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Is daar enige funksionele verskil tussen oksipitale lob (by soogdiere) en optiese lob (anders gewerwelde diere as soogdiere)?

Is daar enige funksionele verskil tussen oksipitale lob (by soogdiere) en optiese lob (anders gewerwelde diere as soogdiere)?


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Dit is bekend dat visuele verwerkingsentrums in soogdiere en laer-werweldiere anders is.

By soogdiere, soos mense, is dit die Oksipitale Lob van 2 hemisfere van serebrale korteks; wat deel is van voorbrein. Maar in meer laer groepe gewerwelde diere is dit die Optiese lob, wat deel is van middelbrein.

(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Optic_lobe, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Midbrain#Corpora_quadrigemina)

Beeld: Plasing van optiese lob, Bron: http://understanding-vertebrates.weebly.com/nervous-system.html, URL: http://understanding-vertebrates.weebly.com/uploads/3/8/6/8 /38682649/8113431_orig.jpg">evolusie visie etologie neuroanatomie sielkunde

Visuele korteks

Die visuele korteks van die brein is die area van die serebrale korteks wat visuele inligting verwerk. Dit is geleë in die oksipitale lob. Sensoriese insette afkomstig van die oë beweeg deur die laterale genikulêre kern in die talamus en bereik dan die visuele korteks. Die area van die visuele korteks wat die sensoriese insette van die laterale genikulêre kern ontvang, is die primêre visuele korteks, ook bekend as visuele area 1 (V1), Brodmann area 17, of die gestreepte korteks. Die ekstrastriate areas bestaan ​​uit visuele areas 2, 3, 4 en 5 (ook bekend as V2, V3, V4 en V5, of Brodmann area 18 en alle Brodmann area 19). [1]

Beide hemisfere van die brein sluit 'n visuele korteks in, die visuele korteks in die linkerhemisfeer ontvang seine van die regtervisuele veld, en die visuele korteks in die regterhemisfeer ontvang seine van die linkervisuele veld.


Skrywers

Kognitiewe funksies van die brein: persepsie, aandag en geheue

Hierdie is 'n opvolg tutoriaalartikel van [17] en [16], in hierdie vraestel, ons.
30/05/2019 ∙ deur Jiawei Zhang, et al. ∙ 0 ∙ deel

Die geheelbrein-argitektuurbenadering: Versnel die ontwikkeling van kunsmatige algemene intelligensie deur na die brein te verwys

Die uitgestrektheid van die ontwerpruimte wat geskep word deur die kombinasie van 'n groot n.
03/06/2021 ∙ deur Hiroshi Yamakawa, et al. ∙ 0 ∙ deel

NIPS 2016-werkswinkel oor verteenwoordigingsleer in kunsmatige en biologiese neurale netwerke (MLINI 2016)

Hierdie werkswinkel ondersoek die koppelvlak tussen kognitiewe neurowetenskap en .
01/06/2017 ∙ deur Leila Wehbe, et al. ∙ 0 ∙ deel

Hoe is dit om 'n breinsimulasie te wees?

Ons stel die vraag oor watter soort subjektiewe ervaring 'n breinsimu.
02/01/2014 ∙ deur Eray Özkural, et al. ∙ 0 ∙ deel

Antwoord op opmerkings oor neuroelektrodinamika: waar is die werklike konseptuele slaggate?

Die fundamentele, kragtige proses van berekening in die brein was w.
10/06/2012 ∙ deur Dorian Aur, et al. ∙ 0 ∙ deel

Die toekoms van data-analise in die neurowetenskappe

Neurowetenskap ondergaan vinniger veranderinge as ooit tevore. Meer as 100 jaar.
08/05/2016 ∙ deur Danilo Bzdok, et al. ∙ 0 ∙ deel

Visualisering in Connectomics

Connectomics is 'n veld van neurowetenskap wat neuronale verbindings ontleed.
06/07/2012 ∙ deur Hanspeter Pfister, et al. ∙ 0 ∙ deel


Wat doen die frontale lob?

Die frontale lob is die stadigste deel van die brein om volwasse te word, en gaan voort om neurale verbindings te skep en te snoei tot 'n persoon se middel-twintigerjare. Dit beteken dat breinskade vroeg in die lewe die frontale lob besonder kwesbaar maak, wat moontlik gedrag en kognisie vir ewig kan beïnvloed.

Die frontale lob is betrokke by 'n wye reeks "hoër" kognitiewe funksies. Alhoewel alle soogdiere 'n frontale lob het, is hoogs sosiale soogdiere, soos dolfyne en primate, geneig om meer ontwikkelde frontale lobbe te hê. Dit dui daarop dat ons sosiale interaksies 'n sleutelrol kan speel in die ontwikkeling van intelligensie, en dat die brein aansienlike hulpbronne moet wy om te reageer op die eise van sosiale interaksies. Mense het groter en meer ontwikkelde frontale lobbe as enige ander dier.

Sommige van die vele funksies van die frontale lob sluit in:

  • Koördineer vrywillige bewegings, soos stap en uitreik na voorwerpe. Die frontale lob is die tuiste van die primêre motoriese korteks.
  • Evaluering van toekomstige gevolge van huidige optrede. Die frontale lob speel dus 'n belangrike rol in impulsbeheer, insluitend besluite oor wanneer om geld te spandeer en te eet, en of 'n bepaalde besluit moreel of sosiaal aanvaarbaar is.
  • Evaluering van ooreenkomste en verskille tussen twee voorwerpe.
  • Vorming en behoud van langtermynherinneringe, veral emosionele herinneringe afkomstig van die limbiese sisteem.
  • Taal: Die frontale lob speel 'n rol in die verstaan ​​van taal, linguistiese herinneringe en praat.
  • Emosionele uitdrukking en regulering, benewens die begrip van die emosies van ander, kan empatie afkomstig wees van die frontale lob.
  • Die ontwikkeling van persoonlikheid. As gevolg van die frontale lob se rolle in geheue, emosionele regulering, uitdrukking, impulsbeheer en ander sleutelfunksies, speel dit 'n sleutelrol in persoonlikheid. Skade aan die frontale lob kan skielike en onmiddellike veranderinge in persoonlikheid aanspoor.
  • Bestuur beloning. Dopamien, 'n neurotransmitter wat 'n rol speel in beloning en motivering, is baie aktief in die frontale lob omdat die meeste van die brein se dopamien-sensitiewe neurone hier geleë is.
  • Aandagregulering, insluitend selektiewe aandag. Frontale lob probleme kan lei tot uitvoerende funksionering kwessies, sowel as versteurings soos ADHD.


Sirkulasie en die sentrale senuweestelsel

  • Beskryf die vate wat die SSS van bloed voorsien
  • Noem die komponente van die ventrikulêre sisteem en die streke van die brein waarin elkeen geleë is
  • Verduidelik die produksie van serebrospinale vloeistof en die vloei daarvan deur die ventrikels
  • Verduidelik hoe 'n ontwrigting in sirkulasie tot 'n beroerte sal lei

Die SSS is van kardinale belang vir die werking van die liggaam, en enige kompromie in die brein en rugmurg kan tot ernstige probleme lei. Die SSS het 'n bevoorregte bloedtoevoer, soos voorgestel deur die bloed-breinversperring. Die funksie van die weefsel in die SSS is deurslaggewend vir die oorlewing van die organisme, dus kan die inhoud van die bloed nie bloot in die sentrale senuweeweefsel oorgaan nie. Om hierdie streek te beskerm teen die gifstowwe en patogene wat moontlik deur die bloedstroom beweeg, is daar streng beheer oor wat uit die algemene stelsels na die brein en rugmurg kan beweeg. As gevolg van hierdie voorreg het die SSS gespesialiseerde strukture nodig vir die instandhouding van sirkulasie. Dit begin met 'n unieke rangskikking van bloedvate wat vars bloed na die SSS vervoer. Buiten die toevoer van bloed, filtreer die SSS daardie bloed in serebrospinale vloeistof (CSF), wat dan deur die holtes van die brein en rugmurg gesirkuleer word wat ventrikels genoem word.

Bloedtoevoer na die brein

’n Gebrek aan suurstof na die SSS kan verwoestend wees, en die kardiovaskulêre stelsel het spesifieke regulatoriese reflekse om te verseker dat die bloedtoevoer nie onderbreek word nie. Daar is verskeie roetes vir bloed om in die SSS te kom, met spesialisasies om daardie bloedtoevoer te beskerm en om die vermoë van die brein om 'n ononderbroke perfusie te kry, te maksimeer.

Arteriële Voorsiening

Die hoofslagaar wat onlangs suurstofryke bloed van die hart af wegvoer, is die aorta. Die heel eerste takke van die aorta af voorsien die hart van voedingstowwe en suurstof. Die volgende takke gee aanleiding tot die algemene halsslagare, wat verder vertak in die interne halsslagare. Die eksterne karotis arteries verskaf bloed aan die weefsels op die oppervlak van die skedel. Die basisse van die gewone karotiede bevat rekreseptore wat onmiddellik reageer op die daling in bloeddruk wanneer hulle staan. Die ortostatiese refleks is 'n reaksie op hierdie verandering in liggaamsposisie, sodat bloeddruk gehandhaaf word teen die toenemende effek van swaartekrag (ortostatiese beteken &ldquoopstaan&rdquo). Hartklop verhoog&mdasha refleks van die simpatiese afdeling van die outonome senuweestelsel&mdash en dit verhoog bloeddruk.

Die interne karotis arterie gaan die skedel binne deur die karotiskanaal in die temporale been. 'n Tweede stel vate wat die SSS voorsien, is die vertebrale arteries, wat beskerm word wanneer hulle deur die nekgebied beweeg deur die transversale foramina van die servikale werwels. Die vertebrale arteries gaan die skedel binne deur die foramen magnum van die oksipitale been. Takke van die linker en regter vertebrale arteries saamsmelt in die anterior spinale arterie en voorsien die anterior aspek van die rugmurg, gevind langs die anterior mediaan fissuur. Die twee vertebrale arteries smelt dan saam in die basilêre arterie, wat aanleiding gee tot takke na die breinstam en serebellum. Die linker en regter interne karotis arteries en takke van die basilêre arterie word almal die sirkel van Willis, 'n samevloeiing van arteries wat perfusie van die brein kan handhaaf, selfs al vloei vernouing of 'n blokkasie beperk deur een deel (Figuur 13.15).

Figuur 13.15 Sirkel van Willis Die bloedtoevoer na die brein gaan deur die interne karotis arteries en die vertebrale arteries, en gee uiteindelik aanleiding tot die sirkel van Willis.

INTERAKTIEWE SKAKEL

Kyk na hierdie animasie om te sien hoe bloed na die brein vloei en deur die sirkel van Willis gaan voordat dit deur die serebrum versprei word. Die sirkel van Willis is 'n gespesialiseerde rangskikking van arteries wat konstante perfusie van die serebrum verseker, selfs in die geval van 'n blokkasie van een van die are in die sirkel. Die animasie toon die normale rigting van vloei deur die sirkel van Willis na die middel serebrale slagaar. Waar sou die bloed vandaan kom as daar 'n blokkasie net posterior van die middel serebrale arterie aan die linkerkant was?

Veneuse terugkeer

Nadat dit deur die SSS gegaan het, keer bloed terug na die sirkulasie deur 'n reeks durale sinusse en are (Figuur 13.16). Die superior sagittale sinus loop in die groef van die longitudinale spleet, waar dit CSF van die meninges absorbeer. Die superior sagittale sinus dreineer na die samevloeiing van sinusse, saam met die oksipitale sinusse en reguit sinus, om dan in die dwars sinusse te dreineer. Die transversale sinusse verbind met die sigmoïede sinusse, wat dan met die halsare verbind. Van daar af gaan die bloed voort na die hart om na die longe gepomp te word vir heroksigenasie.

Figuur 13.16 Durale sinusse en are Bloed dreineer uit die brein deur 'n reeks sinusse wat met die halsare verbind.

Beskermende bedekkings van die brein en rugmurg

Die buitenste oppervlak van die SSS word bedek deur 'n reeks membrane wat bestaan ​​uit bindweefsel wat die breinvliese genoem word, wat die brein beskerm. Die dura mater is 'n dik veselagtige laag en 'n sterk beskermende skede oor die hele brein en rugmurg. Dit is geanker aan die binneste oppervlak van die skedel- en vertebrale holte. Die arachnoid mater is 'n membraan van dun veselagtige weefsel wat 'n los sak om die SSS vorm. Onder die arachnoïed is 'n dun, filamentagtige gaas wat die arachnoid trabeculae genoem word, wat soos 'n spinnerak lyk, wat hierdie laag sy naam gee. Direk langs die oppervlak van die SSS is die pia mater, 'n dun veselagtige membraan wat die kronings van gyri en sulci in die serebrale korteks volg en in ander groewe en inkepings pas (Figuur 13.17).

Figuur 13.17 Meningeale lae van Superior Sagittal Sinus Die lae van die meninges in die longitudinale spleet van die superior sagittale sinus word getoon, met die dura mater aangrensend aan die binneste oppervlak van die skedel, die pia mater aangrensend aan die oppervlak van die brein, en die arachnoïdale en subarachnoïdale spasie tussen hulle. Daar word getoon dat 'n arachnoïdale villus in die durale sinus opkom om CSF toe te laat om terug te filtreer in die bloed vir dreinering.

Dura Mater

Soos 'n dik doppie wat die brein bedek, is die dura mater 'n taai buitenste bedekking. Die naam kom van die Latynse woord vir "ou moeder&rdquo" om sy fisies beskermende rol te verteenwoordig. Dit omsluit die hele SSS en die belangrikste bloedvate wat die skedel- en vertebrale holte binnedring. Dit is direk geheg aan die binneste oppervlak van die bene van die skedel en aan die heel einde van die vertebrale holte.

Daar is invoue van die dura wat in groot skeure van die brein pas. Twee invoue gaan deur die middellyn skeidings van die serebrum en serebellum een ​​vorm 'n rakagtige tent tussen die oksipitale lobbe van die serebrum en die serebellum, en die ander omring die pituïtêre klier. Die dura omring en ondersteun ook die veneuse sinusse.

Arachnoid Mater

Die middelste laag van die breinvlies is die arachnoïed, vernoem na die spinnerak-agtige trabekulae tussen dit en die pia mater. Die arachnoïed definieer 'n sakagtige omhulsel rondom die SSS. Die trabekulae word gevind in die subarachnoïdale ruimte, wat gevul is met sirkulerende CSF. Die arachnoïed kom in die durale sinusse na vore as die arachnoïde granulasies, waar die CSF teruggefiltreer word in die bloed vir dreinering uit die senuweestelsel.

Die subarachnoïdale spasie is gevul met sirkulerende CSF, wat ook 'n vloeibare kussing aan die brein en rugmurg verskaf. Soortgelyk aan kliniese bloedwerk, kan 'n monster van CSF onttrek word om chemiese bewyse van neuropatologie of metaboliese spore van die biochemiese funksies van senuweeweefsel te vind.

Pia Mater

Die buitenste oppervlak van die SSS is bedek met die dun veselagtige membraan van die pia mater. Daar word vermoed dat dit 'n aaneenlopende laag selle het wat 'n vloeistofondeurdringbare membraan verskaf. Die naam pia mater kom van die Latyn vir &ldquotender moeder,&rdquo wat daarop dui dat die dun membraan 'n sagte bedekking vir die brein is. Die pia strek tot in elke konvolusie van die SSS, wat die binnekant van die sulci in die serebrale en serebellêre korteks beklee. Aan die einde van die rugmurg strek 'n dun filament van die onderste punt van SSS by die boonste lumbale area van die vertebrale kolom tot by die sakrale punt van die vertebrale kolom. Omdat die rugmurg nie deur die onderste lumbale gebied van die vertebrale kolom strek nie, kan 'n naald deur die dura- en arachnoïdale lae gesit word om CSF te onttrek. Hierdie prosedure word 'n lumbale punksie genoem en vermy die risiko om die sentrale weefsel van die rugmurg te beskadig. Bloedvate wat die sentrale senuweeweefsel voed, is tussen die pia mater en die senuweeweefsel.

VERSTANDINGS VAN DIE.

Meninges

Meningitis is 'n ontsteking van die meninges, die drie lae veselmembraan wat die SSS omring. Meningitis kan veroorsaak word deur infeksie deur bakterieë of virusse. Die spesifieke patogene is nie spesiaal vir meningitis nie, dit is net 'n ontsteking van daardie spesifieke stel weefsels van wat 'n breër infeksie kan wees. Bakteriële meningitis kan veroorsaak word deur Streptokokke, Staphylococcus, of die tuberkulose patogeen, onder vele ander. Virale meningitis is gewoonlik die gevolg van algemene enterovirusse (soos dié wat intestinale afwykings veroorsaak), maar kan die gevolg wees van die herpesvirus of Wes-Nyl-virus. Bakteriële meningitis is geneig om ernstiger te wees.

Die simptome wat met meningitis geassosieer word, kan koors, kouekoors, naarheid, braking, ligsensitiwiteit, seerheid van die nek of erge hoofpyn wees. Belangriker is die neurologiese simptome, soos veranderinge in geestestoestand (verwarring, geheue-tekorte en ander demensie-tipe simptome). 'n Ernstige risiko van meningitis kan skade aan perifere strukture wees as gevolg van die senuwees wat deur die meninges beweeg. Gehoorverlies is 'n algemene gevolg van meningitis.

Die primêre toets vir meningitis is 'n lumbale punksie. 'n Naald wat in die lumbale area van die werwelkolom deur die dura mater en arachnoïede membraan in die subarachnoïdale spasie geplaas word, kan gebruik word om die vloeistof vir chemiese toetsing te onttrek. Sterftes kom voor by 5 tot 40 persent van kinders en 20 tot 50 persent van volwassenes met bakteriële meningitis. Behandeling van bakteriële meningitis is deur middel van antibiotika, maar virale meningitis kan nie met antibiotika behandel word nie omdat virusse nie op daardie tipe geneesmiddel reageer nie. Gelukkig is die virale vorms ligter.

INTERAKTIEWE SKAKEL

Kyk na hierdie video wat die prosedure beskryf wat bekend staan ​​as die lumbale punksie, 'n mediese prosedure wat gebruik word om die CSF te monster. As gevolg van die anatomie van die SSS is dit 'n relatief veilige plek om 'n naald in te steek. Waarom word die lumbale punksie in die onderste lumbale area van die vertebrale kolom uitgevoer?

Die Ventrikulêre Stelsel

Serebrospinale vloeistof (CSF) sirkuleer regdeur en om die SSS. In ander weefsels word water en klein molekules deur kapillêre gefiltreer as die belangrikste bydraer tot die interstisiële vloeistof. In die brein word CSF in spesiale strukture geproduseer om deur die senuweeweefsel van die SSS te vloei en is aaneenlopend met die interstisiële vloeistof. Spesifiek, CSF sirkuleer om metaboliese afvalstowwe uit die interstisiële vloeistowwe van senuweeweefsel te verwyder en dit terug te keer na die bloedstroom. Die ventrikels is die oop spasies binne die brein waar CSF sirkuleer. In sommige van hierdie ruimtes word CSF geproduseer deur die filtrasie van die bloed wat uitgevoer word deur 'n gespesialiseerde membraan bekend as 'n choroïedpleksus. Die CSF sirkuleer deur al die ventrikels om uiteindelik in die subarachnoïdale ruimte uit te kom waar dit in die bloed herabsorbeer sal word.

Die Ventrikels

Daar is vier ventrikels binne die brein, wat almal ontwikkel het uit die oorspronklike hol ruimte binne die neurale buis, die sentrale kanaal. Die eerste twee word die laterale ventrikels genoem en is diep binne die serebrum. Hierdie ventrikels is verbind met die derde ventrikel deur twee openinge wat die interventrikulêre foramina genoem word. Die derde ventrikel is die spasie tussen die linker- en regterkant van die diencephalon, wat oopmaak in die serebrale akwaduk wat deur die middelbrein gaan. Die akwaduk open in die vierde ventrikel, wat die spasie tussen die serebellum en die pons en boonste medulla is (Figuur 13.18).

Figuur 13.18 Serebrospinale vloeistofsirkulasie Die choroïedpleksus in die vier ventrikels produseer CSF, wat deur die ventrikulêre sisteem gesirkuleer word en dan die subarachnoïdale ruimte binnegaan deur die mediaan en laterale openinge. Die CSF word dan herabsorbeer in die bloed by die arachnoïdale granulasies, waar die arachnoïede membraan in die durale sinusse uitkom.

Soos die telencephalon vergroot en in die skedelholte groei, word dit beperk deur die spasie binne die skedel. Die telencephalon is die mees anterior gebied van wat die neuraalbuis was, maar kan nie verby die grens van die frontale been van die skedel groei nie. Omdat die serebrum in hierdie ruimte inpas, neem dit 'n C-vormige vorming aan, deur die frontale, pariëtale, oksipitale en uiteindelik temporale streke. Die spasie binne die telencephalon word in dieselfde C-vorm gestrek. Die twee ventrikels is in die linker- en regterkant, en is op 'n tyd na verwys as die eerste en tweede ventrikels. Die interventrikulêre foramina verbind die frontale area van die laterale ventrikels met die derde ventrikel.

Die derde ventrikel is die spasie wat begrens word deur die mediale wande van die hipotalamus en talamus. Die twee thalami raak in die middel in die meeste breine as die massa intermedia, wat omring word deur die derde ventrikel. Die serebrale akwaduk maak net onder die epitalamus oop en gaan deur die middelbrein. Die tektum en tegmentum van die middelbrein is onderskeidelik die dak en vloer van die serebrale akwaduk. Die akwaduk maak oop in die vierde ventrikel. Die vloer van die vierde ventrikel is die dorsale oppervlak van die pons en boonste medulla (daardie grysstof wat 'n voortsetting van die tegmentum van die middelbrein maak). Die vierde ventrikel vernou dan in die sentrale kanaal van die rugmurg.

Die ventrikulêre sisteem maak oop na die subarachnoïdale ruimte vanaf die vierde ventrikel. Die enkel mediaan apertuur en die paar laterale openinge verbind met die subarachnoïdale spasie sodat CSF deur die ventrikels en om die buitekant van die SSS kan vloei. Serebrospinale vloeistof word binne die ventrikels geproduseer deur 'n tipe gespesialiseerde membraan wat 'n choroid plexus genoem word. Ependymale selle (een van die tipes gliale selle wat in die inleiding tot die senuweestelsel beskryf word) omring bloedkapillêre en filtreer die bloed om CSF te maak. Die vloeistof is 'n helder oplossing met 'n beperkte hoeveelheid van die bestanddele van bloed. Dit is in wese water, klein molekules en elektroliete. Suurstof en koolstofdioksied word in die CSF opgelos, soos dit in bloed is, en kan tussen die vloeistof en die senuweeweefsel diffundeer.

Serebrospinale vloeistof sirkulasie

Die choroïedpleksusse word in al vier ventrikels aangetref. Waargeneem in disseksie, verskyn hulle as sagte, fuzzy strukture wat steeds pienk kan wees, afhangende van hoe goed die bloedsomloopstelsel skoongemaak word ter voorbereiding van die weefsel. Die CSF word vervaardig uit komponente wat uit die bloed onttrek word, so sy vloei uit die ventrikels is gekoppel aan die pols van kardiovaskulêre sirkulasie.

Van die laterale ventrikels vloei die CSF in die derde ventrikel, waar meer CSF geproduseer word, en dan deur die serebrale akwaduk in die vierde ventrikel waar nog meer CSF geproduseer word. 'n Baie klein hoeveelheid CSF word by enige een van die pleksusse gefiltreer, vir 'n totaal van ongeveer 500 milliliter daagliks, maar dit word voortdurend gemaak en pulseer deur die ventrikulêre sisteem, wat die vloeistof aan die beweeg hou. Vanaf die vierde ventrikel kan CSF voortgaan in die sentrale kanaal van die rugmurg, maar dit is in wese 'n doodloopstraat, so meer van die vloeistof verlaat die ventrikulêre stelsel en beweeg in die subarachnoïdale ruimte deur die mediaan en laterale openinge.

Binne die subarachnoïdale ruimte vloei die CSF rondom die hele SSS, wat twee belangrike funksies verskaf. Soos met elders in sy sirkulasie, tel die CSF metaboliese afvalstowwe van die senuweeweefsel op en skuif dit uit die SSS. Dit dien ook as 'n vloeibare kussing vir die brein en rugmurg. Deur die hele stelsel in die subarachnoïdale ruimte te omring, verskaf dit 'n dun buffer rondom die organe binne die sterk, beskermende dura mater. Die arachnoïdale granulasies is uitsakkings van die arachnoïede membraan in die durale sinusse sodat CSF saam met die metaboliese afvalstowwe in die bloed herabsorbeer kan word. Vanaf die durale sinusse dreineer bloed uit die kop en nek deur die halsare, saam met die res van die sirkulasie vir bloed, om deur die longe heroksigeneer te word en afvalstowwe om deur die niere uitgefiltreer te word (Tabel 13.2).

INTERAKTIEWE SKAKEL

Kyk na hierdie animasie wat die vloei van CSF deur die brein en rugmurg wys, en hoe dit uit die ventrikels ontstaan ​​en dan in die spasie binne die meninges versprei, waar die vloeistowwe dan in die veneuse sinusse beweeg om terug te keer na die kardiovaskulêre sirkulasie. Wat is die strukture wat CSF produseer en waar word dit gevind? Hoe word die strukture in hierdie animasie aangedui?

Komponente van CSF-sirkulasie

Laterale ventrikelsDerde ventrikelSerebrale akwadukVierde ventrikelSentrale kanaalSubarachnoïdale ruimte
Ligging in CNSSerebrumDiencephalonMiddelbreinTussen pons/boonste medulla en serebellumRuggraatEkstern tot die hele SSS
BloedvatstruktuurChoroid pleksusChoroid pleksusGeenChoroid pleksusGeenArachnoïdale granulasies

VERSTANDINGS VAN DIE.

Sentrale senuweestelsel

Die toevoer van bloed na die brein is van kardinale belang vir sy vermoë om baie funksies te verrig. Sonder 'n bestendige toevoer van suurstof, en in 'n mindere mate glukose, kan die senuweeweefsel in die brein nie sy uitgebreide elektriese aktiwiteit volhou nie. Hierdie voedingstowwe kom deur die bloed in die brein, en as bloedvloei onderbreek word, word neurologiese funksie benadeel.

Die algemene naam vir 'n onderbreking van bloedtoevoer na die brein is 'n beroerte. Dit word veroorsaak deur 'n verstopping van 'n slagaar in die brein. Die blokkasie is van 'n soort embolus: 'n bloedklont, 'n vetembolus of 'n lugborrel. Wanneer die bloed nie deur die slagaar kan beweeg nie, gaan die omliggende weefsel wat ontneem word honger en sterf. Beroertes sal dikwels lei tot die verlies van baie spesifieke funksies. 'n Beroerte in die laterale medulla kan byvoorbeeld 'n verlies in die vermoë om te sluk veroorsaak. Soms sal skynbaar onverwante funksies verlore gaan omdat hulle afhanklik is van strukture in dieselfde streek. Saam met die sluk in die vorige voorbeeld, kan 'n beroerte in daardie streek sensoriese funksies vanaf die gesig of ledemate beïnvloed omdat belangrike witstofpaaie ook deur die laterale medulla gaan. Verlies aan bloedvloei na spesifieke streke van die korteks kan lei tot die verlies van spesifieke hoër funksies, van die vermoë om gesigte te herken tot die vermoë om 'n spesifieke streek van die liggaam te beweeg. Erge of beperkte geheueverlies kan die gevolg wees van 'n temporale lob beroerte.

Verwant aan beroertes is verbygaande iskemiese aanvalle (TIA's), wat ook &ldquomini-beroertes genoem kan word.&rdquo Dit is gebeurtenisse waarin 'n fisiese blokkasie tydelik kan wees, wat die bloedtoevoer en suurstof na 'n streek afsny, maar nie in die mate dat dit veroorsaak seldood in daardie streek. Terwyl die neurone in daardie area van die gebeurtenis herstel, kan neurologiese funksie verlore gaan. Funksie kan terugkeer as die area van die gebeurtenis kan herstel.

Herstel van 'n beroerte (of TIA) is sterk afhanklik van die spoed van behandeling. Dikwels moet die persoon wat teenwoordig is en agterkom iets is fout dan 'n besluit neem. Die mnemoniek FAST help mense om te onthou waarna om te kyk wanneer iemand te doen het met skielike verliese aan neurologiese funksie. As iemand kla dat hy &ldquosnaaks voel,&rdquo hierdie dinge vinnig nagaan: Kyk na die persoon se gesig. Het hy of sy probleme om te beweeg Face spiere en die maak van gereelde gesigsuitdrukkings? Vra die persoon om sy of haar groot te maak Arms bokant die kop. Kan die persoon een arm lig, maar nie die ander nie? Het die persoon&rsquos Speech verander? Skel hy of sy woorde of sukkel hy om dinge te sê? As enige van hierdie dinge gebeur het, dan is dit Time om hulp te roep.

Soms kan behandeling met bloedverdunningsmiddels die probleem verlig, en herstel is moontlik. As die weefsel beskadig is, is die wonderlike ding van die senuweestelsel dat dit aanpasbaar is. Met fisiese, arbeids- en spraakterapie kan slagoffers van beroertes funksies herstel, of meer akkuraat herleer.


Verskil tussen menslike en skaapbrein

Mens vs Skaapbrein

Daar is 'n paar verskille tussen die menslike en skaapbrein. Die menslike brein is groter in grootte en vorm in vergelyking met die skaap’ se brein. Skaapbreine het nie soveel rante en kontoere in vergelyking met menslike breine nie, wat 'n aansienlike aantal rante en kontoere het om hulle 'n skynbaar veel groter area as die skaap se brein te gee. Daar is egter verskeie verskille in menslike en skaapbreine, maar byna alle soogdiere se breine is soortgelyk.

Die menslike brein van 'n volwassene weeg ongeveer 1 300 tot 1 400 gram, en is in lengte amper 15 cm lank. 'n Skaap se brein is langwerpig in vorm, terwyl 'n menslike brein afgerond is. Die menslike breinstam is na die ruggraat en afwaarts, want in die menslike liggaam is die ruggraat vertikaal in vergelyking met 'n skaap se ruggraat wat horisontaal is, en sy brein is na buite gerig. Die menslike brein is nie net groter nie, maar swaarder as 'n skaap’ se brein, want dit is net 140 gram in vergelyking met die menslike brein, en is net omtrent een derde so lank.

Die kronings en sulci bestaan ​​uit 'n groter oppervlakte as wat skape blykbaar het, aangesien hulle minder rante en kontoere het. Menslike gedrag en motoriese beheer word tipies deur die serebellum beheer, en 'n skaap se brein het 'n baie kleiner serebellum as die menslike brein, wat, in vergelyking met mense en hul komplekse aangeleerde gedrag, minder motoriese beheer en minder leervermoëns het. Die reukbol, inteendeel, is relatief groter in die skaap’ se brein in vergelyking met die menslike brein, omdat diere gewoonlik meer staatmaak op hul sintuie en vermoëns van reuk as mense doen. Mense maak meer staat op ander sintuie, soos sig en gehoor, eerder as om soos skape en ander diere te ruik.

Die pineaalklier is verantwoordelik vir die beheer van voortplanting en sirkadiese ritmes, en hulle is toevallig groter in die skaap’ se brein in vergelyking met die menslike brein, wat minder basiese instinktuele gedrag beheer. Daar is ook 'n verskil in die posisionering van die menslike agterbrein, wat verskil van die skape as gevolg van die mens’ se regop posisie.

Die menslike brein is nie net 'n wonderlike orgaan nie, maar dit maak dit moontlik om uit te vind, te skep en te verbeel, wat 'n groot verskil is tussen menslike en dierlike breine, soos die groot prefrontale korteksstreek. Dit is area agter die voorkop wat die menslike brein onderskei van die dier brein – wat nie in staat is om al hierdie vindingryke en kreatiewe prosesse. Die skedel beskerm die menslike brein, en die skedel is ongeveer 'n kwart duim dik om die menslike brein teen beserings te beskerm. Die menslike brein, in vergelyking met die skaap’s brein, het 'n veel groter frontale lob.

1. Die menslike brein is swaarder en langer as 'n skaap’ se brein.
2. Die skaap’ se brein het 'n meer ontwikkelde reukbol in vergelyking met die menslike brein.
3. Die menslike brein is afgerond, terwyl die skaap’ se brein verleng in vorm is.
4. Die menslike brein het 'n groter frontale lob as die skaap’ se brein.
5. Die menslike brein en skaapbrein het die groot verskil dat mense met hul brein kan dink, skryf, uitvind of skep, terwyl skape nie kan nie.


"Linkerbrein" en "regterbrein"

Die twee serebrale hemisfere is nóg anatomies nóg funksioneel identies. Daar word gesê dat kortikale funksies gelateraliseer word wanneer een hemisfeer dominant oor die ander is vir 'n spesifieke funksie. Die kant wat die spraaksentrums bevat, word die dominante hemisfeer genoem, en is gewoonlik die linkerhemisfeer. Die meeste mense is hoogs gelateraliseer vir taalvaardighede, en letsels in die dominante korteks kan volledige verlies van spesifieke taalfunksies veroorsaak. Die posterior, superior deel van die dominante temporale lob is belangrik vir die verstaan ​​van gesproke en geskrewe taal. Letsels in die taalsentrums produseer verskeie vorme van afasie, probleme om te verstaan ​​of die gebruik van geskrewe of gesproke taal. Die taaldominante halfrond is ook 'n terrein van wiskundige vaardighede, en intellektuele besluitneming en probleemoplossing deur gebruik te maak van rasionele, simboliese denkprosesse.

Die nie-dominante hemisfeer is meer bedrewe in die herkenning van komplekse, driedimensionele strukture en patrone van beide visuele en tasbare soorte. Dit is ook die webwerf vir die herkenning van gesigte en ander beelde, en vir nie-verbale, intuïtiewe denkprosesse. Kreatiewe en artistieke vermoëns woon in die niedominante halfrond. Die dominante hemisfeer is dus geneig om die meer analitiese een te wees, en die niedominante halfrond meer intuïtief.


Waar is die temporale lob geleë?

Dokters verwys soms na die temporale lob as 'n paar lobbe, aangesien die streek beide linker- en regterbreinhemisfere kruis, insluitend een temporale lob aan elke kant. Soos die brein se ander drie lobbe, is die temporale lob in die voorbrein geleë. Bioloë glo dat dit die nuutste gedeelte van die brein is wat ontwikkel het, aangesien dit net by gewerwelde diere voorkom.

Die temporale lob word so genoem as gevolg van sy nabyheid aan die tempels. It is positioned toward the base of the center of the cortex, just behind the temples. Like all other brain regions, it is not a standalone organ. Instead, the temporal lobe interacts with and depends upon input from all other brain regions, as well as sensory input about the surrounding world. In this way, the temporal lobe—and the brain it supports—is a dynamic organ.

Rather than controlling the mind, it learns from the environment, creating a complex mind-body-environment interplay that constantly changes a person's subjective experiences. Though every temporal lobe has a similar structure, the experiences produced in each person's temporal lobe are uniquely their own.


BRAIN HEALTH & FUNCTION

Once upon a time, researchers and scientist theorized that the brain stops developing within the first few years of life. The connections the brain makes during the ‘critical period’ are fixed for life. However, there is mounting evidence, from human and animal studies, that this view underestimates the brain. The brain has a remarkable ability to continually make new connections throughout our life, it has an extraordinary ability to compensate for injury and disease by ‘rewiring’ itself. Neuroplasticity, or brain plasticity, refers to this ability to form new connections, reorganize already established neural networks and compensate for injury and disease.

The brain is a complex organ that continues to change over time

Brain Plasticity:

There are many types of brain plasticity. Positive brain plasticity, which enhances healthy functioning of the brain. Negative brain plasticity, which promotes unhealthy functioning of the brain. Synaptic plasticity occurs between neurons, whereas non-synaptic plasticity occurs within the neuron. Developmental plasticity occurs during early life and is important for developing our ability to function. Injury induced plasticity is the brain’s way of adapting to trauma.

Positive Neuroplasticity

Positive brain plasticity involves changes to structures and functions of the brain, which results in beneficial outcomes. For example, improving the efficiency of neural networks responsible for higher cognitive functions such as attention, memory, mood.

There are many ways in which we can promote neuroplastic change. Positive brain plasticity is when the brain becomes more efficient and organized. For example, if we repeatedly practice our times tables, eventually, the connections between different parts of the brain become stronger. We make less errors and can recite them faster.

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, meditation, and mindfulness can all promote brain plasticity. These practices improve neural function, strengthen connections between neurons.

Negative Brain Plasticity

Negative brain plasticity causes changes to the neural connections in the brain, which can be harmful to us. For example, negative thoughts can promote neural changes and connections associated with conditions such as depression, and anxiety. Also overuse of drugs and alcohol enhances negative plasticity by rewiring our reward system and memories.

Synaptic Plasticity

Synaptic plasticity is the basis for learning and memory. Furthermore, it also alters the number of receptors on each synapse (synapses are the connections between neurons that transmit chemical messages). When we learn new information and skills, these ‘connections’ get stronger. There are two types of synaptic plasticity, short-term and long-term. Both types can go in two different directions, enhancement/excitation, and depression. Enhancement strengthens the connection, whereas depression weakens it.

Short-term synaptic plasticity usually lasts tens of milliseconds. Short-term excitation is a result of an increased level of certain types of neurotransmitters available at the synapse. Whereas short-term depression is a result of a decreased level of neurotransmitters, long-term synaptic plasticity lasts for hours.

Long-term excitation strengthens synaptic connections, whereas long-term depression weakens these connections. As synaptic plasticity is responsible for our learning ability, information retention, forming and maintaining neural connections, when this process goes wrong, it can have negative consequences. For example, synaptic plasticity plays a key role in addiction. Drugs hi-jack the synaptic plasticity mechanisms by creating long-lasting memories of the drug experience.

Non-Synaptic Plasticity

This type of plasticity occurs away from the synapse. Non-synaptic plasticity makes changes to the way in which the structures in the axon and cell body carry out their functions. The mechanisms of this types of plasticity are not yet well understood.

Developmental Plasticity

In the first few years of life, our brains change rapidly. This is also known as developmental plasticity. Although it is most prominent during our formative years, it occurs throughout our lives. Developmental plasticity means our neural connections are constantly undergoing change in response to our childhood experiences and our environment. Our processing of sensory information informs the neural changes. Synaptogenesis, synaptic pruning, neural migration, and myelination are the main processes through which development plasticity occurs.

Sinaptogenese

Rapid expansion in formation of synapses so that the brain can successfully process the high volume of incoming sensory stimuli. This process is controlled by our genetics.

Sinaptiese snoei

Reduction of synaptic connections to enable the brain to function more efficiently. Essentially, connections that aren’t used or aren’t efficient are ‘pruned’ or ‘disconnected’.

Neural Migration

this process occurs whilst we are still in the womb. Between 8 and 29 weeks of gestation, neurons ‘migrate’ to different parts of the brain.

Miëlisering

This process starts during fetal development and continues until adolescence. Myelination is when neurons are protected and insulated a myelin sheath. Myelination improves the transmission of messages down the neuron’s axon.

Injury-Induced Plasticity

Following injury, the brain has demonstrated the extraordinary ability to take over a given function that the damaged part of the brain was responsible for. This ability has been noted in many case studies of brain injury and brain abnormalities. Some stroke sufferers have displayed remarkable feats of recovering functions lost due to brain damage.

Neurogenesis:

You may have heard at some point in your life that you cannot grow new brain cells. You may have been taught that from the moment you are born to when you die you can only lose brain cells. It is believed that this is due to hits to the head, consuming alcohol and narcotics, and from lack of cognitive stimulation. Well do not despair because your brain is not in danger, you can in fact “grow” new brain cells in a process called neurogenesis.

Scientists at Carnegie Mellon University‘s Center for Cognitive Brain Imaging (CCBI) have used a new combination of neural imaging methods to discover exactly how the human brain adapts to injury.

When one brain area loses functionality, a “back-up” team of secondary brain parts immediately activates, replacing not only the unavailable area but also its confederates (connected areas), the research shows.

The research found that as the brain function in the Wernicke area decreased following the application of rTMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation), a “back-up” team of secondary brain areas immediately became activated and coordinated, allowing the individual’s thought process to continue with no decrease in comprehension performance.

The Brain-Body Connection:

The human brain is a marvel of evolution, capable of creating breathtaking works of art and music, developing complex systems of culture, language, and society, and uncovering mysteries of the universe through science, technology, and mathematics. But even a healthy brain couldn’t do any of these things without a healthy body to support it.

Anyone who has had to perform on stage or give a speech in front of a large group of people knows that the stress and anxiety, supposedly mental phenomenon, can manifest in physical discomforts such as “Butterflies” in our stomachs, sweaty palms, and increased heart rate.

Similarly, when we find ourselves receiving praise or affection, the feelings of happiness and euphoria we experience are readily apparent when our cheeks blush, our eyes dilate, and in extreme cases, we can even begin to cry from joy.

By taking care of our bodies, we can help to ensure our brains are functioning at their best. Although there is no single exercise or diet that is right for everyone – each person should speak to their nutrition or health professional to understand the best regimen for themselves – there are specific general rules of thumb for exercise and diet that can help just about anyone improve their brain health.

Learn more about brain health:


V1 occipital lobe

Human V1 is located on the medial side of the occipital lobe within the calcarine sulcus the full extent of V1 often continues onto the occipital pole. V1 is often also called striate cortex because it can be identified by a large stripe of myelin, the Stria of Gennari. Visually driven regions outside V1 are called extrastriate cortex Brodmann area 17: Known as V1, this region is located in the occipital lobe's calcarine sulcus, and serves as the brain's primary visual cortex. It aids the brain to determine location, spatial information, and color data The primary visual cortex (V1) is located in and around the calcarine fissure in the occipital lobe. Each hemisphere's V1 receives information directly from its ipsilateral lateral geniculate nucleus that receives signals from the contralateral visual hemifield The occipital lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex. The primary visual cortex is Brodmann area 17, commonly called V1 (visual one)

Occipital lobe - Wikipedi

  1. The primary visual cortex (V1) is the first stop for visual information in the occipital lobe. The visual cortex is located in the occipital lobe of the brain and is primarily responsible for interpreting and processing visual information received from the eyes
  2. The occipital lobe consists of different numbered regions - V1 up to and including V5 - that are shared between the primary and secondary visual cortices. The primary visual cortex (V1) receives input from the retina via the optic nerve and thalamus. The secondary visual cortex consists of regions V2 to V5
  3. The occipital lobe is one of the four major lobes in the mammalian brain. The occipital lobe is mainly responsible for interpreting the visual world around the body, such as the shape, color, and..

V1 is located in the Calcarine sulcus in the medial occipital lobe of the brain (near the back of the head, just to the left and right of the middle). V1 is primary because the LGN sends most of its axons there, so V1 is the first visual processing area in the cortex 067 The Anatomy and Functions of the Occipital and Temporal Lobes - Duration: 4:34. Interactive Biology 65,009 view . This area is located in the occipital lobe at the back of the brain. It is also known as: - primary visual corte The occipital lobe is comprised of multiple visual areas that are based on findings from functional studies, and it is also divided histologically according to several differen Human V1 is located on the medial side of the occipital lobe within the calcarine sulcus the full extent of V1 often continues onto the posterior pole of the occipital lobe. V1 is often also called striate cortex because it can be identified by a large stripe of myelin, the Stria of Gennari

Occipital Lobe: Function, Location, and Structur

  • Brodmann area 17 or Primary visual cortex (V1). Located in the rearmost region of the occipital lobe. In the event of an injury in this region, a person would be unable to see because they couldn't process any stimulus, even if their eyes and retinas were in perfect condition. Brodmann area 18 or Secondary visual cortex (V2)
  • T8) These signals then arrive at the Primary Visual Cortex, located in the occipital lobe in the brain, where they are combined and analyzed and sent to other locations within the occipital lobe, including Brodmann areas 18 and 19 where these visual stimuli are processed
  • Occipital Lobe: The occipital lobe is one of the four lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain. The occipital lobe is positioned at the back portion of the brain and is associated with understanding visual stimuli and information. The primary visual cortex region is Brodmann area 17, usually termed V1 (visual one).V1 is placed [
  • The results left him with a lesion in his V1, which should have at least interfered with the process of converting retinal information into a coherent image. Apparently not. Despite the extensive bilateral occipital cortical damage, B.I. has extensive conscious visual abilities, is not blind, and can use vision to navigate his environment, the researchers report
  • Definition of occipital lobe in the Definitions.net dictionary. Meaning of occipital lobe. the full extent of V1 often continues onto the posterior pole of the occipital lobe. V1 is often also called striate cortex because it can be identified by a large stripe of myelin,.

The occipital lobe is located in the back portion of the brain behind the parietal and temporal lobes, and is primarily responsible for processing visual information. The occipital lobe contains the brain's visual processing system: it processes images from our eyes and links that information with images stored in memory theory of occipital lobe function vision begins in V1 that is heterogenous, and then travels to specialized cortical zones selective lesions up the hierarchy produce specific visual deficits (ex:V4-only greyscale vision, no imagination or recall of colo Chapter 11: The Occipital Lobes. - More is known about the occipital lobes than any other region of the cortex. - Even though vision is the exclusive function of the occipital lobes, other parts of the cortex have visual functions that are closely associated with occipital areas. - More cortex is devoted to visual function than any other activity.

The occipital lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex. The primary visual cortex is Brodmann area 17, commonly called V1 . Primary Visual Cortex (Striate Cortex) The primary visual cortex (Brodmann area 17 or, according to more recent nomenclature, V1), is located almost entirely on the medial surface of the occipital lobe just a small portion (perhaps 1 cm long) extends around the posterior pole onto.

Occipital Lobe Location And Function. Die oksipitaal lobbe are found at the back of the brain, directly inferior to the parietal lobbe and posterior to the temporal lobbe. They are found within the brain's largest division, the forebrain. Daar is een oksipitaal lobe in both hemispheres of the brain The occipital lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalianbrain containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex. The primary visual cortex is Brodmann area 17, commonly called V1 (visual one)

Occipital Lobe THE OCCIPITAL LOBE encompasses the posterior portion of the human cerebral cortex and is primarily responsible for vision. The surface area of the human occipital lobe is approximately 12% of the total surface area of the neocortex of the brain. Direct electrical stimulation of the occipital lobe produces visual sensations The primary visual cortex at the very back of the occipital lobe is labeled V1, and receives input from the optic tract. It has a clear map of visual information that corresponds to the areas of the retina. The center of vision is greatly magnified. The individual neurons of V1 are extremely sensitive to very particular changes in input from. • Human V1 is located on the medial side of the occipital lobe within the calcarine sulcus • the full extent of V1 often continues onto the posterior pole of the occipital lobe. V1 is often also called striate cortex because it can be identified by a large stripe of myelin, the Stria of Gennari. 7

Visual cortex - Wikipedi

  • Primary Visual Cortex (V1) Striate cortex in occipital lobe 1st stage of visual processing Most visual input goes into V1 Striate Neurons (Neurons in V1) 1. Simple cells Only in V1 fixed excitatory & inhibitory zones Most have bar-shaped or edge-shaped receptive fields 2. Complex cells In V1 or V2 Orientations of light No fixed excitat-inhib zone
  • ation, object and face recognition, and memory formation. The primary visual cortex, also known as V1 or Brodmann area 17, surrounds the calcarine sulcus on the occipital lobe's medial aspect
  • g visual information
  • The visual cortex is the primary cortical region of the brain that receives, integrates, and processes visual information relayed from the retinas. It is in the occipital lobe of the primary cerebral cortex, which is in the most posterior region of the brain. The visual cortex divides into five different areas (V1 to V5) based on function and.
  • The primary visual cortex at the very back of the occipital lobe is labeled V1, and receives input from the optic tract. It has a clear map of visual information that corresponds to the areas of the retina. The center of vision is greatly magnified. The individual neurons of V1 are extremely sensitive to very particular changes in input from the eyes
  • . Methods for identifying functional areas in the dorsal and ventral aspect of the human occipital cortex, however, have not achieved this level of precision in fact, different laboratories have produced inconsistent reports concerning the visual areas in dorsal and ventral occipital lobe
  • The occipital lobe, located in the rear portion of the cerebral cortex, is primarily responsible for visual functions. It is the part of the brain where visual information is processed. After it is processed, visual information leaves the occipital lobe via two major pathways: the dorsal stream and the ventral stream. The ventral stream is a pathway that leads to the temporal lobe

primary visual cortex (in red). The primary visual cortex is found in the occipital lobe in both cerebral hemispheres. It surrounds and extends into a deep sulcus called the calcarine sulcus. The primary visual cortex makes up a small portion of the visible surface of the cortex in the occipital lobe, but because it stretches into the calcarine. Den occipital lobe och epilepsi Det antas att occipitalloben spelar en framträdande roll vid utseendet av epileptiska anfall, eller åtminstone delvis av dem. Det här är fall där exponering för frekventa blinkar av intensivt ljus orsakar utseendet på ett mönster av utsläpp av elektriska signaler genom neuroner av occipitalloben som sträcker sig genom hjärnan som orsakar attacken Check out this video lesson to learn about the four lobes of the human brain - the frontal, parietal, occipital and temporal. You'll learn about the functions and processes of each region The primary visual cortex (Brodmann area 17 ) is also known as the calcarine cortex, striate cortex, or V1.It is the main site of input of signals coming from the retina. It is located on the medial aspect of the occipital lobe, in the gyrus superior and inferior to the calcarine sulcus.Most of the cortex lies within the deep walls of the calcarine sulcus occipital lobe, specifically within area V1. The incongruity of a well-organized cortex and M.C.'s markedly impaired vision was resolved by measurement of functional responses within her damaged occipital lobe. Attenuated neural contrast-response functions were found to correlate with M.C.'s impaired psycho-physical performance

  1. Ainsi, le cortex visuel primaire (v1) est la partie du lobe occipital qui traite les données visuelles les plus brutes et est responsable de la détection des schémas généraux pouvant être trouvés dans les informations collectées par les yeux
  2. Le lobe occipital est le centre visuel. Il permet la reconnaissance des orientations et des contours des images en ce qui concerne les premiers traitements d'analyse visuelle effectuées en V1 (aire de Brodmann numéro 17) grâce aux informations provenant des yeux
  3. Congruous homonymous hemianopia due to occipital lobe infarction -Up to 8%-25% of patients who had a stroke can develop visual field loss. Stroke is the most common causative factor for HH and correspondingly, HH is the most common form of visual field loss following stroke Visual disturbance induced by bilateral LGB infarction is a rare occurrence [2]
  4. In both monkeys and humans, cortical regions comprising the object recognition pathway lie directly adjacent to the primary visual cortex (V1) in the occipital lobe, extending progressively into more anterior and ventral portions of the temporal lobe
  5. Retinotopic Mapping Up: The Visual Cortex Previous: The visual areas Two pathways. The visual cortex contains over 30 visual areas in the occipital lobe (the primary and some extrastriate visual cortex), and the temporal and parietal lobes (other higher extrastriate visual areas)
  6. Area VMV1 demonstrates functional connectivity to area FEF in the premotor region, areas PHA1 in the temporal lobe, areas VIP, LIPv, IPS1, and DVT in the parietal lobe, areas V1, V2, V3, and V4 in the medial occipital lobe, areas V3a, V3b, V7, V6, and V6a of the dorsal visual stream, areas FFC, VVC, V8, VMV2, and VMV3 of the ventral visual stream, and areas V3cd, V4t, LO1, LO3, PH, and FST of the lateral occipital lobe (Figure 21)

Visual Cortex - Vivid Visio

  1. The primary visual cortex (V1), also known as Brodmann's area 17, occupies the walls of the deep calcarine sulcus in the occipital lobe. The cortex receives, via the optic radiations, fibres from the temporal half of the ipsilateral retina and the nasal half of the contralateral retina
  2. the optic radiation and the primary visual cortex (V1) [18,20]. Forthisreason,themostcommonconcerninoccipital lobe surgery is aggravation of existing or creation of new visualfielddefects,sodespitethesuccessfulresultsachieved withepilepsysurgeryinbothadultsandchildren[11,21-24], reportsofsuchresectionsintheliteraturearerare( <5%of patients)[17,25-27]
  3. Also known as the striate cortex, or simply V1, the primary visual cortex is located in the most posterior portion of the brain's occipital lobe . In fact, a large part of the primary visual cortex cannot be seen from the outside of the brain, because this cortex lies on either side of the calcarine fissure
  4. 23 sentence examples: 1. Tissue, Cytoplasmic Protein, Human Adult Normal, Brain, Occipital Lobe. 2. Occipital lobe infarction is another important cause. 3. Chart 1. Cerebral contusion of right occipital lobe. 4. Tissue, Total Protein, Human Fetal N
  5. In mammals, it is located in the posterior pole of the oksipitaallobe and is the simplest, The tuning properties of V1 neurons (which neurons react to) vary significantly over time. Early (40 ms and beyond) individual V1 neurons have strong tuning to a small set of stimuli

Thus, the primary visual cortex (v1) is the part of the occipital lobe that processes the most raw visual data and is responsible for detecting the general patterns that can be found in the information collected by the eyes The parieto-occipital sulcus separates the occipital lobe from the parietal and temporal lobes anteriorly. The primary visual cortex (V1) is located within the occipital lobe and hence its cortical association area is responsible for vision The most common finding is occipital lobe infarction leading to an opposite visual field defect. Lenticulostriate Arteries Small, deep penetrating arteries known as the lenticulostriate arteries branch from the middle cerebral artery Occlusions of these vessels or penetrating branches of the Circle of Willis or vertebral or basilar arteries are referred to as lacunar strokes

It is located in and around the calcarine fissure in the occipital lobe. This visual area contains a sort of map where the visual field of the eyes is projected, i.e. everything in scope of our sight is directly processed in the V1 area of the occipital lobe Anatomy: Brodmann Areas of Occipital Lobe. Primary visual cortex (V1, Area 17) Receives sensory input from the lateral geniculate nucleus in the Thalamus. Lesions to this Primary visual cortex result in blindness of the contralateral Visual Field

Patient PF had a left occipital lobe infarct in V1 that extended significantly into V2v, the upper right quadrant of his visual field. This patient had not been involved in retraining on the motion coherence task or any other task Visual processes are the primary role of the occipital lobe, but each region of the lobe is known to have a 'map' of the world. These regions include the following: V1 Visual Cortex-The primary visual cortex that assists the brain in determining the location, navigation, and color around you 1 Structure 2 Function 3 Clinical significance 3.1 Epilepsy 4 Additional images 5 References The occipital lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals. The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex. The primary visual cortex is Brodmann area 17, commonly called V1.

occipital lobe infarct in V1 that extended significantly into V2v, the upper right quadrant of his visual field. This patient had not been involved in retraining on the motio Definition. The occipital lobe, located at the back of the brain, is the smallest of the four lobes and enables visual processing and visual memory.Sitting behind both the temporal and parietal lobes, the occipital lobe is home to the primary and secondary visual cortices and is connected to the retinas of the eyes.Found in all vertebrates, this part of the brain is - evolutionarily speaking. The occipital lobe lies over the tentorium cerebelli while its medial surface faces the falx cerebri. There is no clear defined sulcus separating the occipital lobe from parietal and temporal lobes however, it is separated from the other lobes by a theoretical line starting from parieto-occipital fissure and extending to temporo-occipital.

Direct temporal-occipital feedback connections to striate cortex (V1) in the macaque monkey. Rockland KS(1), Van Hoesen GW. Author information: (1)Department of Neurology, College of Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City 52242-1053 of V1 from higher order visual areas, or other factors. Regard-less of why some patients are blind despite V1 activity, it is lesion (outlined in white) and a winner map of visual cortex activity, masked by the medial occipital lobe, for representative patients of varying lesion volumes: (a

The occipital lobe is primarily responsible for interpreting visual stimuli and information that is received from the retinas of the eyes and deciphering it in the primary visual cortex, also referred to as Brodmann area 17 or V1 The optic radiations are predominantly supplied by the posterior and middle cerebral arteries1 and the AChA.6 Inferior fibres, known as Meyer's Loop,6 travel to the temporal lobe, while the superior and central nerve fibre bundles travel to the parietal lobes.1 The termination of optic radiations is located in the visual striate cortex (V1) in the occipital lobe superior and inferior to the. The occipital lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex. The primary visual cortex is Brodmann area 17, commonly called V1 (visual one).Human V1 is located on the medial side of the occipital lobe within the calcarine. to the temporal lobe, while the superior and central nerve fibre bundles travel to the pari-etal lobes.1 The termination of optic radia-tions is located in the visual striate cortex (V1) in the occipital lobe superior and inferior to the calcarine fissure.1 The occipital cortex is largely supplied by the PCAs, which ar 後頭葉(こうとうよう、occipital lobe)は大脳葉のひとつで大脳半球の最尾側にある。 哺乳類では視覚形成の中心であり、視覚野の解剖学的領域の大部分が後頭葉にある 。 一次視覚野はブロードマンの脳地図の第17野にあり、一般にV1と呼ばれる。 ヒトのV1は後頭葉内側、鳥距溝よりも内側にあり.

The clinical evidences of variable epileptic propagation in occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) have been demonstrated by several studies. However the exact localization of the epileptic focus sometimes represents a problem because of the rapid propagation to frontal, parietal, or temporal regions. Each white matter pathway close to the supposed initial focus can lead the propagation towards a. The inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) is a large white matter tract which originates in the occipital and parietal lobes and terminates in the inferior frontal lobe. 1-3 This white matter tract courses, along with the uncinate fasciculus, adjacent to the infero-lateral insula via the extreme and external capsules. 4 While its role is primarily associated with semantic language. In the macaque monkey, V4 spans the dorsal and ventral occipital lobe. Dorsal simultanagnosia results from bilateral lesions to the junction between the occipital lobes. It can also refer to the occipital operculum, part of the occipital lobe. The extrastriate visual areas include parts of the occipital lobe that surround V1. These extrastriate cortical areas are located anterior to the.

This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Occipital Lobe, Occipital Lobe Function, Cerebral Occipital Lobe, Primary visual cortex, V1 Visual Cortex, Brodmann Area 17, Secondary Visual Cortex, V2 Visual Cortex, Brodmann Area 18, Associative visual cortex, V3 V4 and V5 Visual Cortex, Brodmann Area 19 V1 tarafından zaten işlenen bilgilerin işlenmesinden sorumludurlar.. Görsel bilginin bu montaj hattında yer alan nöronların olduğu düşünülmektedir. herhangi bir zamanda görüntülenen izole elemanların özelliklerini işlemekten sorumludur yani vizyonun içeriği hakkında. Bu nedenle, bu rota ne rotası da denir. Dorsal yol . This area of the brain is divided into sub-section that all assist with vision. The Primary Visual Cortex (V1) is the major part of the lobe where most of the processing takes place The Occipital Lobe helps process visual information, movement, and color and shape perception. The Occipital Lobe contains the Primary Visual Cortex. Primary Visual Cortex: The Primary Visual Cortex is what receives visual information and translates it for the brain. The Primary Visual Cortex is also called V1 or Brodmman area 1

Occipital Lobe Function - Vision Whenever you think of the overall function of the oksipitaal lobe, think of the word vision. Die oksipitaal lobe not only makes us consciously aware of visual stimuli, but it also helps us analyze, process, and recognize what the visual stimulus is Occipital Lobes The occipital lobes are the center of our visual perception system. They are not particularly vulnerable to injury because of their location at the back of the brain, although any significant trauma to the brain could produce subtle changes to our visual-perceptual system, such as visual field defects and scotomas Occipital Lobe Nacklob Svensk definition. Den bakre delen av storhjärnan som bearbetar synintryck. Den är belägen bakom hjäss-nackfåran (sulcus parietooccipitalis) och sträcker sig till nackinskärningen (incisura praeoccipitalis). Engelsk definition. Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory informatio The lobe is located at the back of the skull, thus the name (occipital comes from the Latin for back of the head). The occipital lobe's purpose is to receive visual stimuli from the eyes, process the information, and forward the information to the frontal lobe (which will formulate a response)

Oksipitale lob. The occipital lobe is the most posterior portion of the cerebrum and it is involved in processing visual stimuli. It rests on the tentorium cerebelli, a fold of dura mater that separates it from the cerebellum. The occipital lobe is separated from the parietal and temporal lobes by the parieto-occipital sulcus and preoccipital notch, respectively Top left: Moving versus stationary dots stimuli. Bottom left: Moving dots again light up V1, but also evoke strong activity in area MT, a lateral area of the occipital lobe (just behind your ears) involved in visual motion perception . Rarely does one attribute motor disturbance to lesions in this region of the brain. While there is no doubt that normal vision is dependent on intactness of the calcarine cortex and the subcortical optic radiations, there is apparently little clinical evidence to indicate that the occipital area plays a role i

Abstrak. Injury to the primary visual cortex (V1, striate cortex) and the geniculostriate pathway in adults results in cortical blindness, abolishing conscious visual perception. Early studies by Larry Weiskrantz and colleagues demonstrated that some patients with an occipital-lobe injury exhibited a degree of unconscious vision and. According to Creel's report [12], VEP measures the functional integrity of the visual pathways from retina via the optic nerves to the visual cortex and could be obtained by the electrodes at occipital lobe The occipital lobe is the major visual processing centre in the brain. The primary visual cortex, also known as V1, receives visual information from the eyes. This information is relayed to several secondary visual processing areas, which interpret depth, distance, location and the identity of seen objects

Occipital Lobe - The Definitive Guide Biology Dictionar

Within the occipital lobes is the visual cortex, so these lobes perform much of the brain's visual processing. When the eyes view something, the occipital lobes receive the information and connect it to images already stored in memory, allowing humans to discern shapes and colors Damage to the optic radiations or primary visual cortex (V1) causes blindness in the contralesional visual hemifield of both eyes. Degeneration of ganglion cells in the retina has been detected following occipital lobe damage in post-mortem studies [1-3] and in in vivo studies [4-6] of monkeys, cats, and humans

Occipital lobe: Definition, function, and linked condition

Occipital Lobe. 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38. Calcarine fissure and surrounding cortex (V1) Cuneus (Q) Lingual gyrus (LING) Lateral remainder of occipital lobe (O1, O2, O3) Parietal Lobe. 41 42 45 46 47 48 49 50 63 64. Postcentral gyrus (POST) Supramarginal gyrus (SMG) Angular gyrus (AG) Precuneus (PQ) Parietal, superior and inferior (P1, P2) Central Structures. 53 5 Study occipital lobe flashcards from Robyn Spilsbury's university of Victoria class online, or in Brainscape's iPhone or Android app. Learn faster with spaced repetition Your occipital lobe is one of four lobes in the brain. It controls your ability to see things. An occipital stroke is a stroke that occurs in your occipital lobe occipital lobe translation in English-Tagalog dictionary. en Human V1 is located on the medial side of the occipital lobe within the calcarine sulcus the full extent of V1 often continues onto the posterior pole of the occipital lobe. Human V1 is located on the medial side of the occipital lobe within the calcarine sulcus the full extent of V1 ofte Previous MRI studies of gray matter atrophy in PD-VH have found a number of regions involved, including the temporal lobe and lateral occipital lobe. 44,45 Ventral stream temporal areas contain relatively high numbers of Lewy bodies, 46,47 with a gradient of increasing density toward the anterior temporal lobe, 37 and it has been speculated that these pathologic changes may contribute to visual hallucinations in DLB

Perception Lecture Notes: LGN and V

Occipital lobe and posterior occulomotor lesion patients can do this frontal lobe or anterior ocularmotor lesion patients cannot follow the verbal command with voluntary following. Right occipital lesions will not follow into the left half field. Forced choice (guessing). Background: Occipital arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) cause a variety of visual disturbances and headaches. Early diagnosis may lead to treatment that reduces the risk of hemorrhages, visual field loss and other neurologic deficits, and death. Methods: We reviewed the records of the 70 patients with occipital AVMs referred to New York University Medical Center to investigate the mode of. ventricle in the temporal lobe ( Meyer's loop ). Those carrying i nformation about the inferior visual field travel under the cortex of the parietal lobe. Primary visual cortex The primary visual cortex (V1) has a representation of the contralateral visual hemifield

Occipital Lobe - V1 192 - YouTub

Den primära visuella cortex, Brodmann-område 17 eller V1, får information från näthinnan. Den tolkar och överför sedan information relaterad till utrymme, plats, forskare lär sig fortfarande ny information om occipital lobe och exakt hur den fungerar the lobe that makes up the rearmost area of the brain. The primary visual cortex is located here and thus the occipital lobe is considered the visual center of the brain. Learn more: 2-Minute Neuroscience: Lobes and Landmarks of the Brain Surface Know Your Brain: Primary visual corte Other articles where Occipital lobe is discussed: human eye: Superior colliculi: the rabbit, removal of the occipital lobes causes some impairment of vision, but the animal can perform such feats as avoiding obstacles when running and recognizing food by sight. In the monkey, the effects are more serious, but the animal can be trained to discriminate lights of different intensity an


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Kommentaar:

  1. Birde

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  2. Mooguramar

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  3. Duzilkree

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  4. Adkyn

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  5. Lorah

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