipiese veeartsenykundige skoolkurrikulum. Hierdie aantekeninge en die gepaardgaande lesing bied 'n kort inleiding tot sommige van die meer prominente ongewerwelde groepe (seëldiere, weekdiere, skaaldiere, stekelhuidjies, insekte, die hoefysterkrap en spinnekoppe) en hersien die stand van die wetenskap met betrekking tot kliniese tegnieke. Hierdie notas is geensins omvattend nie, en is hoofsaaklik bedoel om die belangstellende klinikus in te lig oor die kliniese moontlikhede wat verband hou met die werk met ongewerweldes.

Porifera (sponse)

Die filum Porifera is 'n diverse groep primitiewe diere wat algemeen na verwys word as die sponse. Tot die vroeë 1800's is sponse eintlik as plante geklassifiseer. Sponse kom in die fossielrekord terug tot by die Prekambrium (meer as 600 miljoen jaar gelede) en was die belangrikste bydraers tot riwwe tydens die Paleosoïese en Mesosoïese Era (Hooper en Van Soest, 2002). Alle lede het nie gedefinieerde organe nie, gedifferensieerde selle binne bindweefsel verrig die nodige biologiese funksies. 'n Unieke stelsel van waterkanale vergemaklik die vervoer van voedsel, afvalprodukte en gamete. Byna almal is sittende en die meeste spesies is mariene. Die meeste van die 15 000 spesies is mariene maar ongeveer 3% van die sponse leef in varswater-omgewings. Sponse word gewoonlik op ferm substrate in vlak water aangetref, hoewel sommige op sagte bodems voorkom.

1. Sponse handhaaf 'n noue assosiasie met 'n verskeidenheid bakteriese genera, waarvan sommige patogenies kan wees.

2. Feitlik niks is bekend oor analgesie, narkose en terapeutiese middels van sponse nie.

3. Sponse duld blykbaar chirurgiese manipulasie in die vorm van sny en outo-enting.

4. Sponse is 'n integrale deel van koraalrif en ander akwatiese gemeenskappe.

5. Natuurlike produkte wat deur sponse vervaardig word, is belangrik vir biomediese wetenskap.

Verdere leeswerk

Hooper JNA en RWM Van Soest. 2002. Systema Porifera: 'n Gids tot die klassifikasie van sponse (Vol. 1 en 2). Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.

Kuhns WJ, Ho M, Burger MM, en R Smolowitz. 1997. Apoptose en weefselregressie in die mariene spons Microciona prolifera. Biol. Bul. 193:239-241.

Lewbart GL. 2006. Porifera. In: Invertebrate Medicine, Lewbart GA (red.). Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA, pp. 7-17.

Lauckner G. 1980. Siektes van Porifera. In: Diseases of Marine Animals (vol. 1), O. Kinne ed. John Wiley & Seuns, pp. 139-165.

Rützler K (Red.). 1990. Nuwe perspektiewe in Sponge Biology. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, pp. 188.

Coelenterates

Hierdie groot filum sluit die kamjellies (Ctenophores), Hydrozoans (hydras, vuurkoraal, Portugese Man-O-War), Scyphozoans (jellievisse) en Anthozoans (klipperige korale, sagte korale, seeanemone) in. Dit is 'n ekonomies belangrike groep vir navorsing, omgewingsmonitering, openbare en private uitstalling en toerisme. Koraalriwwe is gesamentlik een van die mooiste, mees diverse en broosste ekosisteme op die planeet. Jellievis-uitstallings is nou van die gewildste uitstallings in openbare akwariums en luukse restaurante regoor die wêreld.

1. Sommige siektes van harde en sagte korale is goed gedokumenteer. Die nomenklatuur vir baie van die aansteeklike siektes is in die proses van standaardisering.

2. Baie koelenterate is belangrike aanwysers van ekosisteemgesondheid.

3. Trauma en "inversie-sindroom" is groot bekommernisse wanneer gevange jellievisse aangehou word.

4. 'n Verskeidenheid terapeutiese verbindings is in hierdie filum gebruik, byna uitsluitlik op 'n empiriese basis.

5. Ons algehele kennis van coelenterate medisyne en chirurgie is minimaal, maar groei voortdurend. Fragging is 'n term wat gebruik word om "chirurgiese voortplanting" van harde en sagte korale te beskryf deur gebruik te maak van 'n verskeidenheid instrumente, kleefmiddels en substrate.

Verdere leeswerk

Freeman KS, Lewbart GA, Robarge WP, Law M, Harms, CA, Stoskopf MK. Kenmerkende eversie-sindroom in gevange scyphomedusa-jellievisse. American Journal of Veterinary Research 2009 70(9):1087-1093.

Sprung, J. en J.C. Delbeek. 1994. The Reef Aquarium, 'n Omvattende gids tot die identifisering en versorging van tropiese mariene ongewerweldes, Deel Een. Ricordea Publishing, Inc, Coconut Grove, Florida

Sprung, J. en J.C. Delbeek. 1997. The Reef Aquarium, 'n Omvattende gids tot die identifisering en versorging van tropiese mariene ongewerweldes, deel twee. Ricordea Publishing, Inc, Coconut Grove, Florida

Stoskopf MK. 2006. Coelenterates. In: Invertebrate Medicine, Lewbart GA (red.). Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA, pp. 19-51.

Buikpotige weekdiere

(Aangepas uit R. Smolowitz. 2006. Gastropods, Ongewerwelde medisyne, Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA)

Die buikpotiges hoort in die filum Mollusca en sluit meer as 80 000 see-, varswater- en landspesies in. Alle buikpotiges het 'n ventraal afgeplatte voet wat voortbeweging langs die verskillende oppervlaktes van hul habitatte verskaf. Die groep sluit onder meer slakke, slakke, seehase, naaktslakke, pantoffelskulpe, konke, wulke en perlemoen in. Die gebruik van buikpotiges as laboratoriumdiere en in akwakultuur is beperk, maar kom wel voor. Hulle is egter belangrike vertoon- en voedseldiere. Ondersoekers wat aan die seehaas werk, Aplysia, is in 2000 met 'n Nobelprys vir medisyne of fisiologie bekroon.

1. Sommige spesies kan redelik groot wees en hierdie diere is relatief maklik om mee te werk.

2. 'n Aantal aansteeklike siektes is goed beskryf in hierdie groep.

3. Gebreekte skulpe kan met eksterne fiksasiemetodes herstel word.

4. 'n Aantal terapeutiese en narkosetegnieke is beskryf.

5. Sommige spesies kan langlewend wees en kan redelik waardevol wees.

Verdere leeswerk

Anderson ET, Davis AS, Law JM, Lewbart GA, Christian LS, en Harms CA. 2010. Bruto en histologiese evaluering van vyf hechtingsmateriale in die vel en onderhuidse weefsel van die Kaliforniese seehaas (Aplysia californica). Tydskrif van die American Association for Laboratory Animal Science, 49(1):1-5.

Araujo R, Remon JM, Moreno D, Ramos, MA. 1995. Ontspanningstegnieke vir varswaterweekdiere: proewe vir evaluering van verskillende metodes. Malacologia, 36:29-41.

Friedman CS, Trevelyan G, Robbins TT, Mulder EP, Fields R. 2003. Ontwikkeling van 'n orale toediening van oksitetrasiklien om verliese as gevolg van verwelkingsindroom in gekweekte rooi perlemoen te beheer Haliotis refescens. Akwakultuur, 224:1-23.

Lauckner, G. 1980. Siektes van Mollusca: Gastropoda. In: siektes van seediere (red. O. Kinne) pp. 311-424. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Leibovitz L en Capo TR. 1988. Siektes van 'n massa gekweekte mariene laboratoriumdier, die seehaas, Aplysia californica. In: 3de. Internat. Colloq. Pathol. Marine Aquacul. 2-6 Oktober 1988, Gloucester Point, VA.

Nicolas JL, Basuyaux O, Mazurie J, Thebault A. 2002. Vibrio carchariae, 'n patogeen van die perlemoen Haliotis tuberculata. Dis. Aquat. Org. 50:35-43.

Smolowitz R. 2006. Buikpotiges. In: Invertebrate Medicine, Lewbart GA (red.). Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA, pp. 65-78.

White HI, Hecht T, Potgieter B. 1996. Die effek van vier verdowingsmiddels op Haliotis midae en hul geskiktheid vir toepassing in kommersiële perlemoenkultuur. Akwakultuur, 140:145-151.

Koppotige weekdiere

Daar is ongeveer 650 spesies koppotiges, 'n groep wat die seekatte, inkvisse, inktvisse en die kamer-nautilus insluit. Dit is 'n belangrike ekonomiese groep deurdat hulle as voedselbron vir mense en ander diere dien, gewilde vertoondiere is en gereeld in 'n verskeidenheid navorsingsprojekte gebruik is. Hulle skerp visie, handvaardigheid en intelligensie maak hulle fassinerende diere om waar te neem en te bestudeer. Ongelukkig is die meeste spesies kortstondig in die natuur en in ballingskap.

1. Dit is hoogs visuele, intelligente diere wat goeie kliniese pasiënte kan maak.

2. Algemene probleme in gevangenskap sluit in trauma, anoreksie, mikrobiese infeksies en probleme met waterkwaliteit. Onlangse kliniese werk sluit in publikasies oor farmakokinetika (Gore et al., 2005) en chirurgie (Harms et al., 2006).

3. Narkose- en chirurgiese protokolle is vir sommige spesies vasgestel.

4. In Groot-Brittanje word 'n IACUC (Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee) aansoek vereis om navorsing op koppotiges uit te voer.

5. Met hul geslote bloedsomloopstelsel maak hierdie diere goeie vakke vir farmakokinetiese studies.

Verdere leeswerk

Forsythe JW, DeRusha RH, en Hanlon RT. 1994. Groei, voortplanting en lewensduur van Sepia officinalis (Cephalopoda: Mollusca) gekweek deur sewe opeenvolgende generasies. J. Zool. Londen. 233:175-192.

Gore SR, Harms CA, Kukanich B, Forsythe J, Lewbart GA, Papich MG. 2005. Enrofloxacin farmakokinetika in die Europese inktvis, Sepia officinalis, na 'n enkele i.v. inspuiting en badtoediening. Tydskrif vir Veterinêre Farmakologie en Terapeutika, 28:433-439.

Hanlon RT en Forsythe JW. 1990. 1. Siektes van Mollusca: Cephalopoda 1.1 Siektes wat deur mikroörganismes veroorsaak word. Kinne O (red.). Siektes van seediere, Vol. 3. pp. 23-46. Biologische Anstalt Helgoland, Hamburg, Duitsland.

Harms CA, Lewbart GA, McAlarney R, Christian CS, Geissler K, en C Lemons. 2006. Chirurgiese uitsny van mikotiese (Cladosporium sp.) granulome van die mantel van 'n inktvis (Sepia officinalis). Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 37(4):524–530.

Messenger JB, Nixon M, en Ryan KP. 1985. Magnesiumchloried as 'n verdowingsmiddel vir koppotiges. Comp. Biochem. Fisiol. 82(C1):203-205.

Oestmann DJ, Scimeca JM, Forsythe JW, Hanlon RT en Lee PG. 1997. Spesiale oorwegings vir die aanhou van koppotiges in laboratoriumfasiliteite. Contemp. Top. Assoc. Lab. Anim. Sci.36: 89-93.

Reimschuessel RM, Stoskopf MK, en Bennett RO. 1990. Miokarditis by die gewone inktvis (Sepia officinalis). J.Comp. Pathol. 102:291-298.

Scimeca JM en Oestmann DJ. 1995. Geselekteerde siektes van in gevangenskap en in laboratorium grootgemaakte koppotiges. Proc. Int. Assoc. Aquat. Anima. Med. 27:88.

Scimeca J. 2006. Koppotiges. In: Invertebrate Medicine, Lewbart GA (red.). Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA, pp. 79-89.

Sherrill J, Spelman LH, Reidel CL, en Montali RJ. 2000. Gewone inktvis (Sepia officianalis) mortaliteit by die Nasionale Dieretuin: Implikasies vir kliniese bestuur. Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine 31(4):523-531.

Tweekleppige weekdiere

(Aangepas uit Levine J, Law M, en Corsin F, Bivalve hoofstuk, Invertebrate Medicine, 2006)

Hierdie klas weekdiere bevat baie algemene diere, insluitend die mossels, mossels, oesters en sint-jakobsschelpe. Dit is 'n uiters ekonomies belangrike groep, veral as voedselbron vir mense. Baie spesies word wêreldwyd gevang en gekweek vir voedsel. Daar is meer as 10 000 erkende spesies wat in varswater, riviermonding en mariene oppervlakwater voorkom. Tweekleppers vul 'n kritieke nis binne akwatiese ekosisteme, die meerderheid funksioneer as lewende filters. Hulle bestaan ​​uit 'n groot deel van die skulpfauna wat deur amateur- of professionele koncholoë op ons strande en varswaterstroomoewers versamel is, en het histories 'n beduidende rol in die klerebedryf gespeel as 'n bron van knope, of pêrels, en as 'n gereelde item op die rakke van nuwigheidswinkels. Tweekleppers is gewild in vertoonakwariums (private en openbare akwaria) en as navorsingsdiere.

1. 'n Aantal groot bakteriële, virale en protosoë siektes van tweekleppers is beskryf.

2. Ten spyte van bogenoemde stelling is kennis van toepaslike chemoterapeutika minimaal.

3. Diagnostiese tegnieke is beskryf, insluitend antemortem hemolimfversameling.

4. Baie tweekleppers kan vir dekades leef en kan as sodanig nogal waardevol wees.

5. Sommige spesies is ernstig bedreig, insluitend 'n aantal varswatermossels. Veeartse het reeds bygedra tot gesondheidsbeoordelingspogings namens bedreigde varswater tweekleppers.

Verdere leeswerk

Allam, B., C. Paillard, A. Howard en M. Le Pennec. 2000. Isolasie van die patogeen Vibrio tapetis en verdedigingsparameters in bruinring-siekte Manila-mossels Ruditapes philippinarum in Engeland verbou. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 41:105-113.

Bower, S.M., en S.E. McGladdery SE. 2003. Opsomming van aansteeklike siektes en parasiete van kommersieel ontginde skulpvis. URL: http://www-sci.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/shelldis/title_e.htm.

Levine J, Law M, en Corsin F. 2006. Tweekleppe. In: Invertebrate Medicine, Lewbart GA (red.). Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA, pp. 91-113.

Nakayama, K., A.M. Nomoto, M. NishijimaT. Maruyama T. 1997. Morfologiese en funksionele karakterisering van hemosiete in die reusagtige mossel Tridacna crocea. Tydskrif vir Invertebrate Pathology, 69:105-11.

Nakayama, K., M. Nishijima en T. Maruyama T. 1998. Parasitisme deur 'n protosoë in die hemolimf van die reuse-mossel, Tridacna crocea. Tydskrif vir Invertebrate Pathology, 71:193-198.

Smolowitz, R., D. Leavitt en F. Perkins. 1998. Waarnemings van 'n protistaanse siekte soortgelyk aan QPX in Mercenaria mercenaria (harde mossels) van die kus van Massachusetts. Tydskrif vir Invertebrate Pathology, 71:9-25.

Die Annelids is 'n groot en diverse groep gesegmenteerde vermiforme diere wat in drie hoofklasse verdeel word: die Polychaetes, Oligochaetes en Hirudineans. Almal word gekenmerk deur gereelde segmentering van die stam. Daar word geglo dat hierdie segmentering ontwikkel het as 'n manier om deur peristaltiese kontraksies te grawe (Ruppert en Barnes, 1994). Annelids het 'n seëlomiese holte wat deur gereelde septa in segmente verdeel word. Die bloedsomloop-, uitskeidings- en senuweestelsels is ook gesegmenteer. 'n Kutikula bedek die dier en gesegmenteerde setae kom in byna alle lede van die filum voor. Die mond is anterior geleë en die anus posterior met 'n reguit derm tussen die twee openinge (Ruppert en Barnes, 1994).

1. Sommige polychaete en oligochaetes het die vermoë om gedeeltes van hul liggame te regenereer.

2. Baie van die vroeë navorsing oor weefseloorplanting en -verwerping is op erdwurms (terrestriële oligochaetes) uitgevoer.

3. Feitlik niks is bekend oor die chemoterapeutiese behandeling van hierdie diere nie.

4. Baie min aansteeklike siektes is uit hierdie groep beskryf (behalwe waar hierdie diere die tussengasheer is vir siektes van gewerwelde diere).

5. Sommige spesies (tropiese mariene polchaete soos verestof en Kersboomwurms) is belangrike en waardevolle vertoondiere.

Verdere leeswerk

Benkendorff K. 2001. Chemiese verdediging in eiermassas van bentiese ongewerwelde diere: 'n Beoordeling van antibakteriese aktiwiteit in 39 weekdiere en 4 polychaete. Tydskrif vir Invertebrate Pathology, 78(2): 109-118.

Bilej M, de Baetselier P en A Beschin. 2000. Antimikrobiese verdediging van die erdwurm. Fol. Microbiol., 45:283-300.

Cooper JE, Mahaffey P, en K Applebee. 1986. Narkose van die medisinale bloedsuier (Hirudo medicinalis). Veeartsenykundige Rekord 118:589-590.

Cooper JE. 1990. 'n Veeartsenykundige benadering tot bloedsuiers. Veeartsenykundige Rekord 127:226-228.

Davila VJ, Hoppe IC, Landi R en FS Ciminello. 2009. Die effek van ankerhegtings op medisinale bloedsuiersterftes. Ooptoegang J van Plastiese Chirurgie 278-281.

Federov A en Federova L. 2006. Waar is die verskil tussen die genome van mense en annelide? Genoombiologie 7(1):Artikel 203.

Heimpel AM. 1966. 'n Kristallagtige bakterie wat geassosieer word met 'n "blaarsiekte" in die erdwurm, Eisenia foetida (Savigny). Tydskrif vir Invertebrate Pathology, 8:295-298.

Lewbart GL. 2006. Annelids. In: Invertebrate Medicine, Lewbart GA (red.). Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA, pp. 115-131.

Papavramidou N en H Christopoulou-Aletra. 2009. Medisinale gebruik van bloedsuiers in die tekste van antieke Griekse, Romeinse en vroeë Bisantynse skrywers. Interne Geneeskunde J 39(624-627).

Verlaag JM en JL Bartholomew. 2003. Opsporing van miksozoë parasiete in oligochaetes ingevoer as voedsel vir siervisse. Tydskrif vir Parasitologie, 89(1):84-91.

Snower DP, Ruef C, Kuritza AP en SC Edberg. 1989. Aeromonas hydrophila infeksie wat verband hou met die gebruik van medisinale bloedsuiers. Tydskrif vir Kliniese Mikrobiologie, 27(6):1421-1422.

Terzioglu A en D Tuncali. 2003. Die herbruikbare medisinale bloedsuier. Plastiese en Rekonstruktiewe Chirurgie, 111(3):1358-1359.

Skaaldiere

Die skaaldiere is 'n hoogs suksesvolle klas van die Phylum Arthropoda. Hierdie groep sluit die bekende krewe, krappe, krewe, garnale, brandpoppe en kluisenaars in. Talle ander taksa behoort tot hierdie klas isopode, amfipode en pekelgarnale. Ekonomies is dit een van die belangrikste groepe ongewerweldes. Die lede daarvan is belangrik vir kos, navorsing en as vertoondiere.

1. Die aansteeklike siektes van die penaeid-garnale ('n familie garnale met ekonomiese belang as voedseldiere) is in groot detail beskryf, veral sommige van die virale en bakteriese probleme.

2. Daar is data vir sommige antimikrobiese behandeling in die literatuur vir ekonomies belangrike groepe soos paneïdgarnale.

3. Daar is gepubliseerde protokolle vir narkose en genadedood vir sommige skaaldiere.

4. Fondse is beskikbaar om die siekte van ekonomies belangrike groepe soos krappe, garnale en kreef te bestudeer.

5. Hemolimf is relatief maklik om te onttrek en te ontleed van diere soos krewe, krappe en kluisenaarkrappe.

Verdere leeswerk

Brock JA en Lightner DV. 1990. Siektes van skaaldiere: Siektes wat deur mikroörganismes veroorsaak word. In: Siektes van seediere. Vol. 3: Cephalopoda, Annelida, Crustacea, Chaetognatha, Echinodermata, Urochordata. (red. deur O Kinne), pp. 245-349. Biologiese Anstalt Helgoland, Hamburg.

Brock JA en Main KL. 1994. 'n Gids tot die algemene probleme en siektes van gekultiveerdes Penaeus vannamei. Die Oceanic Institute, Honolulu, HI.

Edgerton, BF, Evans LH, Stephens FJ en Overstreet RM. 2002. Opsomming van varswaterkreefsiektes en kommensale organismes. Akwakultuur, 206:57-135.

Gardner C. 1997. Opsies vir menslike immobilisering en doodmaak van krappe. Tydskrif vir Skulpvisnavorsing. 16:19-224.

Ingle RW. 1995. Die UFAW-handboek oor die versorging en bestuur van tienpotige skaaldiere in gevangenskap. Universiteite Federasie vir Dierewelsyn, Potters Bar, Hertfordshire, Engeland.

Lightner DV (red.) .1996. 'n Handboek van Garnale Patologie en Diagnostiese Prosedures vir Siektes van Gekweekte Penaeid Garnale. World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, LA (losblaar).

Lightner DV en Redman RM. 1998. Garnale siektes en huidige diagnostiese metodes. Akwakultuur, 164:201-220.

Meyers TR. 1990. Siektes van skaaldiere: Siektes wat deur protistans en metazoane veroorsaak word. In: Siektes van seediere. Vol. 3: Cephalopoda, Annelida, Crustacea, Chaetognatha, Echinodermata, Urochordata. (red. deur O Kinne), pp. 350-389. Biologiese Anstalt Helgoland, Hamburg.

Noga EJ, Sawyer TK en Rodon-Naveira M. 1998. Siekteprosesse en gesondheidsevaluering in bloukrapvisserybestuur. J Shellfish Res 17:567-577.

Noga EJ, Smolowitz R en Khoo L. 2000. Patologie van skulpsiekte by die blou krap, Callinectes sapidus. J Fish Dis 23:389-399.

Noga EJ, Hancock AL, en RA Bullis. 2006. Skaaldiere. In: Invertebrate Medicine, Lewbart GA (Red.). Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA, pp. 179-193.

Dit is 'n groot groep diere (meer as 30 000 spesies) wat aan die klas Arachnida behoort. Minder opvallende spinagtiges sluit die myte, bosluise en skerpioene in. Talle tekste beskryf die biologie, natuurlike geskiedenis en boerdery van hierdie fassinerende wesens. Tarantulas (nie ware spinnekoppe nie) verteenwoordig 'n belangrike groep spinagtige spinagtiges wat gewoonlik mediese sorg benodig.

1. Verreweg die gewildste groep "spinnekoppe" wat by troeteldiere in die huis aangehou word, is die tarantulas.

2. Baie kliniese tegnieke, insluitend hemolimfversameling en narkose is beskryf vir tarantulas.

3. Spinnekoppewyfie kan langlewend wees (verskeie dekades) en kan nogal waardevol wees.

4. Algemene kliniese probleme sluit in trauma, ledemaat outotomie en disekdyse.

5. Chirurgiese herstel van die gebreekte eksoskelet word gewoonlik met chirurgiese kleefmiddels bewerkstellig.

Verdere leeswerk

Breene RG en Oɻrien MR. 1998. Beknopte sorggids vir die 80 plus mees algemene tarantulas. Am. Tarantula Soc. Carlsbad, NM 90 pp.

Breene RG. 1998. Die ATS geleedpotige mediese handleiding: Diagnoses & treatment. Am. Tarantula Soc. Carlsbad, NM 32 pp.

Cooper JE. 1987. 'n Veeartsenykundige benadering tot spinnekoppe. Tydskrif vir kleindierpraktyke, 28, 229-239.

Frye FL. 1992. Arachnids. In: Gevange ongewerweldes 'n gids tot hul biologie en boerdery, Krieger.

Pizzi R. 2006. Spinnekoppe. In: Invertebrate Medicine, Lewbart GA (red). Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA., pp. 143-168.

Zachariah TT, Mitchell MA, Guichard CM, en Singh RS. 2007. Hemolimf-biochemie-verwysingsreekse vir wild-gevang goliat-voëlvreter-spinnekoppe (Theraphosa blondi) en Chileense roosspinnekoppe (Grammostola rosea). JZWM, 38(2):345-251.

Limulus polyphemus, die Amerikaanse hoefysterkrap, is eintlik glad nie 'n krap nie, maar 'n lid van die Klas Merostomata in die Phylum Chelicerata. Hoefskoenkrappe is nader verwant aan spinagtiges as skaaldiere. Dit is die enigste spesie wat aan ons kus (Wes-Atlantiese Oseaan) voorkom, maar daar is ander spesies hoefysterkrappe wat in Asië voorkom. Limulus is 'n baie belangrike dier vir biomediese navorsing en word gebruik as aas en kunsmis (omstrede) sowel as 'n belangrike vertoon- en "aanraaktenk" dier in openbare akwariums. Ondersoekers wat visie en die Limulus laterale oog ondersoek, is in 1967 met die Nobelprys vir medisyne of fisiologie toegeken.

1. Die anatomie en fisiologie van hierdie dier is deeglik nagevors.

2. Hierdie diere is maklik om te hanteer en mee te werk.

3. Trauma gevalle kan chirurgies herstel word met eksterne fikseerders soos epoksie.

4. Baie min werk is gedoen met betrekking tot chemoterapeutiese behandeling.

5. Hierdie diere sal goeie vakke vir farmakokinetikastudies wees.

Verdere leeswerk

Allender MC, Schumacher J, Milam J, George R, Cox S, en Martin-Jimenez T. 2007. Farmakokinetika van intravaskulêre itrakonasool in die Amerikaanse hoefyster krap (Limulus polyphemus). J. Vet. Pharmacol. Therap., 31:83-86.

Bullis, R.A. 1994. Versorging en instandhouding van hoefysterkrappe vir gebruik in biomediese navorsing. In Techniques in Fish Immunology, Volume 3 (J.S. Stolen, T.C. Fletcher, A.F. Rowley, J.T. Zelikoff, S.L. Kaattari en S.A. Smith, eds.). SOS Publikasies, Fair Haven, NJ. bl A9-A10.

Groff, J.F. en L. Leibovitz. 1982. 'n Kieusiekte van Limulus polyphemus geassosieer met triclad turbellarid wurm infeksies. Biologiese Bulletin 163:392.

Leibovitz, L. 1986. Sianobakteriese siektes van die hoefyster krap (Limulus polyphemus). Biologiese Bulletin 171:482.

Leibovitz, L. en G.A. Lewbart. 1987. 'n Groenalg (chlorofikofitale) infeksie van die dorsale oppervlak van die eksoskelet en geassosieerde orgaanstrukture in die hoefyster krap (Limulus polyphemus). Biologiese Bulletin 173:430.

Leibovitz, L. en G.A. Lewbart. 2004. Siektes en simbiote: kwesbaarheid ten spyte van taai skulpe. In The American Horseshoe Crab (C.N. Shuster, Barlow RB en HJ Brockmann, red.). Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass., pp. 245-275.

Rudloe, J. 1983. Die effek van swaar bloeding op mortaliteit van die hoefyster krap, Limulus polyphemus, in die natuurlike omgewing. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 42:167-176.

Smith, S.A., J.M. Berkson en R.A. Barratt. 2002. Perdeskoen krap (Limulus polyphemus) hemolimf, biochemiese en immunologiese parameters. Verrigting van die Internasionale Vereniging vir Waterdiergeneeskunde. 33:101-102.

Smith, S.A. en J.M. Berkson. 2005. Laboratorium kultuur en instandhouding van die hoefyster krap (Limulus polyphemus). Lab Animal, 34(7):27-34.

Spotswood T. en SA Smith. 2007. Kardiovaskulêre en gastro-intestinale radiografiese kontrasstudies in die hoefyster krap (Limulus polyphemus). Veterinêre Radiologie en Ultraklank 48(1):14-20.

Dit is verreweg die grootste groep ongewerweldes en moontlik die ekonomies belangrikste. Insekte word wêreldwyd geliefd en verag en beslaan byna alle nisse behalwe die mariene omgewing. Hulle is belangrik as 'n menslike voedselbron in dele van die wêreld en beide onderhou en vernietig landbougewasse, afhangende van die spesie van insek en plant.

1. Belangrike navorsings- en vertoondiere sluit kewers, skoenlappers, sprinkane, wandelstokke en miere in.

2. Baie navorsing het gefokus op die siektes van insekte in sommige gevalle om die insekte te help en in sommige gevalle om hulle te benadeel.

3. Skoenlapperhuise en "arthropod-dieretuine" is baie gewild by dieretuine en natuurhistoriese museums.

4. 'n Redelike hoeveelheid navorsing is gepubliseer oor die bestuur van aansteeklike siektes van heuningbye (wat nie inheems aan Noord-Amerika is nie).

5. Hierdie diere kan suksesvol verdoof word voor 'n verskeidenheid diagnostiese prosedures.

Verdere leeswerk

Boucias DG en Pendland JC. 1999. "Beginsels van Insekpatologie." Kluwer, Nederland.

Cooper JE en Cunningham AA (1991). Patologiese ondersoek van ongewerwelde diere in gevangenskap. International Zoo Yearbook 30:137-143.

Cooper JE. 2006. Insekte. In: Invertebrate Medicine, Lewbart GA (red.). Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA, pp. 205-219.

Cox-Foster et al. 2007. 'n Metagenomiese opname van mikrobes in heuningbykolonie-ineenstortingsversteuring. Science, 318:283-287.

Echinoderms

Hierdie interessante en diverse groep diere sluit die seesterre, bros sterre, seekomkommers, see-egels, seekoekies en krinoïede in. Baie word algemeen in akwariums vertoon en in navorsing gebruik. Mense eet nie die meeste spesies nie, maar die gonades van see-egels is 'n gewilde voedselitem in sommige soesji-restaurante.

1. Baie min word gepubliseer met betrekking tot die medisyne en chirurgie van hierdie groep.

2. Sommige spesies is maklik om in gevangenskap te onderhou, wat hulle gewild maak as "pets" en vir navorsing.

3. Sommige spesies het regeneratiewe vermoëns en genees oor die algemeen goed en vinnig.

4. Inligting oor narkose en sedasie kan in die basiese wetenskaplike literatuur gevind word.

5. In sommige groepe kan die eksterne "toets," of skelet, kliniese evaluering moeilik maak.

Verdere leeswerk

Harms CA. 2006. Echinoderms. In: Invertebrate Medicine, Lewbart GA (red.). Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA, pp. 245-256.

Jangoux M. 1990. Siektes van Echinodermata. In: Diseases of Marine Animals, Vol. 3 (red. O Kinne) pp. 439-567. Biologiese Anstalt Helgoland, Hamburg.

Jellett JF, Wardlaw AC, en Scheibling RE. 1988. Eksperimentele infeksie van die echinoïed Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis met Paramoeba val in: kwantitatiewe veranderinge in die seëlomiese vloeistof. Dis Aquat Org 4: 149-157.

Jones GM, Hebda AJ, Scheibling RE, Miller RJ. 1985. Histopatologie van die siekte wat massa-vrektes van see-egels veroorsaak (Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis) in Nova Scotia. J Invertebr Pathol. May45(3):260-71.

Lessios HA. 1988. Massa sterfte van Diadema antillarum in die Karibiese Eilande: Wat het ons geleer? Ann Rev Ecol Syst 19: 371-393.

Kliniese tegnieke

Narkose en analgesie (Gunkel en Lewbart, 2007 en 2008)

Ongewerwelde narkose is nog in sy kinderskoene en relatief min navorsing is gedoen om die begrip van die verskillende narkosemiddels wat vir ongewerweldes gebruik word te verbeter. Nogtans is daar 'n versameling werk wat hierdie onderwerp ondersteun en definieer, en sleutelpunte en verwysings is ingesluit waar toepaslik. Totdat meer inligting oor pynpersepsie deur ongewerwelde diere beskikbaar is, moet 'n pynstiller gegee word aan enige dier wat aan 'n pynlike prosedure onderwerp word, en die hoeveelheid stres en pyn wat geïnduseer word, moet verminder word deur bewustheid te verminder deur toepaslike keuses van verdowingsmiddels.

Die gebruik van pynstillende middels in ongewerwelde spesies het sy eie beperkings aangesien baie min verslae gevind kan word wat die toediening en dosering van pynstillers dokumenteer, veral in die baie klein spesies. Assessering van pyn of ongemak by ongewerwelde diere is baie moeilik, ten spyte van die feit dat sommige vermydingsgedrag beskryf is. Die effek van analgesie is selfs moeiliker om te evalueer.

Meer navorsing word op hierdie gebied vereis, maar intussen, indien moontlik, moet middels met pynstillende eienskappe gebruik word om ongewerwelde diere te verdoof wanneer indringende prosedures uitgevoer word om die nociceptiewe pad te verminder. Hipotermie en CO2 het nie pynstillende eienskappe nie en kan selfs hiperalgetiese eienskappe toon. Inhaleermiddels word verkies bo laasgenoemde metodes. Alhoewel inhaleermiddels nie ware pynstillende eienskappe besit nie, maak dit soogdierpasiënte ongevoelig vir pynlike stimuli wanneer dit teen voldoende dosisse toegedien word. Ongelukkig hou die ongevoeligheid vir pynlike stimuli net so lank as wat die dier verdoof is, en toediening van 'n pynstiller sal raadsaam wees indien post-operatiewe pyn verwag word.

Monsterversameling, Voorbereiding en Evaluering (van: VanWettere en Lewbart, 2007)-

• Sitologiese monsters kan, soos met gewerwelde diere, versamel word deur te depper, te skrap, afdrukke of fynnaaldbiopsie. Een groot verskil tussen gewerweldes en ongewerweldes is hemolimfversameling. Hemolymph of invertebrates is comparable to the blood of vertebrates. Many invertebrates have an open circulatory system in which hemolymph flows to the organs through arteries, passes into a hemocoelomic cavity, and drains to the heart and respiratory organs through progressively larger venous channels. In most cases, hemolymph is composed of circulating hemocytes, soluble defense molecules, and a respiratory pigment (usually the copper-containing hemocyanin). Hemocytes are considered the equivalent of the vertebrate white blood cells with the additional function of coagulation. Hemolymph is the most readily accessible and often relatively easily antemortem collected tissue and can even be obtained from very small invertebrates such as flies and mosquitoes.

Generally, it is recommended to clean and disinfect the shell and/or integument at the collection site. In species with a hard cuticle, if the bleeding does not stop rapidly after sample collection, closure of the puncture site can be made using cyanocrylate (tissue glue) or a similar adherent material. Anesthesia may be required for sample collection in some species. There is wide variation in the anatomy between different species and description of hemolymph collection sites and details will be presented during the lecture and are accessible via the references.

There are examples of diagnostic imaging being used on invertebrate species and a recent paper on Limulus (see section X) will be reviewed and discussed.

Chemotherapeutics

There have been some recent papers dealing with chemotherapeutics and pharmacokinetics pertaining to invertebrates. Appropriate examples appear in this handout.

The literature contains a slowly expanding database of surgical procedures being performed on invertebrates. Some cases with the applicable references have been included and will be reviewed.

General invertebrate zoology and medicine references

Barnes RD. 1987. Invertebrate Zoology (5th ed.). Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia, pp. 71-91. Earlier editions were published in 1963, 1968, 1974, and 1980.

Breene RG. 1998. The ATS arthropod medical manual: Diagnoses & treatment. Am. Tarantula Soc. Carlsbad, NM 32 pp.

Cooper JE.1998. Emergency care of invertebrates. In: Veterinary Clinics of North America, Exotic Animal Practice, 1, 251-264.

Cooper JE. 2001. Invertebrate anesthesia. In "Analgesia and Anesthesia." Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice 4: (1) 57 – 67.

Frye FL. 1986. Care and feeding of invertebrates as pets or study animals. In "Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine" (Ed. Fowler ME) 2nd ed. WB Saunders, Philadelphia, USA.

Frye FL. 1992. Captive Invertebrates: A Guide to their Biology and Husbandry. Krieger, Malabar, Florida.

Howard DW, Lewis EJ, Keller BJ, and Smith CS (eds.). 2004. Histological Techniques for Marine Bivalve Mollusks and Crustaceans. NOAA Tech. Memo. NOS NCCOS 5, 218 pp.

Hyman LB. The invertebrates. Vol. I-VI (multiple years). McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Kinne O. (Ed). 1980-1990. Diseases of Marine Animals (Vols. 1-3), John Wiley & Sons.

Lewbart G.A. (Ed.). 2006. Invertebrate Medicine, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK, 327 pp.

Meglitsch PA and Schram FR. 1991. Invertebrate zoology. Oxford University Press, New York. 623 pp.

New TR. 1995. An Introduction to Invertebrate Conservation Biology. Oxford Science Publications, Oxford University Press, New York, NY. 194 pp.

Pearse V, Pearse J, Buchsbaum M, Buchsbaum R. 1987. Living invertebrates. Blackwell Scientific Publication, Palo Alto, California. 848 pp.

Ruppert EE, Fox RS and Barnes RD. 2004. Invertebrate Zoology: A Functional Evolutionary Approach. 7th Ed., Thompson-Brooks/Cole, Belmont, California, 963 pp.

Stolen J.S., Fletcher T.C., Smith, S.A., Zelikoff J.T., Kaattari S.L., Anderson R.S., Soderhall K., and B.A. Weeks-Perkins. 1995. Techniques in Fish Immunology, Fish Immunlogy Communications 4 (FITC 4), SOS Publications, Fair Haven, NJ 07760, 258 pp. plus appendices.

Williams DL.1999. Sample taking in invertebrate veterinary medicine. In: Veterinary Clinics of North America, Exotic Animal Practice, 2, 777-801.

Williams DL. 2002. Invertebrates. In "Manual of Exotic Pets" (eds. Meredith A and Redrobe S) British Small Animal Veterinary Association, Gloucester, UK

Portions of these notes are adapted from: Lewbart GA (ed). 2006. Invertebrate Medicine, Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA., 327 pp. Where indicated, these notes contain excerpts from the following book chapters (specific references not included):

Gunkel C and Lewbart GA. 2008. Anesthesia and Analgesia of Invertebrates. In: Anesthesia and Analgesia In Laboratory Animals, 2nd ed. (R. Fish, P. Danneman, M. Brown, and A. Karas editors). Elsevier Publishing, In Press.

Gunkel C and Lewbart GA. 2007. Invertebrates. In Zoo Animal & Wildlife Immobilization and Anesthesia (G West, D Heard, N Caulkett eds.). Blackwell Publishing, Ames, IA, pp. 147-158.

Van Wettere A, Lewbart GA. 2007. Cytologic Diagnosis of Diseases of Invertebrates. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice (M. Garner ed.), Elsevier, 10: 235-254.


Antwoord hierdie vrae:

a) Wat is serikultuur? Watter soort sywurms word in Nepal gekweek?

Antwoorde: Die verbouing van sywurm word serikultuur genoem. Daar is twee tipes sywurm wat in Nepal gekweek word, naamlik Eri-sywurm en Seri-sywurm, ens.

b) Beskryf die struktuur van 'n sywurm met 'n diagram.

Ans:

Sywurm is 'n middelgrote insekagtige vlinder met 'n wit romerige kleur en 'n lengte van 2-3 cm. Sy liggaam is in drie dele verdeel:- Kop, borskas en buik. Dit het 'n antenna, vlerke en drie paar bene.

c) In watter fase produseer die sywurm syvesels?

Antwoord: In die papiestadium produseer die sywurm syvesels.

d) Hoe word eiers op 'n veilige manier gehou wanneer moerbeiblare nie beskikbaar is nie?

Antwoord: Wanneer moerbeiblare nie beskikbaar is nie, kan eiers gestoor word om veilig te hou.

e) Wat is 'n instar? Hoeveel keer smelt 'n sywurm in sy larfstadium?

Antwoord: Die uitgebroeide larwe word die eerste stadium genoem. Vyf keer smelt sywurm in sy larfstadium.

f) Wat is Kokon? Waarom word dit in warm water of lug gehou om syvesels te verkry?

Ans: Die papiestadium word kokon genoem. Dit word ingehou om syvesels te verkry omdat dit papie doodmaak.

g) Verduidelik die ekonomiese belangrikheid van sywurm.

Antwoorde: Hier is die ekonomiese belangrikheid van sywurm:
i) Sy is die gebruik om klere te maak.
ii) Dit verbeter die ekonomiese toestand van boere.
iii) Die ingewande van sywurms word onttrek om snare te maak, onttrek om snare (ingewande) te maak, ens.

h) Noem die kenmerke van syvesels.

Ans: Die volgende is die kenmerke van syvesels:-
i) Sy is 'n blink, ligte en duursame vesel.
ii) Dit is langer en meer elasties.
iii) Dit kan maklik ingekleur word, ens.

i) Teken die lewensiklus van die sywurm.

Ans:

j) Hoe sit eiers van sywurm vas met blare?

Ans: Eie van sywurm sit vas met blare as gevolg van dat hulle bedek is met gelatienagtige afskeiding.

k) Noem die sistematiese posisie van die sywurm.

Antwoorde: Hierna volg die sistematiese posisie van sywurm:
Koninkryk: Animalia
Subkoninkryk: Invertebrata
Filum: Artropoda
Klas: Insecta
Tipe: Sywurm


Invertebrate Notes

About 97% of all animals are invertebrates. Invertebrates are animals which do not have a backbone. In this unit we cover nine phyla of invertebrates: Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Rotifera, Mollusca, Annelida, Arthropoda, & Echinodermata.

The phylum Porifera are sponges. There are about 800 different species of sponges, and 88% are marine. “Marine” means that they live in salt water, such as an ocean or a sea. Freshwater sponges are smaller and less brightly colored than marine sponges. Sponges are filter feeders. This means that they use their body as a filter to trap their food, microscopic plankton.

Sponges are asymmetrical and live attached to one spot as adults making them sittende diere. Sponges have a skeleton composed of a flexible protein material called spongin & hard fibers called spicules composed of calcium carbonate or silicon dioxide. The body of a sponge is filled with holes or pore through which water enters their hollow bodies. Sponges lack the tissue level of organization but they do have some specialized cells. Choanosiete are specialized cells that line pores in a sponge and have a flagellum that spins to pull in water and food. Collar cells at the base of choanocytes capture plankton & start digesting it. Amebocytes are specialized cells that carry food to all other parts of a sponge=s body. Wastes and excess water leave a sponge through an opening at the top called the oskulum.

Sponges reproduce asexually by internal or external knoppe en deur fragmentation whenever a piece of the sponge breaks off. Each piece can form a new sponge. This is how sponges form colonies. Sponges reproduce sexually by dispensing eggs and sperm into the water.

If the freshwater supply evaporates, freshwater sponges become dormant and form an internal bud or gemmule which is release when the sponge dies. The gemmule is a small freshwater sponge covered with hardened mucus which prevents it from drying out. When the freshwater returns, the gemmule becomes an active sponge.

The phylum Cnidaria include sea anemones, hydra, corals and jellyfish. All Cnidaria are marine except hydra, which is a freshwater organism. Cnidarians have radiale simmetrie en is vleisetend using tentacles that surround their mouth to get food. Cnidarians exhibit two body forms – the sessile polyp with tentacles & mouth at the top or the motile medusa with tentacles & mouth on the bottom. Cnidarians may exist in one of these two stages or go through both stages in their life cycle. Cnidarians have a hollow gastrovascular cavity on the inside lined with gastrodermis. Epidermis covers the outside and a jellylike material called mesoglea is between the layers. Mesoglea is thin in polyp forms but thick in medusa forms. Cnidarians have stinging cells called nematocysts or cnidocytes on their tentacles that are poisonous & shoot out like a harpoon to kill or paralyze prey. Their mouth is the only opening to their body so they have a two-way digestive system. The also have a simple nerve net . Cnidarians reproduce asexually by budding or sexually producing fertilized eggs whenever males release sperm and females release eggs into the water. Some cnidarians like coral build a limestone case that makes an underwater reef.

Platyhelminthes (flatworms)

The phylum Platyhelminthes are dorsoventrally flattened and have a definite anterior and posterior end giving them bilaterale simmetrie. Their bodies are solid so they are said to be acoelomate. Some flatworms are parasites, while others are free-living carnivores or scavengers. Examples of parasitic flatworms are flukes and tapeworms. Flatworms also have only a mouth for both food and wastes. Their nervous system is composed of a nerve net and sometimes light-sensitive eyespots at the anterior end. Gespesialiseerde flame cells help get rid of wastes.

Die planarian is the most common free-living flatworm found in water or moist places. Hulle is hermaphrodites producing both eggs and sperm, but they exchange sperm with each other during sexual reproduction. Planarians also reproduce asexually by fragmentation.

Flukes and tapeworms often live in their host=s digestive tract resistant to the host=s enzymes. They do not have a digestive system allowing the host to digest their food.

Tapeworms are divided into sections called proglottiede that each have a complete reproductive system producing fertilized eggs. Lintwurms is hermafrodities (one body having both sexual parts), and they fertilize their own eggs. Ripe proglottids with their eggs pass out with the host=s feces. Tapeworms anterior end is called the scolex and is modified with both hooks and suckers to attach to the host=s intestines. Humans most often get tapeworms from undercooked pork, beef. or fish. Tapeworm eggs can withstand boiling water so it is important to cook these meats well enough to destroy the eggs. Children sometimes get tapeworms by playing with the feces in the litter box of a cat, getting the eggs on their hands, and placing their hands or fingers in their mouth. The longest tapeworm ever passed by a person was 39 meters.

Flukes have complex life cycles that involve more than one host. A fluke causes Skistosomiasis, a disease that affects 250 million people world wide. This blood fluke attacks the kidneys, liver, and intestines causing progressive weakness. It often takes 20 years to die from Schistosomiases, & there is no cure.

The phylum Nematoda are the roundworms. Roundworms are cylindrical in shape and vary in length from being microscopic to 20 inches long. Roundworms are pseudo-elomaat having a body cavity that is not completely lined. The body cavity or pseudocoel dien as 'n hidrostatiese skelet against which muscles can contract. Unlike flatworms, roundworms have a complete gut. This means that they have a one-way digestive tract with a gut that begins with a mouth and ends with an anus. Therefore, they are usually able to digest food. However, roundworms have no blood or heart. Nutrients are distributed by a non‑ blood fluid which is not pumped.

Most roundworms are parasites and are found in all habitats. They are bilaterally symmetrical and unsegmented. Although they are cylindrical in shape, they usually taper at both ends. They are covered with a thick protective kutikula that is flexible and can be molted. They have separate sexes generally and reproduce sexually.

The roundworm Trichinella, causes the disease called trichinose. People get trichinosis from eating undercooked pork. Trichinella gets into muscles and leaves calcium deposits which effect muscle contraction. Trichinosis can affect the heart. Another roundworm, Ascaris, parasitizes human lungs. The Filaria worm attacks the lymphatic system causing great swelling. Hookworms and pinworms are also roundworms which parasitize humans.

The phylum Rotifera includes microscopic worms found in aquatic and soil habitats. Hulle het 'n crown of cilia at their head end surrounding their mouth for movement and feeding. Their bodies are covered with an external layer of chitin. Having separate sexes, they reproduce sexually. Some species contain only females and reproduce by partenogenese (unfertilized eggs developing into females).

The phylum Mollusca contains snails and slugs, bivalves, octopus, squid, and the chambered nautilus. Many members of this phylum have durable limestone skulpe and are found in all habitats. Members of this group are economically important as sources of human food , pearl and shell production, crop & flower damage, destruction to submerged wooden structures, and intermediate hosts for some parasitic diseases. The giant squid and giant clam are the two largest invertebrates. Mollusks have bilateral symmetry and a visceral mass containing their body organs. Mollusks also have a muscular foot for movement which can be modified into arms or tentacles in some species. Mollusks breathe through gills or lungs located below a protective layer called the mantle. The mantle forms the shell in some species and also protects the body organs. All mollusks except bivavles contain a rasping, tongue-like radula for scraping food. The circulatory system consists of a three-chambered heart en open-flowing system except for octopus & squids which have a closed circulatory system. Reproduction is sexual even in hermaphroditic forms. Mollusks go through a free swimming larval stage called the trochophore.

The class of mollusks called gastropods have a foot on their belly. An example of a gastropod is the snail. When a snail lacks a shell it is called a slak. Snails and slugs walk on their belly. Most snails are marine, but some do live on land. Marine snails have gills. Land snails are called pulmonate snails and have an air hole for breathing. Snails can be very large. The helmet snail can be as big as 15 pounds.

The class of mollusk called Bivalvia includes clams, oysters, mussels , and scallops. These mollusks have two shells hinged together by a ligament. Sterk adduktor spiere open and close the shells. Incurrent and excurrent siphons circulate water containg food and oxygen through the bivalve. Gills extract the oxygen from the water, and they move by jet propulsion. Their muscular foot can be extended from the shell for movement or anchoring.

The class of mollusks called cephalopods have a foot on their head. Examples of cephalopods are octopus, squid and nautilus. Most cephalopods have beaks, tentacles and jaws and are active predators. Their musclar foot has been modified into arms or tentacles. They lack external shells except for the natilus. These are the most intelligent of all invertebrates. They used their siphons to move by jet propulsion. Octopus have their shell inside of their body. Octopus secrete an inky substance which they spit out to help them escape from predators. The giant squid is the largest cephalopod. It can be up to 60 meters in length and has been known to eat whales.

Annelids (segmented worms)

The phylum Annelida are the segmented worms and are abundant in all habitats. External segments are characterized by ringlike structures along the body, and corresponding internal segments are called septa. Segmentering gives worms more flexiblity in movement. If one segment is damaged, it isn=t usually fatal to the animal because their organs are duplicated in other segments. Annelids have a Atube within a [email protected] body plan known as a coelom which is fully lined and contains the body organs. The coelom runs from the mouth to the anus. Annelids have bilateral symmetry, and a well-developed brain and diverse sense organs showing cephalization. Coelomic fluid serves as a hidrostatiese skelet.

Earthworms belong to this phylum. Each segment of the earthworm has setae or external bristles made of chitien. These bristles allow the earthworm to move and to burrow into soil. Earthworms have a head and a central nervous system. Earthworms respire through their moist skin as they dig through the soil and help loosen it. Hulle het 'n closed circulatory system in which blood is pumped by five pairs of hearts. Most earthworms feed on decomposing vegetation causing it to decompose faster. A farinks sucks in the organic debris which the muscular gizzard grinds. Earthworms bring the nutrients from the subsoil to the top soil, thereby helping plants to grow. Undigested materials or castings are deposited outside burrows.

Leeches are also in the phylum Annelida. Most leeches live in water and have suckers at both ends of their bodies. The tail suckers are used to latch on to a host, while the head suckers are used to suck blood from the host. Most leeches are predators or scavengers, but some suck blood. Because of this, blood sucking leeches are collected for antikoagulant. Leeches bodies are flattened dorsoventrally and lack setae except for one species. Like earthworms, leeches are hermaphrodites that exchange sperm with other members of their species.

Polychaetes are marine annelids that have their setae modified into paddle-like structures called parapodia. Parapodia improvement movement and give more area for gas exchange. Polychaetes often live commensally with sponges, mollusks, echinoderms, and crustaceans. Sexes are separate with external fertilization.

The members of the phylum Arthropoda all have jointed appendages. In fact, the word “arthropod” means jointed leg. There are more species of arthropods than any other phylum. Arthropods have these characteristics:

a. moeilik eksoskelet which is usually composed of substance called chitien

b. gaan deur periodic ecdysis as they shed or molt their exoskeleton

c. they have specialized body segments (head, thorax, cephalothorax, & abdomen)

d. jointed appendages such as legs, antenna, and mouthparts.

e. open circulatory system

The phylum Arthropoda is divided according to their type of appendages. The subphylum Chelicerata possess chelicerae or fangs and no antenna, while the subphylum Mandibulata have antenna and mandibels or jaws. Crustaceans have pincers called chelipeds. The subphylum Trilobita are an extinct group with a head and trunk with a pair of legs on each segment.

Terrestrial arthropods like insects, millipedes, & centipedes have a system of hollow air tubes called trachae as their respiratory system. Aquatic chelicerates like the horseshoe crab have book gills, while terrestrial chelicerates such as spiders, ticks, mites, & scorpions use book lungs. Book lungs have numerous blood vessel lined surfaces which look like the pages in a book & get oxygen from air. Crustaceans respire through kieue. Gills are folded tissue which are lined with blood vessels which remove oxygen from water.

Terrestrial mandibulates are uniraimous with one-branched appendages, but aquatic mandibulates like crustaceans are biramous or two-branched. Arthropods have a brain and nervous system and possess a variety of sensory receptors such as simple eyes called ocelli or compound eyes, typmpanic membranes for hearing, and antenna that can smell and taste. Excretory structures in arthropods vary, but terrestrial arthropods have Malpighian tubules to filter nitrogenous wastes.

The subphylum Chelicerata (ki-LISS-uh-ruh) include the class Xiphosura or horseshoe crabs which have a cephalothorax and abdomen, live in marine environments breathing through book gills, lack antenna, but have chelicera & 4 pairs of walking legs. The class Arachnida containing spiders, scorpions, mites, and ticks are also chelicerates that lack antenna, have chelicera (fangs) and 4 pairs of legs, but they live in terrestrial habitats and breathe through book lungs or trachae Chelicerates also have appendages on their head called pedipalpe that are sensory and can help move food into their mouth. Unlike most arthropods, spiders do not see well however, they are good at detecting movement. Spiders have glands called spinnerets on the posterior end of their abdomen that produce silk to make webs. When prey get caught in a spider’s web, it is the movement which alerts the spider to the captured prey. Most spiders also have hairs on their body to assist them in feeling movement. Spinnekoppe gif their prey once they are caught in their webs. Spiders are very beneficial because they catch and eat insects. Two spiders which are dangerous are the black widow en die brown recluse. Both of these spiders have distinct markings on the underside of their abdomen.. Spiders differ from insects in having eight, not six legs, having simple eyes and not compound eyes, and having only 2 body regions (cephalothorax & abdomen) instead of 3 regions ( head, thorax, & abdomen).

The subphylum Mandibulata contains the class Crustacea. Most crustaceans live in the water and include crabs, shrimp, lobster, crayfish, & barnacles. Terrestrial crustaceans include pillbugs and sowbugs. Crustaceans have a pair of antenna to smell and detect chemicals and a shorter pair of antennules used for balance. They have 2 body regions (cephalothorax and abdomen), and their mouthparts include mandibles, maxilla, and maxillipeds. They also have pincers called chelipeds to help them catch food. Aquatic crustaceans have a shell called a carapace that they regularly shed as they grow to produce a larger one. Crustaceans are economically important to man as a food source.

The classes Chilopoda and Diplopoda are alo in the subphylum Mandibulata. Chilopoda or centipedes are poisonous predators feeding on other terrestrial arthropods. Centipedes have fangs, venom glands, and a pincer on their tail. They have a single pair of legs per body segment. Diplopoda or millipedes are vegetarians or scavengers feeding on decaying vegetation that have two pairs of legs per body segment.

The class Insecta in the subphylum Mandibulata includes all of the insects. This is the largest and most successful group of arthropods. Insects usually have six legs, a pair of antenna, en a pair of wings although some species may be wingless such as silverfish and termites. Flies have their second pair of wings modified into a balancing structure called halteres. Insect’s mouths usually have four parts – the mandibel or jaw, maxilla, labium or lower lip, and labrum or upper lip and are adapted for a particular food. For example, grasshoppers have kou mouthparts for eating grass, mosquitos have sucking mouthparts for sucking blood, butterflies have siphoning mouthparts for getting nectar from flowers, and the house fly has sponserig mouth- parts for soaking up liquid food. Wings and legs are attached to the midsection or thorax, antenna, eyes, and mouthparts are attached to the head, and the abdomen on females may have an egg-laying tube called the ovipositor. Insects communicate by producing sounds and by making chemicals called pheromones. Tympanic membranes on the abdomen and sensory hairs detect sound waves. Spiracles line the sides of the insect=s abdomen and open into their breathing tubes or trachae. Insects may go through stages in their life cycle. Butterflies, bees, flies, and beetles go through the egg, larva, pupa, and adult stages. Dit staan ​​bekend as complete metamorfose. Dragonflies and grasshoppers go through egg, nymph, and adult stages bekend as incomplete metamorphosis. Insects such as silverfish and fleas do not go through metamorphosis. Metamorphosis and molting are controlled by hormones.

The phylum Echinodermata include the starfish, sea urchins and sea cucumbers. The word “echinoderm” means spiny skin. Echinoderms are the most advanced invertebrates. All other invertebrates are protostomes in which the blastopore in their development becomes the mouth. Echinoderms, like chordates, are deuterostomes in which the blastopore becomes the anus. Echinoderms have an endoskeleton composed of movable or fixed calcium plates called ossicles. The members of this phylum have radiale simmetrie with a five part body plan. Adults have no head or brain and move be extendable buisvoete. Echinoderms also possess a water vaskulêre stelsel made up of a system of canals that help the organism feed and move. Water enters through an opening called the madreporite into a short stone canal in die ring kanaal. Radial canals connect to the ring canal and determine the five-part symmetry. This hydraulic water system is strong enough to help starfish open clam shells. Skin gills are used for respiration and waste removal. Echinoderms are capable of extensive wedergeboorte whenever parts are dropped. They can reproduce asexually by fragmentation or sexually with external fertilization.

Starfish are in the class Asteroidea and are active marine predators with 5 arms set off from a central disk and their mouth located on the underside or oral surface. Bivalve mollusks are a favorite food of the starfish, and they consume them by turning their stomach inside out and sticking it into the clam shell to digest the clam.

Sea urchins and sand dollars are in the class Echinodea and they lack distinct arms. Five rows of tube feet protrude through their skeletal. They use the spines of their skin and tube feet to move about and graze on algae, coral, or dead fish. Triangular teeth around the mouth scrap or crush food.

The class Crinoidea contains sea lilies and feather stars with highly branched arms around their mouth for filter feeding. Sea liles are attached by a stalk to the substrate, but feather stars are able to detach and move about.

Brittle stars in the class Ophuroidea have slender arms attached to their central disk and can move faster than starfish. Sea cucumbers are in the class Holothuroidea and are soft, sluglike organisms with leathery outer skin. Sea cucumbers usually lie on their sides on the ocean bottom and can eject part of their intestines in order toscare away a predator. They also move by tube feet or by wiggling their entire body. Sommige hiervan is hermafrodities which is unusual for echinoderms.


Mantle

Ons redakteurs sal nagaan wat jy ingedien het en bepaal of die artikel hersien moet word.

Mantle, also called pallium, plural pallia, of palliums, in biology, soft covering, formed from the body wall, of brachiopods and mollusks also, the fleshy outer covering, sometimes strengthened by calcified plates, of barnacles.

The mantle of mollusks and brachiopods secretes the shell in species that possess shells. It also forms a mantle cavity between itself and the body. The brachiopod mantle has a dorsal and a ventral lobe covered with small papillae (nipple-like projections) that penetrate into the shell. The molluscan mantle has a left and a right lobe and, as in bivalves, may be joined at the edge to form siphons for directing water into and out of the mantle cavity.

Hierdie artikel is mees onlangs hersien en bygewerk deur John P. Rafferty, redakteur.


INVERTEBRATES

Trevor Zachariah , Mark A. Mitchell , in Manual of Exotic Pet Practice , 2009

RESTRAINT

Invertebrate handling and restraint, although often necessary for examination and sample collection, should be kept to a minimum. This activity can be stressful, and poses a safety risk for the animal. The handler could also be at risk of potential injury, depending on the species of invertebrate (see Human Health Hazards). Many invertebrates are susceptible to injuries from falls or restraint that is too vigorous. When handling is required for an examination or medical procedure, there are two basic categories of restraint: manual or chemical. Regardless of the method of restraint employed, veterinarians should wear latex exam gloves, lightweight leather gloves, or both when dealing with invertebrates.

Techniques used to manually restrain invertebrates vary from species to species. Some species, such as snails, hermit crabs, millipedes, and cockroaches, are tolerant of being grasped and restrained by hand ( Figure 3-18 ). Tame giant spiders can also be picked up by hand, but they should be gently nudged onto an open hand using a blunt object (e.g., the eraser end of a pencil). Some giant spiders tolerate being palmed, 10 and others cooperate when “pinched” by a gently placed thumb and index finger on either side of the prosoma between the cranial and caudal pairs of legs ( Figure 3-19 ). Gentle pressure applied with a finger to the pedicel area can be used to pin the spider and reduce movement away from the handler. 12,16 Although these techniques can be used to capture and transport a specimen, they are not recommended for examination or diagnostic sampling because they provide minimal restraint. 17 Other manual methods for restraint include collecting the animal in a clear glass or plastic container, pinning the animal under clear plastic wrap, slinging the animal in gauze, or capturing it in an aquarium fish net. 17

Chemical restraint for arachnids is accomplished using inhalant anesthetic agents. 17 This technique is preferred because it provides the anesthetist with the most control over the patient. The authors have used isoflurane exclusively for anesthetizing invertebrates. Halothane and sevoflurane can also be used, but we have no experience with them. Carbon dioxide may also be used, but it has a narrower margin of safety than the inhalant anesthetics. 17 For terrestrial invertebrates, the animals are placed into a sealed container that is filled with inhalant anesthetic and oxygen. The container should be sealed to prevent leakage and unnecessary exposure for the individuals working with the invertebrates. Applebee and Cooper 18 describe the construction of an elaborate anesthetic chamber, while the authors have had good success using a 3-L plastic food storage container ( Figure 3-20 ). The authors generally induce the animals at 5% isoflurane (0.5-1.0L oxygen) and maintain them at 2% to 3% isoflurane. Induction may take several minutes, and recovery several hours, but this is variable according to species, the animal's condition, and the ambient temperature. 17

Terrestrial molluscs cannot be anesthetized with inhalant compounds however, they can be anesthetized with a water-bath anesthetic solution. Tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) (100 mg/L), benzocaine (dissolved in acetone) (100 mg/L of water), and carbon dioxide dissolved in water have all been recommended. 17 The authors prefer MS-222. The animal must not be submerged in the anesthetic solution. The depth of the solution should be below the level of the head when it is extended. Repeated doses may be needed to achieve an appropriate level of anesthesia.

For aquatic invertebrates, gaseous anesthetics have been suggested, although they are difficult to regulate and control. The authors prefer MS-222 for aquatic invertebrates. The induction dose may vary from 100 to 250 mg/L. Iso-osmotic 7.5% wt/vol magnesium chloride (MgCl2-6H2O) and eugenol (the active ingredient in clove oil) can also be used. These compounds can be slowly added to the water until the desired effects (e.g., loss of locomotion and righting reflex) are achieved. 19 The actual amount of anesthetic needed will vary according to the conditions of the situation and the species being anesthetized.

Hypothermia has been recommended and employed by some veterinarians as a method of restraint. 18,20–22 Lowering an animal's environmental temperature leads to a reduced metabolic rate and level of activity. However, these animals often remain responsive to noxious stimuli. Historically, hypothermia also has been recommended as a method of restraint for lower vertebrates (e.g., amphibians and reptiles) but now is considered inhumane.

Anesthetic monitoring of invertebrates is in its infancy. Generally, the presence or absence of movement and a righting reflex are measured. Monitoring respiration in terrestrial species is difficult because these animals respire through openings in their exoskeleton or body wall, and there is no body movement as is observed in vertebrates. The authors have been unsuccessful in identifying spider heart rates using a Doppler ultrasound, although this has been accomplished in an Achatina snail. 23 More invasive techniques to monitor heart rate have been employed 24 but are not practical. More research is needed to develop clinically relevant methods to monitor anesthetic events in invertebrates.


Invertebrates Multiple Choice Questions and Answers

MCQ quiz on Invertebrates multiple choice questions and answers on invertebrates MCQ questions quiz on invertebrates objectives questions with answer test pdf. Professionele, Onderwysers, Studente en Kinders Trivia Vasvrae om jou kennis oor die onderwerp te toets.

Invertebrates MCQ Questions and Answers Quiz

1. Which of the following are characteristics of the phylum Cnidaria?1. a gastrovascular cavity2. a polyp stage3. a medusa stage4. cnidocytes5. a pseudocoelom

2. Which class of the phylum Cnidaria includes jellies with rounded (as opposed to box like medusae?)

3. Which cells in a sponge are primarily responsible for trapping and removing food particles from circulating water?

4. Which of the following is correctly associated with sponges?

5. A sponges structural materials (spicules, spongin) are manufactured by the

6. Which of these can be observed in the mesohyl of various undisturbed sponges at one time or another?1. amoebocytes2. spicules3. spongin4. zygotes5. choanocytes

7. Which chemical is synthesized by some sponges and acts as an antibiotic?

8. In terms of food capture, which sponge cell is most similar to the cnidocyte of a Cnidarian?

9. A radially symmetrical animal that has two embryonic tissue layers probably belongs to which phylum?


Invertebrate I - Biology

'n Kort blik op enige tydskrif wat betrekking het op ons natuurlike wêreld, soos National Geographic, sou 'n ryk verskeidenheid gewerwelde diere toon, veral soogdiere en voëls. Vir die meeste mense is dit die diere wat ons aandag trek. Om op gewerwelde diere te konsentreer, gee ons egter 'n taamlik bevooroordeelde en beperkte siening van biodiversiteit, want dit ignoreer byna 97 persent van die diereryk, naamlik die ongewerwelde diere. Ongewerwelde diere is dié sonder 'n skedel en gedefinieerde vertebrale kolom of ruggraat. Benewens die gebrek aan 'n ruggraat, het die meeste ongewerweldes ook 'n endoskelet. ’n Groot aantal ongewerwelde diere is waterdiere, en wetenskaplike navorsing dui daarop dat baie van die wêreld se spesies ongewerwelde waterdiere is wat nog nie gedokumenteer is nie.

Figure 1. Nearly 97 percent of animal species are invertebrates, including this sea star (Astropecten articulates) common to the eastern and southern coasts of the United States (credit: modification of work by Mark Walz)


Kyk die video: Kap biologije - Beskičmenjaci (September 2022).