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Help ID slang naby Deming NM

Help ID slang naby Deming NM


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Hierdie slang is in ons tuin, suid van Deming NM, in Luna County. Geskatte lengte is ongeveer 3 1/2 voet. Dit het destyds stadig beweeg, maar is deur 'n paar mediumgrootte voëls opgetel. Dit is basies swart met 'n swart, smal kop. Die lyf en snoet het ligte geel merke. Op die liggaam is die geel individuele skubbe, so amper gevlek. En op die snoet, meer soos lyne of strepe. Ek het 'n paar goeie foto's, en selfs video's, maar dit sê die lêers is te groot - moet minder as 2 giggleburps wees of iets en ek weet nie hoe om dit te doen nie.


Alhoewel 'n geheelbeeld baie sou help, is ek seker dat dit die woestynkoningslang is wat wetenskaplik bekend staan ​​as Lampropeltis getula splendida. Hierdie spesie word in die meeste dele van New Mexico gesien en is nie giftig nie. Dit voed hoofsaaklik op knaagdiere, akkedisse, voëls, slange en eiers.

Hier is 'n skakel na 'n webwerf met meer besonderhede oor hierdie spesie en ander slangspesies van New Mexico: http://www.nmherpsociety.org/reptiles/snakes/lampropeltisgetulasplendida/index.html

Hier is 'n verskeidenheid verskillende foto's van die woestynkoningslang vanuit verskillende hoeke (maar verskillende ouderdomme, groottes en patroonvariëteite van dieselfde spesie).


Help ID slang naby Deming NM - Biologie

Conchasweg is 'n grondpad met grondpad/grond wat langs die N van die eiendom geleë is.

Sien foto's en notas hieronder.

5 lotte W langs Rojaweg by lot 39.

Jy sal die plaaslike kragmaatskappy moet kontak vir die koste om dit na die eiendom te bring.

Sien foto's en lugfoto's.

Benodig installasie. Klik hier vir die putlog van die staat New Mexico.

Jy sal op die land moet klik en dan op die PLSS-skakel moet klik. Invoer 01 onder afdeling, klik dan op 25S onder township, en 8W onder bereik en klik dan op View Report heel onder.

Ek het wel verskeie putlog-rekords in dieselfde afdeling gevind.

Klik hier vir die New Mexico Environment Dept-webwerf vir vloeibare afval.

Laat toe vir huise, vervaardigde huise. 30 dae RV-gebruik toegelaat sonder nutsdienste, 240 dae RV-gebruik toegelaat met nutsdienste.

Klik hier om die soneringsordonnansies van Luna County te hersien.
Blaai af na ordonnansie 75 en 77 om verder te lees.

Klik hier vir meer inligting oor Rockhound State Park wat deel is van die Florida-berge!

Klik hier vir meer inligting oor City of Rocks State Park.

Eiendomsfoto's

Al die foto's is geneem in Julie 2017 van Deming Ranchettes Unit 9 Blok 3 Lot 21 en die omliggende uitsigte.

Om groter kaarte/foto's te sien, klik net op die kleinkiekie om uit te brei. Jy kan ook blaai deur die pyltjie sleutels op jou sleutelbord te gebruik.

Om die kaarte/foto's in 'n groter venster te sien, beweeg jou muis oor die klein prentjie, regskliek en kies dan "Open Skakel".

Maak seker dat u die kaartgedeelte nagaan om te sien waar foto's geneem is met betrekking tot die eiendom wat verkoop word indien bogenoemde eiendom nie die eiendom is wat in hierdie lys verkoop word nie.

1/2 akker grond te koop ongeveer 18 myl SE van Deming, New Mexico met 'n asemrowende uitsig op Dragons Ridge en Needles Eye in die Florida -berge, 'n onderbroke stroom deur die eiendom en krag naby! Sjoe was hierdie een 'n skoonheid net 2,5 myl van Rock Hound State Park af! Dit is 'n landelike gebied naby Interstate 10 in die sonnige warm Luna County. Deming is ongeveer 45 minute W van Las Cruces, NM tussen Tucson, Arizona en El Paso, Texas. Dit is 'n droë, warm, winderige klimaat wat die temperature verbasend gemaklik maak vir die woestyn!

Al die foto's is in Julie 2017 van die eiendom en sy omliggende uitsigte geneem. Conchasweg is 'n gruispad wat langs die N van die eiendom lei. Dit is verbeter tot by die onderbroke stroom wat aan die oostekant van die eiendom lê, so maak seker dat jy van die weste af inkom! Daar is 'n straatteken wat dit merk soos op die foto's gesien. Dit lê 2 myl S van Stirrupweg, die hoofpad deur hierdie deel van die vallei, en dan sy gruispad die res van die pad.

Daar is krag 5 lotte W langs Rojaweg by lot 39 en ons het dit op een van die lugfoto's gemerk. Jy sal die plaaslike kragmaatskappy moet kontak vir die koste om dit na die eiendom te bring. Die naaste buurman is 2 erwe na die suide en dit lyk of hulle sonkrag gebruik. Die area bly vir eers onontwikkeld met baie privaatheid!

Ek het gedink die coolste deel van die eiendom is die groot onderbroke stroom wat deur die eiendom vloei. Natuurlik het ek 'n paar minute deur die stroompie deur die spruit spandeer om na die verskillende kleure rotse te kyk en 'n oog uit te hou vir slange! Ek het 'n pragtige groen rots gevind - ek glo dit word 'n Rhyoliet-rots genoem wat tydens uitbarstings gevorm word en met 'n ander kleur gebind word. Ek het dit huis toe geneem en dit by die rotsversameling op my lessenaar gevoeg vir goeie energie!

Die tweede beste deel van die eiendom is die uitsig op Needles Eye in die Florida -berge! En sjoe wat 'n uitsig oor die berge is daar nie. Soos jy in die lugfoto kan sien, sit die eiendom teen hulle in 'n groot bakvorm van die NW na die S en terug tot in die NO! Hulle is so naby en groot en jy kan haar kronkelende pieke genaamd Dragons Ridge sien soos dit soos 'n drake agter lyk! Sjoe is dit 'n mooi uitsig van haar uit hierdie deel van die vallei!

Rockhound State Park lê in die Florida-berge en is bekend vir haar rotse. Dit bied roetes, unieke geologie, veldblomme-uitstallings en 'n rustige kampterrein. Rotshonde kan jag op kwartskristalle, geodes, jaspis, perliet en vele ander minerale. Jy word toegelaat om tot 15 pond huis toe te neem!

Daar is 'n wonderlike uitsig oor die oop vallei van die NW na die NO wat oor na die dorpie Deming kyk. Aan die N is 'n mooi uitsig op Cookes Range met Cookes Peak op 8408 voet. In Oktober 2015 het ek in 'n canyon gestap wat suid van Cookes Peak was en 'n paar fantastiese rotstekeninge in 'n grot gesien en 'n video daarvan hieronder ingesluit!

Cookes Canyon, 'n deurgang deur die berge, was deel van die historiese suidelike posroete van 3000 myl, die Butterfield Trail, wat in Tennessee begin het en in San Francisco geëindig het. Daar is soveel dinge om hier te verken, ou verlate myne en die beroemde Fort Cummings wat in die 1800's gebruik is om te beskerm teen Indiese aanvalle. Cookes Range Wilderness Study Area, rotstekeninge by Massacre Peak en watervalle by Black Rock Canyon is net 'n paar dinge om naby te sien. Dit is ook die tuiste van die City of Rock State Park wat ek vir my eerste keer in Julie 2017 besoek het!

Die eiendom is gesoneer vir 'n huis of vervaardigde huis en beperkte RV-gebruik. In Januarie 2013 het ek die soneringsafdeling gevra oor campergebruik. Ek is meegedeel dat op 1/2 'n akker, as jy 'n RV met geen nutsdienste op die terrein gehad het, dat jy tot 30 kalenderdae per jaar in jou RV kan bly. As u 'n septiese put met 'n elektrisiteitsbron gehad het, kan u tot 240 dae per jaar bly met 'n permit wat gratis van u kantoor af is. Daardie bron van elektrisiteit kan 'n alternatiewe energie soos sonkrag wees. Ons het 'n skakel na die provinsie soneringsordonnansie ingesluit onder die Soneringsinligting boaan ons lys, sodat u verder kan lees.

Deming is 'n klein dorpie van ongeveer 14 647 en Luna County het 'n bevolking van ongeveer 26 129. Dit is ongeveer 60 myl wes van Las Cruces, NM en 33 myl N van die grens van Mexiko. Benewens die lae lewenskoste en bekostigbare belasting, bied dit 'n munisipale lughawe, hospitaal/ambulansdiens, ouetehuis, senior burgersentrum, biblioteek, meer as 40 kerke, meer as 80 genoteerde organisasies, 18 putjie gholfbaan, burgersentrum, openbare ouditorium, skole en 'n gemeenskapskollege.

Baie afgetredenes en mense met artritis word na hierdie gebied aangetrek as gevolg van die bekostigbaarheid van grond en die droë droë klimaat met lae humiditeit. Die warm sonskyn hou die swelling en inflammasie af en dit is iets waarmee ek beslis kan vereenselwig en ek is 52! Ek praat gereeld met mense oor die Deming-gebied wat naby die grens van Mexiko lê

Ek het etlike jare deurgebring om foto's van hierdie berge te neem voordat iemand vir my die groot gat in die rots genaamd Needles Eye and the Dragons Ridge uitgewys het. Sjoe wat 'n mooi plek om 'n sneeuvoël te wees of af te tree in die sonnige warm suidwestelike woestyn! Jou eie stuk grond om op klippe te soek en na die Florida-berge te staar en wonder hoe die naalde-oog daar opgekom het! Geniet dit! Char the Explorer :)

Terme met 'n afbetaling van $ 100: $ 2900 teen 8% rente met ongeveer 32 maandelikse betalings van $ 100.

Enige afbetaling wat oor die vereiste $100 Smile4u gemaak word, sal by die balans pas.

90 dae dieselfde as kontant met slegs $100 af! As $1500 binne 90 dae vanaf die kontrakdatum aan die eiendom betaal word, sal Smile4u afstand doen van die oorblywende balans!

180 dae om soos 'n hond te werk om dit vroeg af te betaal met $100 af! As $1875 van die skoolhoof in die eerste 180 dae vanaf die kontrakdatum betaal word, sal Smile4u afstand doen van die oorblywende balans!

Ons sal albei die vroeë afbetalingsopsies in die kontrak skryf. As jy enige tyd gedurende die tydperk van 90 of 180 dae daardie bedrae bereik, sal ons die oorblywende balans kwytskeld en die eiendom aan jou oorhandig. Droom groot!

As u 'n kontrak vir akte koop, klik hier om die hoogtepunte van ons eienaarsfinansiering te sien.

Eiendomskaarte

Google Maps en Bing Maps -skakels vir kliënte wat die straat- en lugfoto's verder wil ondersoek:

Google Maps: Ons stel voor dat jy twee keer op die "Kantel die aansig"-knoppie wat regs onder is, klik sodat dit die aarde roteer totdat jy die blou lug sien.

Bing -kaarte: ons stel voor dat u op die skakel "Voël -oog" bo -aan klik en dan op die lug.

Luna County New Mexico, insluitend foto's van Deming en Akela Area

Deming, 'n klein dorpie van ongeveer 14 099, is geleë in die SW-deel van New Mexico ongeveer 60 myl W van Las Cruces en 33 myl N van die grens van Mexiko. Dit is omtrent halfpad tussen Tucson, Arizona en El Paso, Texas langs Interstate 10.

Dit is die distrik setel vir Luna County, bevolking 24,000. Dit is 'n land van altyd teenwoordige son en vloeiende woestynrotse en kaktusse. Dit is 'n ryk landbougebied met pragtige beesplase en oeste van rissies, uie, katoen en pekanneute. Dit is bekend vir 99% suiwer water.

Ek het 'n hele paar sneeuvoëls hier begin sien bly en in 2018 het ek twee nuwe RV-parke aan die westekant van die Florida-berge opgemerk. Baie tree ook hier af omdat dit bekostigbaar is. Benewens die lae lewenskoste en bekostigbare belasting, bied dit 'n munisipale lughawe, hospitaal-/ambulansdiens, ouetehuis, sentrum vir seniors, biblioteek, meer as 40 kerke, meer as 80 genoteerde organisasies, die Rio Mimbres Country Club, 'n 18 -putjie gholfbaan , 'n burgersentrum, openbare ouditorium, skole en 'n gemeenskapskollege.

Goeie tydsberekening om 'n man in Mei 2018 by Rio Mimbres een aan die gat te sien kap!

Die hoogte is ongeveer 4335 voet. Dit is 'n droë droë klimaat met 'n lae humiditeit en 'n gemiddelde hoë temperatuur in Julie van 95*. Dit is nogal koeler as Tuscon op 100*, Phoenix op 106*en Yuma op 107*. Mense met artritis word hierheen aangetrek omdat dit die swelling en ontsteking beperk, en dit is iets waarmee ek my beslis kan vereenselwig! Die gemiddelde reënval is 9 duim. Hulle kry af en toe sneeuval maar dit smelt vinnig. Hulle is bekend vir hul winters, en dit bied baie sonskyn en min reën aan die sneeuvoëls wat hul RV's geniet!

Die Florida-berge bied 'n skouspelagtige agtergrond vir hierdie wye oop ruimtes. Dit word geëwenaar deur sy vriendelike gasvryheid. Klik hier vir meer inligting oor Rock Hound State Park, 'n gunsteling plek vir die plaaslike bevolking. Rotsjagters kan jag vir kwartskristalle, geodes, jaspis, perliet en baie ander minerale. Jy word toegelaat om tot 15 pond huis toe te neem! Dit bied ook roetes, unieke geologie, veldblomme-uitstallings en 'n rustige kampterrein.

In Oktober 2015 het ek in 'n canyon gestap wat suid van Cookes Peak was en 'n paar fantastiese rotstekeninge in 'n grot gesien!

'n Video wat ek gemaak het van my reis na Luna County in Oktober 2015. Ek en Buddy het in 'n canyon gestap om rotstekeninge in 'n grot te sien! Wow was dit fantasties!

Cookes Canyon, 'n deurgang deur die berge, was deel van die 3 000 myl historiese suidelike posroete genaamd die Butterfield Trail wat in Tennessee begin het en in San Francisco geëindig het. Hier is soveel dinge om hier te verken, ou verlate myne en die beroemde Fort Cummings wat in die 1800's gebruik is om teen Indiese strooptogte te beskerm. Cookes Range Wilderness Study Area, rotstekeninge by Massacre Peak en watervalle by Black Rock Canyon is slegs 'n paar dinge om in die omgewing te sien. Dit is ook die tuiste van die City of Rock State Park wat ek vir my eerste keer in Julie 2017 besoek het!

Bill Evans Lake lê ongeveer 80 myl NW van Deming en is 'n gunsteling hengelplek vir die plaaslike bevolking. Dit is die tuiste van die grootste baars wat ooit in New Mexico gevang is teen 15 lbs 13 oz en was 26,5" lank in 1995! Dit blyk dat Evans 'n prokureur by Phelps Dodge in die 1960's was wat gehelp het om die grond-/waterregte te bekom om die reservoir 300 voet bokant die Gilarivier te bou.

In September 2017 het die Fort Sill Apache-stam 'n $800,000-toekenning van die federale regering ontvang om te help bou aan 'n 3000 vierkante voet geriefswinkel en brandstofstasie by sy eiendom in Akela, ongeveer 20 myl oos van Deming en 30 myl W van Las Cruces langs die Interstate. 25. Die stam beplan om addisionele inkomste vir die projek in te bring, die presiese bedrag is nie afgehandel nie, maar dit kan tot $1,5 miljoen of meer wissel, volgens 'n stambeampte. Die Fort Sill Apache -stam is afstammelinge van die Chiricahua Apache -stam wie se leiers Cochise en Geronimo insluit. Ek het die Chiricahua- en Cochiseberge besoek - die moeite werd om na te kyk en wonderlike Amerikaanse geskiedenis!

Las Cruces, 101 759 inwoners, is 'n pragtige stad en die sitplek vir Dona Ana en die 2de grootste stad in New Mexico. Dit lê 60 myl E van Deming en 40 myl N van El Paso, Texas. Ek het 'n geruime tyd op hul webwerf vir Ekonomiese Ontwikkeling deurgebring en sien hulle het nogal vir die toekoms beplan, insluitend die opknapping van die Las Cruces-lughawe vir daaglikse plaaslike kommersiële vlugte en 'n pendelspoor na El Paso. Die federale regering is die belangrikste werkgewer met die nabygeleë White Sands-toetsfasiliteit en White Sands Missile Range. Ek het verskeie mense ontmoet wat vir die Amerikaanse doeane werk en daagliks van Las Cruces na die grens van Columbus, 35 myl suid van Deming, pendel.

Die Center for Innovation, Testing and Evaluation (CITE) beplan om 'n futuristiese stad van $ 1 miljard naby Deming, New Mexico, te bou!

Die Center for Innovation, Testing and Evaluation (CITE) gaan hul futuristiese navorsingsstad van $ 1 miljard naby Deming, New Mexico, bou. Dit beplan dat groen energie die geboue aandryf, selfbestuurende motors wat deur die bome omring word, met skole, hoë geboue en voorstede wat bedoel is vir 'n bevolking van 35 000 wat nooit daar sal woon nie! Sjoe! Ja, dit is reg, dit is 'n navorsingsstad met visioene van hernubare energiebronne soos sonkrag-, wind-, geotermiese en biokragaanlegte wat langs mekaar werk met nuwe vorme van waterbehandeling en kuberveiligheidsprojekte. Dit verwag om 350 mense direk in diens te neem, en tot 3 500 kontrakteurs sal gehuur word om hulle aan te vul. Ek het 'n geruime tyd spandeer om die presiese ligging na te vors en ek het 'n paar verskillende verslae gevind, maar almal sê langs die Interstate 10-korridor wat oor Luna County en Doña Ana County strek en sal ongeveer 18 vierkante myl beslaan. Ek het die beplanningsafdeling gekontak en hulle het gesê dat hulle nog nie die plek het nie, maar iets is aan die gang by die provinsie se beplanning en hellipor! Ek sal jou op hoogte hou soos ek meer inligting uitvind! Dit klink asof Luna County dalk net &ldquoOntmoet vir George Jetson!&rdquo

Verkoopsproses en bepalings

Doen asseblief u omsigtigheidsnavorsing en maak seker dat u alle vrae vra voordat u die "Koop Nou"-knoppie hieronder druk.

Al die kaarte en inligting wat in hierdie lys verskyn, is bedoel om u te help met u ondersoek na omsigtigheid. Ons probeer baie hulpbronne insluit wat ons self gebruik. Oor die jare het ons gevind dat inligting verkeerd is soos 'n pad wat op 'n lugfoto of straatkaart wys wat ons nie kan vind nie omdat dit toegegroei is of nie bestaan ​​nie of 'n verskil in GPS-instellings. So terwyl ons probeer om soveel as moontlik van hierdie inligting in te sluit, moedig ons jou sterk aan om jou navorsing noukeurig te doen om seker te maak die eiendom pas by jou behoeftes.

As u hierdie eiendom wil koop, klik dan op die "Koop dit nou" -knoppie onderaan die lys. 'n Vorm sal jou naam, e-posadres en telefoonnommer vra. Daar is 'n blokkie om aan te dui of jy koop of dit vir kontant of finansiering is. Sodra jy op dien geklik het, sal die status boaan die lysinskrywing verander van "Beskikbaar" na "Verkoop hangende". Ons hou dit vir jou vir 3 dae. Ons sal dan vir jou 'n e-pos stuur wat ons ooreenkoms en ons proses om die transaksie te voltooi bevestig. Kontak ons ​​asseblief binne 24 uur nadat ons daardie e-pos van ons ontvang het en ons sal voortgaan om die eiendom vir jou te hou.

Betaling is binne 3 dae betaalbaar, tensy vooraf reëlings getref word. Jy kan óf 'n kassier se tjeks of poswissels stuur, óf jy kan die kantoor bel met 'n debiet- of kredietkaart. Ons het dikwels verskeie belangstellende kopers in dieselfde eiendom en om eerlik te wees, hou ons die eiendom beskikbaar totdat iemand 100% bereid is om die transaksie te voltooi.

As ons vir kontant koop, sal ons, sodra ons betaling ontvang het, alle dokumente voorberei wat nodig is om eienaarskap oor te dra en selfs 'n tjek in te sluit om alle opnamefooie en oordragbelasting ook te dek. Dit is alles deel van die nie-terugbetaalbare $ 150 dok prep fooi!

As u 'n kontrak vir akte koop, klik hier om die hoogtepunte van ons eienaarsfinansiering te sien. LEES ASSEBLIEF HIERDIE DOKUMENT VOOR DAT U DIT NOU KLIK OP DIE KOPIE KNOPPIE VIR KONTRAKTE!


Gevaarlike dorpe in New Mexico

Wat is die slegste plek om te woon in New Mexico?

Nadat jy oorweeg het wat die gevaarlikste plekke in New Mexico so laat rangskik, wonder jy dalk ook watter dorp in die staat as die slegste aangewys word om te lewe, gebaseer op beide misdaadsyfer en ander statistieke. Volgens verskeie bronne is Deming bo -aan as dit kom by 'n swak keuse in leefruimte. Dit is te wyte aan die hoë werkloosheidsyfer, lae onderwysstatistieke, oorvloedige verlate eiendomme en mislukte besighede, en 'n hoër as gemiddelde misdaadsyfer. Dit is die armste dorp in die hele staat, en waarskynlik nie die mees ideale plek om te vestig nie.

Wat is die beste plek om te woon in New Mexico?

Inteendeel, daar is baie stede en klein dorpies in New Mexico wat absoluut fantastiese plekke maak om in te woon. Los Alamos word dikwels as een van die bestes beskou. Saam met pragtige uitsigte oor die Rio Grande-vallei, het dit buitengewone lae misdaadsyfers, 'n hoë gemiddelde inkomste, goeie onderwyskoerse en baie dinge om te sien en te doen. Ander sê dalk plekke soos White Rock, Corrales en Hobs is ook goeie opsies as u op soek is na 'n plek om u wortels te plant. Daar is baie ander plekke wat die lyste maak, maar dit is aan elke individuele persoon om te besluit in watter nis hulle die beste inpas.

Is New Mexico 'n wonderlike plek om te woon?

Alhoewel daar misdaad in New Mexico is, is dit nie alleen nie, en alle plekke in die wêreld het 'n mate van misdaad, en as u na die groter prentjie kyk, is die Land of Enchantment redelik goed. Sekere misdaadsyfers is onder die nasionale gemiddelde, en daar is baie mooi, rustige en lieflike dorpe en stede in die land wat perfek sou wees vir baie mense. Boonop geniet nuwe Mexikane van die beste chili ter wêreld, wonderlike eetgoed, 'n ryk kultuurgeskiedenis, asemrowende landskappe en baie avonture. Daar is tonne mense wat sou sê dat hierdie toestand 'n wonderlike plek is om te woon, en hul sentimente is waar.


Help ID slang naby Deming NM - Biologie

Ibex en die Florida Berge

Die Florida-berge is 15 minute van die LazyKo af. U woon bergleeus, bobbejane en steenbokke hier saam met baie ander wildlewe. Hierdie is 'n wonderlike video van die Ibex in ons berge.

Alhoewel die Floridas in die suidelike deel van die staat geleë is, is hulle een van die rofste berge in die Rocky Mountain-ketting. Hulle is bloot groot hope ontbindende konglomeraatgesteentes, skalie en kaktusse wat reguit opstyg van die woestyn se vloer af. Daar is baie min sagte hange om geleidelik op te werk, maar die meeste plekke waarheen 'n jagter moet gaan, is bereikbaar via bokpaadjies op baie steil rante. Die steenbokkies is baie geskik vir hierdie terrein, aangesien hul hoewe 'n sagte binneste gebied het wat omring is deur die harde materiaal van die buitenste hoef. In wese funksioneer hulle soos suigkoppies, sodat die beesbakker oral kan gaan waar hulle wil, dikwels na gebiede wat nie eers Spiderman kan deurkruis nie.

'n Eksotiese spesie:
In 1970 het die New Mexico Departement van Wild en Vis (NMDGF) 15 Persiese Ibex (Capra aegagrus) uit Iran ingevoer en in die Florida-berge naby Deming, New Mexico, vrygelaat. Kort daarna is 'n bykomende 27 vrygelaat, en 'n volhoubare bevolking gestig is. Teen 1974 is die eerste Persiese steenbokjag in die Florida-berge aan die publiek gebied, en een tot twee jagtogte is sedertdien elke jaar uitgevoer. Die Buro vir Grondbestuur het 'n optimale, ondersteunbare getal van 400 diere vir hierdie gelokaliseerde populasie vasgestel. Om hierdie teiken te bereik en te handhaaf, doen NMDGF jaarliks ​​lugopnames, bepaal bevolkings en bied publiek en bestuur jagte dienooreenkomstig aan.

'n Geheime Spesie:
Om 'n Persiese steenbok raak te sien kan 'n uitdaging wees. Stealty, kamoeflering en geduld word vereis. Steenbokkies het skerp sig wat hulle in staat stel om beweging meer as 'n kilometer verder te sien. Hulle spesiaal aangepaste hoewe het 'n sagte binnesak omring deur 'n harde buitenste ring, sodat hulle aan klipperige oppervlaktes kan vasklou en deur kranse kan beweeg. Hierdie eienskappe, gekombineer met die vermoë om 'n paar keer hul eie hoogte te spring, maak die jag van die Persiese steenbok baie moeilik.

Beskrywing:
Die kortbeen Persiese steenbokkie, soms genoem bezoargeit of Iraanse steenbok, staan ​​ongeveer 30 cm by die skouer, en die agterkwart is merkbaar hoër as die voorkant. Volwasse mannetjies weeg tot 150 pond, en wyfies weeg gewoonlik tot 90 pond. Beide geslagte laat horings groei-die wyfie se tande van nege duim is beskeie in vergelyking met die mannetjie se horings van 30 duim wat in 'n boog oor die rug krul. Vermenging met terrein gedurende die somer, is steenbokke ligbruin gekleur. Namate die winter nader kom en die groef (broei) begin, ondergaan mannetjies 'n dramatiese transformasie. Die kleur van die lyf word diep sjokoladebruin en die maag lig room. Die merke op die bene word ook donkerder, en 'n swartbruin kruis vorm oor die skouers en rug. Die billy se gesig word donker, en die baard en stert word gitswart.

Paarseisoen:
Tydens die groef straal mannetjies 'n reukagtige muskus uit om wyfies te lok. Dominante en aggressiewe mannetjies versamel vinnig harems van 10–15 vrugbare wyfies. Hewige gevegte breek gereeld uit met mannetjies wat op agterpote opstaan ​​en vorentoe na kolfhorings val. Die klinkende gekraak van horings kan kilometers ver gehoor word. Wedstryde kan verskeie kere herhaal word totdat die verslane mannetjie terugtrek en die gebied verlaat. Broeiseisoen bou in intensiteit van laat November tot vroeg in Januarie. Teen die middel van die winter is mannetjies dikwels maer weens die groot koste van energie wat die groef vereis. Die dominante mannetjies behou hul harems deur die winter tot vroeë lente, wanneer nuwe grasse en voer vorm. Namate die groef eindig, ontbind harems en smelt dit in vrede in groter kuddes.

Pasgebore kinders:
Gewoonlik teen Mei verlaat dragtige wyfies die trop om 'n eensame krans of rotsagtige uitloper te vind om kleintjies te dra - meestal tweelinge, maar soms drieling. 'N Paar dae na die geboorte kan kinders reis, en wyfies en hul kleintjies kom bymekaar in klein troppe genaamd ‘ kwekerye. ’ Namate die somertemperature tot 100 grade en hoër styg, voorkoms in die Florida-berge graviteer kwekerybande naby watergate.

Voeding:
Persiese steenbokke, net soos hul neef die bokbok, voed op byna alles wat eetbaar is. Bergmahonie, eikebome en Wright se kwas is algemene voedselbronne in die winter - en grasse, blomme (blomme) en blare van bladwisselende bome kom algemeen voor in die lente en somer. By geleentheid kan steenbokke ook turksvy en cholla-kaktus eet.

Prins van Persië

Die steenbok, bekend vir sy manjifieke horings, floreer beter in die Florida-berge naby Deming as in sy geboorteland Iran.

Deur Marjorie Lilly

Die naaste wat Dennis Kauffman ooit aan 'n steenbok gekom het, was jare gelede toe hy op 'n kliphoop in die Florida -berge gesit en middagete eet het. Een het met 'n paadjie afgehardloop na die jagter gekom en vier of vyf voet van hom af gestop. Sy baard swaai in die wind, en Kauffman onthou. Dit het so vinnig weggespring as wat dit in sig gebars het. “Die meeste diere wanneer jy hulle jaag, neem die pad van die minste weerstand,” sê Deming-jagter Steve Borden, “maar steenbokke gaan reguit op en af. Hulle gaan na die ruwste deel van die berg. ” 'n Paar woorde wat telkens gebruik word om steenbokke te beskryf, is “elusive ” en “agile. ” Jagters en navorsers kom selde nader as 1000 meter van hulle af en hulle’re gesien baie beter met die hulp van verkyker. Die steenbok - 'n soort wildebok - neem natuurlik na steil rotswande saam met wat Kauffman se sakevennoot Cecil Haas hul “vlieëpapiervoete noem.” Ibex voel veiliger teen roofdiere in die hoë pieke en kan sowat 20 spring voete boontoe op kranse met gemak, volgens die wat hulle ken. Die Florida -berge naby Deming is die enigste plek in die VSA waar Persiese steenbok vrylik rondloop. Hulle is in 1970 daar opgelaai onder leiding van die destydse direkteur van die New Mexico Departement van Wild en Vis, Dr. Frank C. Hibbens, wat 'n safari-entoesias was. Hulle was 'n geskenk van 'n provinsiale goewerneur in Iran. ’n Handvol steenbokke is eers in die winterjagseisoen na die Floridas gebring vir jagters. Hul getalle het sedertdien gestabiliseer op 400-450 onder wild- en visbestuur. Toe vreemde spesies na New Mexico gebring word, was die eerste keer die Rio Grande -dieretuin in Albuquerque. “Die ouervoorraad moet volgens wet in 'n inperkingsfasiliteit, in hierdie geval by die Albuquerque-dieretuin, onder kwarantyn gehou word,” verduidelik V.W. Howard, emeritusprofessor in natuurlewekunde aan die New Mexico State University. U kan alles met die nageslag doen. ” Die nageslag van die oorspronklike oorplantings is oorgeplaas na Game and Fish ’s Red Rock -fasiliteit naby Lordsburg. Howard was een van sowat 20 mense wat gehelp het met die vrylating. “Daar was persmense. Dit was 'n groot probleem,” onthou hy. Hy is van die helikopter laat sak om die slingers wat die kratte gehou het, los te maak. “Hulle is op die laagste punt in die berge vrygelaat omdat helikopters nie hoër kon gaan nie. Dit was voor ons straalhelikopters gehad het.” Nog ses vrystellings is oor die volgende maande gemaak, vir 'n totaal van 73 steenbokke. In Desember 1970 is 15 steenbokke in groot kratte by Red Rock gesit en in sleepwaens na Deming vervoer. Op 8 Desember het helikopters die steenbok na 'n rif in die middel van die reeks, naby Mahoney Park, vervoer. Die steenbok het goed na die Floridas geneem, 'n klein bergketting wat 7 434 voet hoog was en dramaties sowat 2 500 voet van die woestynvloer af gestyg het. Met die “Little Floridas” na die noorde, is die ketting 15 myl lank en amper vyf myl wyd op sy breedste punt. Dit lyk asof sy baie ruwe granietpieke net vir steenbokke gemaak is. Ibex word dikwels met oryx verwar. Hulle name klink dieselfde, maar hulle’re baie anders. Oryx is groot, reguit horings van Afrika, wat in die White Sands-missielreeks voorkom. Ibex is klein bokkies met skuimvormige horings wat te massief lyk vir hul liggame. Die steenbokke in die Floridas is nie ware steenbokke nie. Op dieselfde manier woon ware antilope in Afrika en dié in die VSA is regtig pronghorns. Ons steenbokkies is 'n "Perziese wildebok", sê Howard. Hulle’re geglo om die voorganger van alle mak bokke te wees. Hulle’re onderskei van ware steenbokke in maniere moeilik vir leke om waar te neem. Die egte steenbokkies se horings is plat voor, terwyl ons mannetjiebokke ’ horings vooraan V-vormig is, “ gekiel ” soos die kiel van 'n skip. Ware steenbokke is ook geneig om meer prominente rante op hul horings te hê. Hulle kom meestal uit meer noordelike klimate in die Europese Alpe, Siberië en elders. Wilde bokke leef in 'n stuk grondgebied van Turkye tot Pakistan. Ibex en wildebokke is twee afsonderlike spesies en kruis nie, maar is albei van die genus Capra. Wilde bokke word ook pasang- of bezoarbokke genoem. Hulle wetenskaplike naam is Capra aegagrus. Die horings van die steenbokmannetjie is hulle heerlikheid. Die horings begin groei op die ouderdom van een maand en hou die steenbok’ groei, wat gewoonlik 10 tot 12 jaar is. Die grootste stel horings wat deur Safari Club International aangeteken is, is in die Floridas geneem en is 59 cm lank, amper vyf voet lank. Die grootste stel wat in Iran geneem is, meet 55 duim. Die langste vroulike horings wat bestudeer is, was slegs 13 duim lank. Die gemiddelde sewejarige billy weeg ongeveer 200 pond en is net twee en 'n half voet lank by die skouers. Die oppasser is baie kleiner en weeg net sowat 'n derde daarvan, of 66 pond. Kinders word gebore met 'n gemiddelde gewig van 6,6 pond - omtrent die grootte van 'n kat, sê Kauffman. Dit is bekend dat steenbokke hulself in die takke van bome hang wanneer hulle daarin klim om blare te eet. In die Florida dra hulle soms die rante op hul horings af, of breek selfs van die horings af wanneer hulle dit teen turksvykaktusse of ander plante hark. Die babas word rondom Mei gebore, onder die beskermende sorg van hul moeders. Howard het al die kwekerye en#8221 daarvan gesien, waar een of twee of drie kinderoppassers 20 of 30 babas versorg. Ek het na hulle gesluip om hulle te sien,” sê hy. Kauffman het eenkeer 'n ma gesien hardloop met haar baba onder haar om dit teen 'n arend te beskerm. Die kinders is baie spelerig, jaag mekaar en hardloop. Hulle val 20 voet na 'n rand hieronder en hardloop weg sonder om hulself seer te maak, ” sê hy. Waarnemers beweer dat die kinders binne 'n paar dae omtrent oral kan gaan waar 'n volwassene kan. Ibex neem na die kranse om hulself te beskerm en is baie waaksaam. Hulle het baie goeie ore en skerp reuk, maar hulle vertrou op hul oë vir veiligheid, ”, sê Kauffman. “Hulle het sewe-krag visie in vergelyking met ons. Hulle oë is bol aan die kant van hul kop, sodat hulle agter hulle kan sien. ” Hulle drink verbasend min water, hoewel daar verskeie bronne in die Floridas is. Die meeste van hul water is van blare wat hulle eet, veral die silweragtige bergmahonie-struike op die kranse, asook struikeike en Wright’ se sykwas. Hulle floreer eintlik beter in New Mexico as in hul geboorteland Iran.Die oppassers maak wat soms 'n waarskuwingsnork genoem word as hulle gevaar voel. It’s a nasal squawk that calls the herd together or warns them to move on. Howard says it sounds something like a cough, it’s so abrupt. In the 1981-82 hunting season, one of these New Mexico goats was shot by graduate biology student Wayne Woodruff and then sent to the Smithsonian Institution. It was then stuffed for a diorama that traces the development of modern goats. In the late 1980s about 25 of the ibex were captured live in the Floridas and sent to the Los Angeles Zoo. Spring Canyon Park, near Rockhound Park southeast of Deming, is the most accessible place to glimpse a few ibex with the naked eye in the summer. Some people see dozens of them at a time with binoculars, in herds or in long braids winding down a rock face. They’re a stirring sight as they peer over the top of the large cliff at the right of the trail in Spring Canyon, with their majestic horns in silhouette. They go to this high point at night to be safe from predatory mountain lions while they sleep. “They feel most secure in the cliffiest part of the mountains,” says Kauffman. Sometimes families of them, adults and kids, can be seen traipsing along the central mountain ridge. There are other places in the Floridas to see ibex, such as Mahoney Peak and the Capitol Dome, both on the west side, but you would have to ask around town for special permission to access these areas. Dusk and early dawn are virtually the only times ibex can be seen in Spring Canyon. It’s important to be quiet when walking there, so the ibex don’t get spooked.

Marjorie Lilly writes the Borderlines column. She lives in Deming.

Below is some great video of an Ibex in Deming, New Mexico.

But beware of the Mountain lions… When out and about not to mention snakes…

Above Chase Christopher final scouting trip to the Florida mountains. Bella has an encounter with a javelina. Found a neat skull.


What Can You Do with Viasat Satellite Internet in Deming? 1-877-697-2926

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Here are some things you can do with fast Viasat internet service in New Mexico:

Download multiple web pages and in less time

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Are you looking for an internet provider with high customer ratings and high Mbps speed? We have satellite internet providers in your area, and we can check availability for you. Online mobile broadband availability with fast Mbps speeds and high customer ratings, has never been easier. Use high-speed internet for Streaming TV, Hulu, Netflix, Amazon Prime Video, Firestick, Roku, Sling, DIRECTV Now, Apple TV, and Chromecast.

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Massive Copper Mine In New Mexico

What are the most well known mines in New Mexico?

Mining in New Mexico has been prevalent throughout the state’s history. From the rush of the prospectors in the 19th century to the prominent mines and quarries of today, there is no denying that mining has played an important role in New Mexico. Today, people often think of the state’s famous turquoise mines. Turquoise is well-loved in the state and often considered one of the state’s main symbols. You can even take a turquoise trail to follow the history and significance of the mineral. Its beauty and historical significance make it a well-known part of mining in New Mexico today.

What are the oldest mines in New Mexico?

Mining has occurred through pretty much all of the history of New Mexico. The Chino Mine is the third oldest, still active open-pit copper mine in the entire world. It was founded in 1910, but there is evidence of mining in the area from long before that. For example, in Madrid, NM, there is evidence of historic mining from the 1850s. That area is the oldest coal mining area in the entire state. Some of the mines are still active, many – especially those that formed during the gold or silver rushes – have long since closed. Check out these photos of abandoned mines in New Mexico to see some.

What is New Mexico known for?

Along with mining, there are many other aspects of New Mexico that define the state. The copper and turquoise are just a couple of symbols of the Land of Enchantment. Others include things like having the best chile in the world, beautiful pueblos, a vast and deep history, stunning landscapes, and so much more. People tend to think of UFOs when they think of New Mexico, thanks to places like Roswell. There are famous photographs taken of the state’s popular hot air balloon festivals as they drift over the beautiful scenery.


Aanhalings

Keddy-Hector, D. (2000). Aplomado Falcon. In The Birds of North America Online (Poole, A., Poole, A.)Poole, A.s). Cornell Lab of Ornithology Retrieved from the Birds of North America Online: http://bna.birds.cornell.edu.bnaproxy.birds.cornell.edu/bna/species/549, Ithaca, N. Y.

Ligon, J. S. (1961). New Mexico birds and where to find them. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, New Mexico

Macías-Duarte, A. 2002. Éxito Reproductivo, Presas Potenciales y Hábitat del Halcón Aplomado Falco femoralis septentrionalis Todd en Chihuahua, México. Master’s thesis, Universidad Autónoma de Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Chihuahua, México.

Macías-Duarte, A., A. B. Montoya, W. G. Hunt, A. Lafon-Terrazas, and R. Tafanelli (2004). Reproduction, prey, and habitat of the Aplomado Falcon (Falco femoralis) in desert grasslands of Chihuahua, Mexico. Auk 121:1081-1093.

Macías-Duarte, A., A. B. Montoya, C. E. Méndez-González, J. R. Rodríguez-Salazar, W. G. Hunt, and P. G. Krannitz (2009). Factors influencing habitat use by migratory grassland birds in the state of Chihuahua, Mexico. The Auk 126:896-905.

Macías-Duarte, A., A. B. Montoya, J. R. Rodriguez-Salazar, A. O. Panjabi, P. A. Calderón-Domínguez, and W. G. Hunt (2016). The imminent disappearance of the Aplomado Falcon from the Chihuahuan Desert. Journal of Raptor Research 50:211-216.


Aplomado Falcon

The Northern Aplomado Falcon was last seen in the American Southwest in the 1950s, leaving its niche in the grassland ecosystem unfilled for decades. The Peregrine Fund began experimenting with breeding captive Aplomado Falcons and releasing them to the wild in the 1980s. Aplomado Falcon chicks that were produced at our World Center for Birds of Prey in Idaho were transported to Texas and New Mexico for release.

The young birds were released to the wild using a method called “hacking,” a falconry term for a process that allows birds of prey to become accustomed to their surroundings naturally right before they are ready to fly. Typically, the hack site consists of a platform on a pole or other tall structure and a box that protects the youngsters from predators. Biologists feed the young birds for the week or so that they remain inside the hack box, then it is time to open the door and let the falcons go free.

This is a tough time for the young birds as they learn to fly and avoid predators. A field crew provides the falcons with food and monitors them daily to ensure their safety. It is during this time that the young birds also learn how to hunt. After only a month or two, the falcons become independent and disperse, or move away from, the hack site.

More than 1,500 chicks have been released to the wild. As a result, there is now once again a breeding population in the United States.

Apart from the captive breeding and release efforts, The Peregrine Fund has sought creative solutions to problems associated with the restoration of this species. In South Texas, biologists place artificial nest structures in Aplomado Falcon habitat. The specially adapted structures have protective bars across the open front that allow the falcons in but keep nest predators, like caracaras or raccoons, out. They have proven to be popular among the falcons, with most pairs choosing to nest in one of these structures rather than a bush, tree, or power pole. Biologists work hard every year to replace old nest structures and put up new ones wherever an Aplomado Falcon pair is found.

Where they live

Aplomado Falcons were once found in the southwestern United States including Arizona, New Mexico and Texas, into Central and South America all the way to Chile and Tierra Del Fuego at the southern tip of Argentina. Not too long ago, however, these agile, colorful falcons disappeared from much of their North American range. After 1952, there were no known Aplomado Falcons nesting in the United States – until The Peregrine Fund began reintroducing them into parts of their North American range in the early 1990s. As a result, there is once again a breeding population of Aplomado Falcons in southern Texas.

Aplomado Falcons are adapted to living in open habitats where songbirds and insects abound and where shrubs or trees, including tree yuccas like Spanish Dagger and Soaptree Yucca, are present for nesting. Prime real estate for an Aplomado Falcon includes grasslands, savannas, pastures, and shrub-steppe.

If you are familiar with the landscapes of Central and South America, you know that much of the habitat there is composed of dense neotropical forest, leaving you to wonder what a grassland species is doing in thick forest. After all, it is not the best place for an Aplomado Falcon to survive. The answer is that in these regions, this small raptor is found only in select pockets of open habitat where it can sometimes be seen flying swiftly across pastures or perched on fence posts and telephone poles. Aplomado Falcons have been found living at elevations as high as 12,000 feet in the Andes Mountains from Colombia to Argentina.

What they do

With their black-and-white-striped heads, orange underbelly and lead-colored backs, Aplomado Falcons are among the most beautiful and unique-looking falcons in the world. They are also some of the most fun to watch. These pointy-winged, long-tailed falcons are incredible fliers and watching one chase after prey or dive after an intruder is a sight to see.

Like many baby animals, young Aplomado Falcons can be very playful. In the first weeks after they fledge from the nest, the young falcons play “tag” together, twisting, turning, and diving after each other through the air. They sometimes play with sticks or yucca branches, which they carry around in their talons for a while. The youngsters then drop the sticks or take them to a spot where they can use their beaks and feet to break them apart. They also begin to chase after other birds, including ones much bigger than they are. All of this play helps make them well-practiced hunters and fliers so that by the time they are ready to leave their parents’ territory, they have the skills they need to survive on their own.

As it is for all predators, life for adult Aplomado Falcons can be very challenging. They can no longer afford to spend as much time playing or flying around but must put their energy into finding and catching food, which isn’t always easy. Though they are adept hunters, their prey is small, fast and agile. An Aplomado Falcon must carefully calculate each hunt to make sure that the energy it spends actively pursuing prey is recuperated once it catches a meal. Think of it as if you were on a long road trip and your car had only enough gas in the tank to reach the next gas station. If you took too many side trips just for fun, you would run out of fuel and be stranded! If a predator runs out of energy before it gets food to replenish it, the consequences are much worse.

Aplomado Falcons are not migratory and spend most of the year on their territory. When not actively hunting, they perch on fence posts, in trees, or along power poles, taking in their surroundings. During nesting season, Aplomado Falcons are quick to defend their territory against any intruders. They fly quickly after hawks, kites, vultures, or any other animal that poses a threat to their nest and young. They often stoop, or dive at the intruders, who are usually much bigger than they are! But this doesn’t stop the falcons from screaming loudly at intruders with a sharp cack, cack, cack and sometimes knocking them on the back of the head. The birds will continue this behavior until the offending animal is far enough away that it no longer poses a threat to the falcons’ young.

Why they need our help

The Northern Aplomado Falcon was once part of a dynamic wildlife community in the southwestern United States and in Mexico. Common in the early 1900s, the species disappeared from the American Southwest by 1930 as people converted wide-open grasslands – the birds’ habitat – to farms, towns, and other uses. The last known breeding pair in the United States was observed near Deming, New Mexico in 1952.

Though the Aplomado Falcon is making a comeback in southern Texas, many of its northern populations are still suffering. In Chihuahua, Mexico, a once-vibrant population is now down to only a handful of pairs. Their native grasslands are being converted into farmlands and they are losing nesting habitat and songbirds to feed on. Droughts don't help matters, either, and the falcons are having a hard time surviving in the ever-changing habitat of a modern world. They need our support now more than ever.

What they eat

Aplomado Falcons, like most falcons, are bird hunters, but they are good at hunting a variety of other animals, too, including bats and insects such as dragonflies and butterflies. Some of the Aplomado Falcons that The Peregrine Fund has released have been observed eating land crabs and rodents.

Aplomado Falcons are equipped with sharply pointed wings and an extra-long tail, which help them maneuver deftly after smaller, flying prey. They also use a host of techniques to secure their dinner. A pair or family group will often hunt together, each one taking turns to flush out prey from its hiding spot. A biologist unwittingly participated in this "group hunt" as she was studying a pair of falcons on Matagorda Island, Texas. As she approached a pair of Aplomado Falcons perched nearby, she accidentally flushed up a meadowlark that had been perched on the ground. When the meadowlark flew up, both Aplomado Falcons immediately keyed in on the small bird, chased after it, and caught it. After catching their prey, the falcons usually carry it off to a perch or fence post and pluck the feathers or fur from it before beginning to eat.

Aplomado Falcons are also known to pirate food from other, larger birds. If they see another raptor carrying prey, they will chase after it, dive bomb it, and generally harass it until it drops its prey. The Aplomado Falcon can then deftly catch it from the sky! Though perhaps this method is easier than catching one's own food, it seems like a lot of work.

Nest, eggs and young

At the beginning of breeding season, the male and female begin to court each other. Courtship behavior may include spectacular aerial displays, loud calls and quiet “e-chups” to each other, and food exchanges, among other behaviors.

Like most falcons, Aplomado Falcons do not build their own nests. They use abandoned nests built by other birds such as ravens, jays, and kites. Aplomado Falcons can be found nesting at the tops of power poles and in trees, yuccas, and low bushes or even on the ground. They normally lay one to three eggs. Both the male and the female will incubate, or sit on, the eggs, though the female does most of it. The male is in charge of finding food for himself and his mate. After about five weeks, young chicks will hatch from these eggs.

The rate at which these birds grow during the 40-day period from hatching to fledging never fails to impress. Chicks weigh about an ounce when they emerge from their shells, yet they will be full-grown when they leave the nest. By the time they fledge, these little fluff balls will be 12 inches tall and have a wingspan of up to 3 feet! Male falcons will grow up to be smaller than females, weighing about 8 ounces at fledging. Females will weigh about 13 ounces. The males’ small size means they will develop faster and often leave the nest sooner than their bigger sisters.

The young falcons tend to stay in their parents’ territory for one to two months. It is a relatively easy time for them, with their parents bringing them food and defending them against predators, but they still face many risks. As they learn to hunt, they sometimes accidentally crash into fences or are hit by cars. If they spend too much time on the ground, they are vulnerable to predators, such as bobcats and coyotes. Even up in a tree, they might fall prey to snakes. When flying, they are vulnerable to capture by Red-tailed Hawks, Great Horned Owls, and other birds of prey. If a young falcon can survive the first year of its life, chances are good that it will be able to survive into adulthood and raise young of its own.

Aplomado Falcons are usually able to reproduce at 2 years of age, though some records exist of 1-year-old falcons successfully raising young.

Idaho Connection

Though Aplomado Falcon range does not extend into Idaho, this state is important for this species. The Peregrine Fund's captive breeding program for this species was located in Boise until 2013. Pairs were held in individual chambers, where they were fed daily. They were intensively observed via video monitors and their actions, such as courtship displays and food exchanges, were recorded. Biologists also looked for any signs of ill health, injuries, or behavior problems.

Each year, depending upon numbers required at release sites, 50-135 chicks were produced annually and most were released back into the wild in Texas or New Mexico. Sometimes biologists transported the young in vehicles all the way from Idaho to the release site. At other times, thanks to the generous support of LightHawk, the falcons were flown down to the release site in small private airplanes. This quicker trip was easier on both the birds and the biologists.

Aplomado Falcon and The World Center for Birds of Prey

The World Center for Birds of Prey is home to Aplomado Falcons in the education program. During our October flight shows, guests are treated to the sight of an Aplomado Falcon flying swiftly over the open fields behind the amphitheater or even maneuvering deftly among the crowd. You will see a replica of an artificial nest structure and a release box. A live Aplomado Falcon is on display in its chamber, giving you a close up view of this beautiful falcon.


Materiaal en metodes

Biological materials.

Mustard seed meal derived from brown mustard was purchased from a commercial supplier in Aug. 2018 (Pescadero Gold Farm Fuel Inc., Freedom, CA). When not in use, MSM was stored in plastic bags at room temperature (20 to 25 °C). The concentration of sinigrin, the primary glucosinolate in brown mustard seed meal, was 203 μmol·g −1 . This concentration was determined with high-performance liquid chromatography (Agilent 1100 Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA) following methods in Doheny-Adams et al. (2017). For the MSM in this study, the concentration of sinigrin was sufficient for pesticidal activity (Bangarwa et al., 2011 Meyer et al., 2015).

In Sept. 2018, seeds of Palmer amaranth were collected from the New Mexico State University (NMSU) Leyendecker Plant Science Research Center (32.198 N, 106.742 W), south of Las Cruces, NM. Palmer amaranth inflorescences were removed from the field and hand-thrashed with sequential combinations of sieving and forced-air separation until seeds were separated from chaff. Seeds were stored in an airtight container at 4 °C.

A virulent isolate of Phytophthora capsici (isolate 6347), recovered from a field-infected chile pepper plant in Doña Ana County, NM, was used (Jiang et al., 2015). Cultures of isolate 6347 were maintained at 25 °C on autoclaved V8 agar media (800 mL distilled water, 200 mL V8 juice, 2 g CaCO3, 20 g technical agar).

Greenhouse study.

A study was conducted in a greenhouse located at the NMSU Leyendecker Plant Science Research Center. The study consisted of two experimental runs. Experimental run 1 was carried out from 4 Mar. 2019 to 5 June 2019. The air temperature in the greenhouse was maintained at 24 °C (± 3 °C) and supplemental light was not provided because ambient light conditions supported chile pepper growth and development. Experimental run 2 was performed from 16 Dec. 2019 to 26 Mar. 2020. For the second experimental run, the air temperature in the greenhouse was maintained at 24 °C (± 3 °C) and a photoperiod of 14-h light and 10-h dark was maintained by operating high-intensity discharge metal halide lamps from 6:00 to 8:00 am and from 5:00 to 8:00 pm .

Experimental units were bins (30 cm long, 25 cm wide, 15 cm deep) containing three chile pepper plants positioned in a row that was situated central and parallel to the longitudinal axis of the bin. The planting medium was a sandy loam soil (79% sand, 9% silt, 12% clay) with pH of 8.2 and organic matter of 0.7%. The soil was collected from a field at the NMSU Leyendecker Plant Science Research Center. Soil with high sand content was selected because sand was expected to facilitate drainage in bins. Before use, soil was sieved to remove debris that did not passed through a 4-mm screen. Each bin was filled with soil to a depth of 11 cm. The undersides of bins featured 9-mm diameter holes for drainage.

Chile pepper plants were started from seeds buried 2 cm in soil within the bins. The chile pepper cultivar was NM 6-4, which is susceptible to P. capsici. Before chile pepper seedling emergence, bins were subirrigated by placement in a larger container with water. After chile pepper seedling emergence, bins were surface irrigated with sprinkler canisters as required. Bins were not irrigated for 48 h before MSM application to ensure soil was dry for MSM application. MSM was applied 8 weeks after chile pepper emergence. Immediately after MSM application, bins were irrigated to saturation (3 L water/bin).

Treatments were arranged on the greenhouse bench in a randomized complete block design with four replications. Treatments consisted of factorial combinations of MSM rate (high rate and low rate) and MSM placement (soil surface and soil incorporated). Treatments also included a control that lacked both MSM and soil disturbance associated with MSM incorporation. Herein, the combinations of MSM rates and placements are referred to as “low surface,” “low incorporated,” “high surface,” and “high incorporated.” The high rate treatment was 33 g/bin MSM, which corresponds to a field application rate of 4400 kg·ha −1 MSM. The low rate treatment was 16.5 g/bin MSM, which corresponds to a field application rate of 2200 kg·ha −1 . The application rates 2200 and 4400 kg·ha −1 were recommended by the supplier and previously shown to suppress soilborne pathogens (Wood et al., 2020). For soil surface treatments, MSM was applied on the soil surface in two bands that ran parallel to the chile pepper row, 2 cm from chile pepper plants. For soil-incorporated treatments, two trenches (5 cm depth) were dug on either side of the chile pepper row, 2 cm from chile pepper plants. MSM was applied evenly across the length of the trench, which was then closed with slight mixing of MSM and soil.

Photosynthetic rates of the youngest, fully open leaf were recorded immediately before MSM application and every 2 d until 14 d after application (DAA). Photosynthetic rates were determined with an IR gas analyzer-based photosynthesis system (LI-6400 LI-COR Biosciences Inc., Lincoln, NE), which was equipped with a light-emitting diode that provided 800 μmol·m −2 ·s −1 of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) to leaf surfaces. This level of PAR about matched the average light level at chile pepper plant height in the greenhouse. CO2 reference was set at 400 μmol·mol −1 , and flow rate was set at 500 mol·s −1 . Gas exchange measurements were taken after net photosynthesis and stomatal conductance values stabilized on the graphical display of the instrument’s console.

At 14 DAA, plants were assessed for visual symptoms of injury from MSM using a scoring system of zero to 10. Zero indicated no visual difference from nontreated control. The injury rating “1” indicated plants with droopy lower leaves, “2” indicated plants with droopy lower and upper leaves, “3” indicated wilting and “4” indicated chlorosis, “5” through “7” indicated increasing chlorosis and detachment of leaves,“8” and “9” indicated increasing degrees of leaf detachment with stunting, and “10” indicated plant death. Survival percentages of plants in each experimental unit were recorded. Also, at 14 DAA, plant height was determined by measuring the distance from the soil surface to the uppermost leaf without extending the leaf. Plants were then destructively sampled to determine aboveground weight and total leaf area using an area meter (LI-3100 LI-COR Biosciences, Lincoln, NE). Dry aboveground weight was determined after plant materials were dried for 3 d in an oven set to 65 °C.

Field study.

There were four sites for this study. Two were commercial chile pepper fields near Deming, NM (32.225 N, 107.775 W) and Las Uvas, NM (32.605 N, 107.350 W), and two were chile pepper fields at research farms managed by NMSU (Leyendecker Plant Science Research Center, south of Las Cruces (32.202 N, 106.743 W) and Agricultural Science Center at Los Lunas (34.769 N, 106.763 W). At the Deming site, soil was a Maricopa sandy, mixed, superactive, calcareous, thermic typic Torrifluvents (56% sand, 14% silt, 30% clay 2.5% organic matter). At the Las Uvas site, soil was a Mohave fine-loamy, mixed, superactive, thermic typic Calciargids (52% sand, 24% silt, 24% clay 2.3% organic matter). Soil at Los Lunas was a Vinton sandy mixed typic Torrifluvents (82% sand, 6% silt, 12% clay 0.6% organic matter) and soil at the Las Cruces site was a Glendale fine-silty, mixed, superactive, calcareous, thermic typic Torrifluvents (26% sand, 36% silt, 38% clay 1.9% organic matter). Chile peppers were direct seeded in raised beds and grown using site-specific practices customary for the region in 2019. Study sites differed in chile pepper cultivar. ‘Sandia’ was grown at the Las Cruces and Los Lunas sites, ‘AZ-4’ was grown at Las Uvas, and ‘AZ-1904’ at Deming.

Experimental units consisted of plots that were 6 m long and 3 chile pepper rows wide. The distance between adjacent chile pepper rows was site-specific. At the Las Cruces and Deming sites, chile pepper rows were spaced 1 m apart. At Los Lunas and Las Uvas, chile pepper rows were spaced 0.75 m apart. Treatments included incorporated applications of MSM at high (4400 kg·ha −1 ) and low (2200 kg·ha −1 ) rates. MSM rates were studied separately using a paired plot design with four replications (Perecin et al., 2015). Nontreated control plots were immediately adjacent to longitudinal axes of MSM treatment plots. At the time of MSM application, which was 10 to 11 weeks after the chile plant emergence, chile pepper plants were 40 to 60 cm tall.

MSM was applied by hand to furrows on both sides of central chile pepper rows. Each band of MSM spanned the length of the treatment plot. Immediately after application, MSM was incorporated into soil to a depth of 7 cm using a gas-powered rototiller (Mantis Tiller/Cultivator 7940 Schiller Grounds Care Inc., Southampton, PA). Furrows in nontreated plots were rototilled in a manner identical to furrows in treatment plots. All plots were then irrigated by hand with sprinkler canisters. The irrigation volume (20 L/plot) was enough to saturate the upper 7 cm soil. MSM was applied only to furrows for two reasons: 1) rototilling on raised beds would likely have caused severe injury to chile plant roots, and 2) newly emerged weeds in furrows potentially interfere with chile pepper production, whereas weeds in the crop row are often suppressed by the chile pepper crop during the later phases of the growing season.

After MSM incorporation but before irrigation, and at 28 DAA, the upper 7 cm of soil was sampled using a hand shovel. Soil samples were brought to the laboratory and subjected to procedures for determining sinigrin concentrations. Sinigrin was extracted from soil and quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (Agilent 1100, Agilent Technologies) following procedures in Wood et al. (2020). At 14 and 28 DAA, chile pepper plants were evaluated for visual symptoms for MSM-induced injury using the rating scale from the greenhouse study. At 30 to 35 DAA, marketable fruits were harvested by hand from central 4-m sections of plot rows. Criteria for marketable fruits were those that were straight, green, without disease symptoms, and at least 10 cm in length. The fruits were weighed in the field to determine fresh weights.

MSM effects on Palmer amaranth emergence were determined with artificial seedbanks that were constructed in the field immediately after MSM incorporation but before the irrigation that followed MSM application. Artificial seedbanks were within PVC pipes (6 cm diameter, 7 cm height) that were incorporated into soil so that the pipe tops formed a lip 2 cm above the soil surface. Pipes were filled with soil from the surrounding plot, meaning that artificial seedbanks contained MSM-treated or nontreated soil. Fifty Palmer amaranth seeds were then buried 1 cm deep in each seedbank. Palmer amaranth seedling densities were recorded, and seedlings removed, every 7 d for 28 d. Cumulative emergence through 28 DAA was used for data analysis.

The effect of MSM mixed in field soil on mycelial growth of Phytophthora capsici was investigated by using a bioassay conducted in the laboratory. For this assay, soil samples from each plot were collected using a hand shovel (sampling depth 7 cm). Magenta boxes (6.35 cm length, 6.35 cm width, 9.52 cm depth) were half-filled with 180 g soil. Soil was then hydrated until a thin film of water appeared on the surface. The lids of the magenta boxes contained V8 agar medium inoculated centrally with a mycelium plug of P. capsici grown for 5 d on autoclaved V8 agar media in growth chambers set to 25 °C. The lids were inverted over magenta boxes containing field soil following the protocol described by Sanogo (2007). Boxes were then sealed and arranged on the laboratory bench in a paired plot design that matched the spatial arrangement of experimental plots in the field. Magenta boxes were maintained at room temperature of 22 ± 3 °C. After 4 d, the diameters of P. capsici cultures were measured. Mycelial growth was determined as the difference between the P. capsici diameter at 4 d and the P. capsici diameter at the start of the bioassay. Bioassays were stopped at 4 d because at this time, the mycelium reached the rim of the lids in the control treatments. After 4 d, all P. capsici plugs were removed from magenta box lids and transferred to new V8 agar in petri plates. These petri plates were maintained at room temperature for 4 d. Then, diameters of mycelial colonies of P. capsici were measured.

Data-analise.

All statistical analyses were performed using the open source statistical software program R (v.3.0.1, The R Foundation for Statistical Computing, http://www.r-project.org). For the greenhouse study, photosynthetic rates were analyzed separately for each time point with analysis of variance followed by mean separation with Tukey’s test for post hoc analysis. For greenhouse study response variables including aboveground fresh weight, dry weight, plant height, and leaf area data were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models using the R library lme4 (Bates et al., 2015). In these models, runs and replicates within runs were random effects, and MSM treatments were the fixed effects. Visual injury rating data were analyzed by Friedman’s test for nonparametric data. Preliminary analyses indicated that visual injury ratings for all MSM treatments were consistent between the two experimental runs (P > 0.05), and therefore, visual injury rating data from the experimental runs were combined for this analysis.

For the field study, yield data were separately analyzed for each site because this study aimed to assess consistency in yield responses to MSM applied at sites that differed in cultivar, soil type, and row spacing. Within each site, yield differences between MSM-treated plots and nontreated control plots were assessed with paired t tests that were appropriate for the paired sample design used in the field study. For studies confirming weed and pathogen suppression from MSM, data were analyzed with mixed-effect models that treated site and replication within site as random effects, and MSM treatment as the fixed effect. Mixed-effect models were used for data from the weed and pathogen suppression studies because these confirmational studies aimed to make overall treatment comparisons that were not specific to site (Fernandez, 2007). For weed density data, generalized linear mixed models were fit with negative binomial probability distributions using the R library lme4 (Bates et al., 2015). For mycelial growth data, linear mixed models were produced using the R library lme4.


Overall Experience

Overall, our experience at the City of Rocks was rockin’, a definite two thumbs up or (as I have rated in previous campground reviews) four out of four tires! The rangers and staff were well versed in the park’s history and took extra care to keep the campground and surrounding areas in tip top shape. Visitors could discover the park in a number of ways from exhibits to nature walks and biking adventures to night sky exploration! Our campsite was private and had the most magnificent views of mountains, sunsets, and wildlife hopping and swooping about. This must be one of the reasons New Mexico is known as the Land of Enchantment.

A definite two thumbs up for this camping venture!

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