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Wat vlieg hierdie insek in my badkamer in Los Angeles?

Wat vlieg hierdie insek in my badkamer in Los Angeles?



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Ons bly in die Los Angeles -omgewing. Hierdie insek was onlangs baie algemeen in ons badkamers:

Hulle is ongeveer 1/4 duim lank en kan gereeld op ons handdoeke rus. In die maande voor Desember het ons dit al hoe meer gesien.

  • Maak hulle enige skade?
  • Kan hulle verantwoordelik wees vir die gate wat ek in my hemde gevind het?
  • Al is hulle net 'n oorlas, hoe kan ons van hulle ontslae raak?

Dit lyk soos die gewone mot (Tineola bisselliella). En, ja, die larwes (ruspes) is waarskynlik die bron van die gate in jou hemde. U kan lokvalle aanlyn of by ysterwarewinkels koop, of u kan die plaagdoderroete gebruik indien nodig (byvoorbeeld, Delta Dust is beskikbaar by aanlyn -kleinhandelaars). Sien hierdie webwerf vir meer inligting, of soek op die internet vir meer inligting oor hierdie spesie. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tineola_bisselliella


Wat is hierdie insek wat in my Los Angeles-badkamer vlieg? - Biologie

Nee, u laai die koninkrykswêreld af. Al wat u doen, is om 'n paar nuwe blokke neer te sit en dit dan weer in die koninkryk te plaas. Geen vordering gaan verlore nie.

Ek het dit gedoen en toe begin dit weer 20 minute later. Niks nuuts op die kaartjie nie

PS4 -gebiedsprobleem - Ontkoppel van bediener

Dit is 'n probleem! Ek het 'n kaartjie met Mojang uitgereik en dit is die snert wat hulle gegee het:

Umija5895 [Mod] Umija5895M het 'n opmerking bygevoeg - 16/Jan/21 17:25 Dankie vir u verslag! Hierdie kwessie is egter ongeldig. Botsings soos hierdie word outomaties aangeteken; dit word dus intern deur die ontwikkelingspan ondersoek.

Realms terugrol probleem

Ek het dieselfde probleem, tien speler ryk. Ek het met 'n ander spelermerker op dieselfde konsole aangemeld en kon sonder probleme speel. 'N Ander speler met 'n ander rekening het dieselfde terugrolprobleem as ek, 'n heeltemal ander konsole. Sy probleem het begin gebeur nadat ek probeer het om aan te meld terwyl hy speel, amper asof ek hom met die gogga “geïnfekteer” het.

Het 'n kaartjie oopgemaak en hulle het vir my gesê dat ongelukke reeds aangeteken is. Wat snert


UV-C-toverstaf wat as 'n superwapen teen kieme aangewys word

Vir al die moeilikheid wat hulle veroorsaak, is bakterieë en virusse eintlik baie broos. Bedek hulle met 'n bietjie bleikmiddel of Lysol, en hulle sterf in apokaliptiese golwe. Maak hul huise te droog, te koud of te warm en hulle sal soos mikroskopiese vlieë val.

Ultraviolet lig-meer spesifiek, kort golflengte ultraviolet lig, of UV-C-maak ook kieme dood. In die natuur word UV-C byna altyd deur die atmosfeer geabsorbeer voordat dit die aarde bereik, maar wetenskaplikes het kunsmatige UV-C-strale ingespan om kieme in laboratoriums, hospitale en waterbehandelingsaanlegte te blaas.

As jy bang is dat kieme die oorhand in jou kombuis of badkamer het, kan jy die krag van UV-C-strale tuisbring. Verskeie draagbare UV-C-toestelle beloof om jou te help om bakterieë en virusse dood te maak waar hulle ook al skuil.

Een veral gewilde voorbeeld is die UV-C Light Wand van Germ Guardian. Die towerstaf is 21 duim lank en weeg 1 pond. Beskikbaar by Lowe's, Costco en aanlyn, kos dit ongeveer $ 130. Germ Guardian bied ook 'n Mini Sanitizer Wand wat 'n bietjie minder as 12 duim lank is, ongeveer 'n halfpond weeg en sowat $60 kos. Albei tipes werk op vier AA-batterye.

Gebruikers word aangemoedig om die towerstaf op allerhande moontlike kieme te gebruik, insluitend snyplanke, kombuistafels, vloere, afvalmandjies, deurknoppe, afstandsbedienings, speelgoed, motelsprei, tandeborsels en troeteldierbakke. Volgens die Germ Guardian -webwerf werk die toestel die beste as dit minstens 20 sentimeter van die teiken af ​​gehou word.

Die Germ Guardian-webwerf beweer dat die toutjies "tot 99 persent van die kieme op oppervlaktes doodmaak met behulp van natuurlike UV-C-lig-nie skadelike chemikalieë nie."

Chris Keller, bemarkingsbestuurder by Germ Guardian, sê dat "UV-C-lig 'n bewese tegnologie is om kieme dood te maak" wat goed werk op enige harde oppervlaktes.

UV-C-strale maak beslis kieme dood, maar dit is steeds nie duidelik dat ontsmettingsstokkies huise aansienlik skoner of gesonder maak nie, sê Elizabeth Scott, 'n assistent-professor in biologie by Simmons College in Boston en die mede-direkteur en stigter van die Simmons Sentrum vir Higiëne en Health in Home and Community Settings, 'n navorsingsentrum.

'Ek sien nie baie potensiaal vir hierdie soort produkte nie,' sê Scott. 'Ons het geen bewyse dat hierdie toverstafies werk nie.' Alhoewel baie studies UV-C in laboratoriums ondersoek het, sê sy, het niemand na haar wete ooit gekyk of draagbare toestelle siektes en infeksies in die huis kan voorkom nie.

Selfs as die toestel werklik 99% van die kieme op oppervlaktes kan doodmaak, is dit nie noodwendig genoeg om siektes te voorkom nie, sê Scott. “Vir [siekteveroorsakende] kieme is 99% nie genoeg nie. As u met 'n miljoen kieme begin het, het u steeds 10 000 wat u siek kan maak. ”

Dr Donald Milton, 'n professor in die Skool vir Gesondheid en Omgewing aan die Universiteit van Massachusetts Lowell wat industriële en kliniese toepassings van UV-C bestudeer, sien baie struikelblokke vir UV-C in die huis.

Vir een ding, sê Milton, sal UV-C-stafies nie veel doen om kieme in die lug te stop nie, 'n potensieel belangrike oorsaak van griep en ander siektes.

Hy glo ook dat die strale 'n moeilike tyd sal hê om al die hoeke te bereik waar kieme skuil. Selfs iets so eenvoudig soos 'n deurknop sou skaduryke plekke hê waar die lig nie sou skyn nie, verduidelik hy. En omdat UV-C-strale nie goed deur vet of vuil beweeg nie, sê hy dat die towerstaf net effens nuttig in die kombuis kan wees. 'Dit kan 'n bietjie help, maar was sal baie beter en baie goedkoper wees.'

Volgens Keller werk die towerstaf die beste as dit gekombineer word met meer tradisionele skoonmaakstrategieë. Sy beveel byvoorbeeld aan dat u 'n snyplank met seep en water was voordat u die towerstaf gebruik.

Keller raai kliënte aan om versigtig te wees, want UV-C-strale kan vel en oë beskadig. Die towerstaf skakel outomaties af wanneer dit onderstebo gedraai word, maar sommige gebruikers wil dalk steeds 'n bril dra om hul oë te beskerm, sê sy.

Kelly Reynolds, 'n medeprofessor in volksgesondheid aan die Universiteit van Arizona in Tucson en 'n betaalde konsultant vir Germ Guardian, sê dat die UV-C-toverstaf 'n 'uitstekende produk' is, hoewel sy dit nooit op formele toetse ondergaan het nie. 'Ek is 'n groot promotor van ontsmetting en ontsmetting,' sê sy. "Baie studies toon dat UV-C kieme doodmaak."

Maar die vooruitsig om 'n huis 21 sentimeter tegelyk met 'n UV-C-toverstaf te ontsmet, vind Scott belaglik. 'Hulle speel op mense se vrese,' sê sy. "Mense se logika vlieg by die venster uit wanneer hul vrese gewek word."


Nuwejaar, nuwe topstad op Orkin se 2021 lys van weeluisstede: Chicago

ATLANTA (1 Februarie 2021) &ndash Chicago het 'n nuwe goue medalje as die #1 stad op Orkin&rsquos Top 50 Bed Bug Cities List, met Baltimore en Washington, D.C. in die tweede en derde plek. Ondanks minder reis in 2020, het weeluise steeds gebyt in Chicago, 'n gewilde middelpunt vir toerisme. Trouens, die Windy City verwelkom gewoonlik jaarliks ​​meer as 48 miljoen besoekers en spog met 'n vervoerstelsel met busse en spoorweë wat 1,7 miljoen passasiers op elke week 1 vervoer en 'n droom vir weeluise is.

Nadat hy verlede jaar by die lys aangesluit het, het Toledo die grootste sprong van 23 plekke tot nommer 27 gekry. Denver en Charleston het albei by die top 20 ingeskakel, en ses nuwe stede het vanjaar vir die eerste keer by die top 50 -lys aangesluit.

Die lys is gebaseer op behandelingsdata van die metrogebiede waar Orkin vanaf 1 Desember 2019 en 30 November 2020 die meeste weeluidbehandelings uitgevoer het. Die posisie bevat sowel residensiële as kommersiële behandelings.

  1. Chicago (+2)
  2. Baltimore
  3. Washington, DC (-2)
  4. Detroit (+3)
  5. Columbus, OH
  6. Cleveland, OH (+5)
  7. Indianapolis (+2)
  8. Cincinnati
  9. Los Angeles (-5)
  10. Grand Rapids, MI (+8)
  11. Charlotte, N.C. (+9)
  12. New York (-6)
  13. Atlanta (-3)
  14. Philadelphia (-2)
  15. Champaign, IL (+1)
  16. Dallas-Ft. Waarde (+1)
  17. Raleigh, N.C. (-3)
  18. Charleston, W.V. (+8)
  19. Pittsburgh
  20. Denver (+7)
  21. Flint, MI (+10)
  22. San Francisco (-9)
  23. Greenville, SC (-1)
  24. Norfolk, VA (-9)
  25. St. Louis, MO (+3)
  26. Richmond, VA (-5)
  27. Toledo, OH (+23)
  28. Dayton, OH (+21)
  29. Buffalo, N.Y. (-5)
  30. Omaha (+5)
  31. Nashville (-2)
  32. Milwaukee (+1)
  33. Ft. Wayne, IN (+13)
  34. Greensboro, N.C. (-9)
  35. Cedar Rapids, IA (+6)
  36. Knoxville (-13)
  37. Houston (+1)
  38. Davenport, IA (-1)
  39. Tampa (-5)
  40. Youngstown, Ohio (nuut op die lys)
  41. South Bend, IN (nuut op lys)
  42. Phoenix (+3)
  43. Lexington, KY (nuut op die lys)
  44. Seattle (-1)
  45. Orlando (-9)
  46. Louisville, KY (nuut op die lys)
  47. Miami (-15)
  48. Lansing, MI (-18)
  49. Peoria, IL (nuut op lys)
  50. Minneapolis (nuut op die lys)

Gewoonlik is weeluise 3/16 duim lank en is meestal naginsekte wat uit die skuilplek kom om bloedmaaltye van slapende mense te neem en van rooi tot donkerbruin van kleur is. Weeluise is hematofagies, wat beteken dat bloed hul enigste voedselbron is. Hulle kan maklik van plek tot plek reis, insluitend items soos bagasie, beursies en ander persoonlike besittings.

Bed -goggas is vir almal kommerwekkend, want dit is meester -hitchhikers wat saam met mense huis toe reis as hulle dit waarskynlik nie besef nie, en dit het Ben Hottel, 'n Orkin -entomoloog, gesê. Hul aard van wegkruip in krake en skeure wat moeilik is om te vind sodra hulle in 'n kamer ingebring is, kan dit moeilik maak om te beheer, en daarom word dit aanbeveel om 'n opgeleide professionele persoon by die aanskou van 'n inleiding te betrek.&rdquo

Met die afwagting en opgewondenheid rondom die reis van 2021, is dit maklik om te vergeet dat weeluise steeds 'n bedreiging is en dat almal wat lus is om 'n reis te neem, die belangrikste moet wees. Weeluise kan 'n paar maande lank oorleef terwyl hulle wag vir hul volgende maaltyd, sodat hulle waarskynlik sal verskyn wanneer 'n voedselbron, mense, beskikbaar word.

Of jy besluit om te reis of proaktief by jou huis wil wees, onthou die akroniem S.L.E.E.P. om te inspekteer vir bedbugs:

  • S soek die kamer na tekens van 'n besmetting. Wees op die uitkyk vir klein, swart, inkkleurige vlekke op matrasnate, in sagte meubels en agter kopstukke. Hulle kan selfs wegsteek in elektriese afsetpunte en rame!
  • L ast en kyk in weeluis wegkruipplekke: die matras, bokspring en ander meubels, sowel as agter plintjies, prente en selfs geskeurde plakpapier.
  • E haal bagasie weg van die bed en muur. Die veiligste plekke is in die badkamer of op toonbanke.
  • E ondersoek u bagasie versigtig terwyl u dit herpak en sodra u van 'n reis terug huis toe kom. Berg altyd bagasie weg van die bed. Kontroleer ook alle tweedehands meubels en klere voordat u dit by u huis inbring en kyk na die besoek van die gaste.
  • P trek al die droër-veilige klere ten minste 45 minute lank uit u bagasie op die hoogste plek nadat u huis toe is.

Orkin vier vanjaar 'n mylpaalherdenking en is trots daarop dat hy 120 jaar besigheid behaal het, 'n prestasie wat toegeskryf kan word aan die onderneming se voortdurende verbintenis tot uitstekende diens. Met meer as 'n eeu se kennis en ervaring met weeluise en die nuutste gereedskap en produkte, is Orkin goed toegerus om u weeluikprobleem te evalueer en 'n strategiese reaksie op te doen om u huis van die plaag ontslae te raak en maksimum te bied beskerming.


Daniel Hale Williams (1856 - 1931)

Dr. Daniel Hale Williams was die eerste kardioloog wat 'n moeilike oophartoperasie suksesvol uitgevoer het en die herstel van die perikardium, die dun sakkie wat die hart omhul, uitgevoer het. Williams het ook die eerste swart hospitaal in die land gestig. Williams is in 1856 in Pennsylvania gebore, die jongste van agt kinders, volgens 'n biografie van die Jackson State University. Na onlonende termyne as 'n kapper en 'n skoenmaker se leerling, het Williams medisyne aan die Chicago Medical College gevolg.

Hy werk 'n paar jaar in 'n geïntegreerde hospitaal in Chicago, terwyl hy ook as instrukteur werk by die Chicago Medical College, volgens 'n biografie van die afdeling vir chirurgie van die Columbia Medical School. In 1889 is hy op die staat se raad van gesondheid aangestel.

Williams het gevoel dit is belangrik om interrashospitale te hê, waar swart en wit dokters saam kan leer. In 1891 het Williams die Provident Hospital and Training School for Nurses, die eerste interras -hospitaal en verpleegskool in die land, suksesvol geopen.

Sy baanbrekeroperasie het plaasgevind in die somer van 1893. James Cornish, wat in die bors gesteek is, is na die Provident -hospitaal gebring, volgens die Provident Foundation, wat help om die hospitaal te finansier en die nalatenskap daarvan te bewaar. In 'n hospitaalkamer propvol ander dokters wat besig was om waar te neem, het hy die kraakbeen tussen Cornish se ribbes oopgesny en 'n "valdeur" na die hart oopgemaak, volgens Columbia se departement van chirurgie. Van daar af het hy 'n gesteekte slagaar vasgewerk en die perikardium vasgewerk. Williams het geen opsie vir bloedoortapping gehad nie, daarom het hy die wond met soutoplossing afgespoel en die wond met ’n tang aanmekaar gehou. Cornish het 51 dae later uit die hospitaal gestap, en hy sou nog 20 jaar leef.

Williams het gou die hoofchirurg geword by die mees gesogte hospitaal vir Swart pasiënte, Freedman's Hospitaal in Washington, D.C. In 1902 het hy nog 'n baanbrekeroperasie op 'n beskadigde milt uitgevoer. Williams het tot in die sewentigerjare bly medisyne beoefen totdat hy in 1926 'n beroerte gekry het.


MATERIAAL EN METODES

Insekte

Wilde tipe A. aegypti (lyn F21 MRA-726, MR4, ATCC ®, Manassas, VA, VSA) is in al die eksperimente gebruik. Groepe van 200 larwes is grootgemaak op 'n dieet van Hikari Tropic First Bites (Petco, San Diego, CA, VSA) in 'n 26휵흌m bedekte pan wat 1 cm water bevat het, teen 25ଌ, 60�% relatiewe humiditeit. , en onder 'n fotoperiode van 12 uur: 12 uur (lig: donker). Volwassenes word oorgedra na paringshokke, op 10% sukrose gehou en op weeksdae bloed gevoer op gehepariniseerde bloed van beeste (Lampire Biological Laboratories, Pipersville, PA, VSA), met behulp van 'n kunsmatige voerder (DE Lillie Glassblowers, Atlanta, GA, VSA 2,5 cm interne deursnee).

Vir die muskiete wat gebruik word om bioassays te leer,

200 diere van dieselfde ouderdom (mannetjies en wyfies) is tydens verpopping van die kolonie geskei en op die 10% sukrose gehou na opkoms. Die mannetjies en wyfies wat opgekom het, is ses dae lank in 'n opklapbare hok gehou (20 휠 휠 cm BioQuip Products, Rancho Dominguez, CA, VSA) om paring moontlik te maak (lukrake disseksie van wyfies het aan die lig gebring dat 95% van hulle oosiete gehad het) ). Na hierdie tydperk is vroulike muskiete óf individueel gevang met 'n mondasper vir individuele opleiding, óf afgekoel tot onbeweeglik by 10 ଌ vir groepsopleiding, en oorgedra na individuele of groephouers (300 ml deursigtige plastiekbekers, Solo Cup Company, Lake Forest, IL, VSA), waarvan die toppe bedek was met 'n stuk gaas. Wyfies is die dag na hul isolasie in eksperimente gebruik.

Voorlopige eksperimente

In A. aegypti, is dit aangetoon dat verskeie gedragsaktiwiteite sikliese patrone volg (Haddow en Gillett, 1957 McClelland, 1959 Boorman, 1961 Gillett et al., 1962 Jones et al., 1972 Trpis et al., 1973). Ten einde muskiete op te lei gedurende periodes van die dag waarop hulle reageer op gasheer-geassosieerde leidrade, en die beste hoeveelheid bloedmeel wat motiveringstoestande behou, te bepaal, is 'n reeks voorlopige eksperimente uitgevoer. Eerstens is gedragsreaksies op kunsmatige voeding van 6 dae oue verhongerde wyfies op vier verskillende tye van die muskiete se subjektiewe dag getoets. Die resultate van hierdie voorlopige eksperimente het aan die lig gebring dat muskiete 'n paar uur na die aanvang van die ligte en 'n paar uur voor die verrekening van ligte 'n hoër reaksievlak toon (sien aanvullende materiaal Fig. S1). Die eksperimente wat hier aangebied word, is gevolglik uitgevoer tydens die twee aktiwiteitspieke wat deur die vrou vertoon is A. aegypti (Trpis et al., 1973). Boonop is die hoeveelheid bloed wat tydens opleiding verskaf word, 'n belangrike komponent vir die leerparadigma, 'n groot genoeg volume is nodig om 'n beloning te lewer, maar die volume moet klein genoeg wees om 'n hoë motiveringstoestand by die insek te behou . Om die ingeneemde volume te bepaal, het ons muskiete vir kort tydperke aan bloed blootgestel tydens opleiding en dan die massa wyfies vergelyk met dié van ongevoede en volledig verswelg wyfies. Vir individuele en groepsopgeleide muskiete verteenwoordig die hoeveelheid bloed wat tydens opleiding ingeneem is

38,57% en 72,51% van 'n volledige maaltyd. Vir muskiete wat met sikloheksimied (CXM) behandel word, verteenwoordig die hoeveelheid bloed wat tydens opleiding ingesluk word 16,38% van 'n volledige bloedmeel (dws 2,82 ଐ,57 mg n= 20 wyfies).

Eksperimentele apparaat

Kunsmatige voerder

Vroulike muskiete is in die plastiekhouers wat hierbo beskryf is hanteer en 24 uur na hul isolasie opgelei. Die bokant van die houers is bedek met 'n stofgaas, sodat die insekte kan vlieg en toegang tot die kunsmatige voer kan kry deur op die oppervlak van die gaas te beland. Die kunsmatige voerder (Fig. 1A) was saamgestel uit 'n glasvoerder (D. E. Lillie Glasblasers 3,8 cm binnedeursnee, 6 cm hoogte), waarvan die bodem met Parafilm® verseël is, waardeur muskiete kon byt. Die voerder is gevul met 10 ml beeshepariniseerde bloed (Lampire Biological Laboratories) en gekoppel aan 'n waterbad wat die temperatuur van die bloed op 36 ଑ ଌ behou, wat ongeveer ooreenstem met die bloedtemperatuur van die mens. 'N Vlugtige afleweringstelsel, via 'n konstante, houtskoolgefiltreerde lugstroom (5 cm s 𢄡), kan aan insekhouers gekoppel word om die CS af te lewer (Fig. 1A). Soortgelyk aan die stimulusafleweringstelsel van die olfaktometer (hieronder uiteengesit), is die lugvloei in twee stroombane verdeel, elke stroombaan is gemaak van Teflon®-buise (3 mm interne deursnee), wat die lugvloei deur 20 ml glasbottels gelei het, gevul met 8 ml van die toetsoplossing of dieselfde volume van die ooreenstemmende oplosmiddel. Tydens opleiding is die keuse van die kring met die hand beheer deur die buise in die individuele houer te koppel, dit het ons in staat gestel om die muskiete te onderwerp aan strome van óf skoon omgewingslug óf lug gelaai met die CS teen dieselfde temperatuur, vloeitempo en relatiewe humiditeit.

Olfaktometer

Om die response van beheerde, onopgeleide en opgeleide muskiete op verskillende reuke te vergelyk, is 'n olfaktometer gebruik. Dit het bestaan ​​uit 'n ingeslote Y-doolhof gemaak van Plexiglas® (Cooperband et al., 2008) (110 cm lank, 10 cm interne deursnee Fig. 1B). Aanhangers (Rosewill, Los Angeles, CA, VSA) is aan twee van die arms van die olfaktometer (keuse-arms) gekoppel om lugvloei (lugspoed) te genereer

20 cm s 𢄡). Die lugvloei wat deur die waaiers gegenereer word, het eers deur 'n lugfilter gegaan (om reukbesmettings C16x48, Complete Filtration Services, Greenville, NC, VSA) te verwyder en 'n reeks gaasskerms en 'n heuningkoek (10 cm lank) om 'n laminaire vloei te skep voordat die Y-doolhof (Fig. 1B). Wat die kunsmatige toevoer betref, is reuklewering verkry deur middel van 'n koolgefiltreerde lugstroom wat in twee stroombane verdeel is en aangepas is met vloeimeters wat met naaldkleppe toegerus is. Elke stroombaan is gemaak van Teflon®-buise (3 mm interne deursnee) wat die lugvloei (5 cm s 𢄡) gelei het deur 'n 20 ml glasbottel wat 8 ml van óf die toetsreuk óf die kontrole-oplossing (d.w.s. MilliQ water) bevat. Om besmetting te voorkom, is buise en bottels met etanol skoongemaak en vir elke reuk verander. Die eindpunte van die buise is in die arms van die olfaktometer, 4 cm van die waaiers, en in die middel van die olfaktometer se arm geplaas. Die bottels wat die toets- en kontrole-stimuli bevat, is elke 15 tot 30 min vervang om te beheer vir enige verandering in reukintensiteit.

Om die ophoping van reuke in die eksperimentele kamer te voorkom, is beide kunsmatige voeding en olfaktometer-eksperimente uitgevoer in 'n goed geventileerde omgewingskamer (Environmental Structures, Colorado Springs, CO, VSA), by 'n temperatuur (25 ଒ ଌ) en relatiewe humiditeit (40 �%) wat gedurende alle eksperimente konstant gebly het.

Om vooroordele in die omgewing te vermy, is die stimulus- en beheerbehandelings lukraak in die olfaktometer arms tussen eksperimente uitgeruil. Daarbenewens is die posisies van die verskillende dele van die olfaktometer (dws keusbuise en waaiers) ook ewekansig. Data-analise het nie 'n voorkeur vir die linker- of regterkant van die olfaktometer getoon nie (P=0.86). Na elke eksperiment is die reukmeter met etanol (50%, 70% en 95% etanol) skoongemaak om reukbesmetting te verwyder.

Opleidingsprotokolle

Twee kondisioneringsparadigmas is in die huidige werk aangepas om die vermoë van muskiete te assesseer om die verband tussen 'n reukstimulus en 'n bloedbeloning te leer. Die eerste het die opleiding van individuele muskiete behels deur gebruik te maak van kondisioneringsprotokolle wat aangepas is vanaf klassieke insekmodelle vir hematofage insekte (Vinauger et al., 2011a). Dit het gedetailleerde beheer van die eksperimentele behandelings moontlik gemaak om te bepaal of muskiete die assosiasie onder Pavloviaanse kondisionering geleer het en om die aard van die betrokke geheuevorm te ondersoek. In 'n tweede stel eksperimente het groepsopleiding vinnige opleiding en doeltreffende toetsing van verskillende reuke -stimuli as CS moontlik gemaak.

Individuele opleiding

Vir individuele opleidingseksperimente is enkele muskiete blootgestel aan L-(+)-melksuur (LA Sigma, �% suiwerheid) by 'n konsentrasie van 22 mmol l 𢄡 in MilliQ-water. Hierdie konsentrasie is soortgelyk aan dié wat die menslike vel uitstraal (Eiras en Jepson, 1991 Cork and Park, 1996 Geier et al., 1996).

Voordat die oefensessie begin, en voor elke proefneming, is muskiete toegelaat om vir 1 min te akklimatiseer sonder stimulasie, behalwe vir die toevoer van 'n skoon lugstroom. Na hierdie tyd het 'n proef begin toe die lugvloei gelaai met LA vir 2 min afgelewer is. Die kunsmatige voerder is dan vir twee verdere minute oor die houers geplaas, waartydens LA-stimulasie gehandhaaf is.

Vanaf hierdie oomblik is muskiete wat nie gedurende hierdie tydperk gevoed het nie, as nie gemotiveerd beskou nie en van verdere ontleding weggegooi. Diegene wat op die gaas beland het en deur die membraan van die voerder begin byt het, kon vir 20 sekondes voed voordat die kunsmatige voerder uit die individuele houer verwyder is. Slegs wyfies wat tydens die twee proewe gevoer het, is vir die ontleding gehou. Proewe is met 20 minute geskei. Tydens hierdie interproef-interval (ITI) is muskiete in dieselfde eksperimentele kamer gehou en slegs aan 'n skoon lugstroom blootgestel. Voorwaardelike muskiete is aan twee proewe onderwerp voordat hulle in die olfaktometer getoets is, 24 uur na afloop van die oefensessie.

Ten einde potensiële effekte van CS of US op die prestasie van muskiete tydens die toets weg te gooi, is spesifieke kontrolegroepe uitgevoer waar muskiete slegs aan die CS of die US blootgestel is tydens die eerste sessie en 24 uur later getoets. 'n Ander groep is tydens die eerste sessie op 'n ongepaarde wyse aan beide die CS en die VSA blootgestel, dit wil sê in die afwesigheid van gebeurlikheid (Rescorla, 1988), en dan 24 uur later getoets. Bykomende onopgeleide muskiete is in die olfaktometer getoets terwyl daar gekies moes word tussen twee skoon lugstrome, 'n skoon lugstroom versus CO2 (positiewe beheer, [CO2] = 2300 ppm bo die omringende vlak) of 'n skoon lugstroom teenoor LA (Barrozo en Lazzari, 2004).

Groepsopleiding

Vir groepopleidingseksperimente is die volgende reukmiddels getoets: LA, 1-okten-3-ol [OCT Aldrich, �% suiwerheid enantiomere verhouding: �:1 (GC)], Z-3-heksen-1-ol (Z3H Sigma, 㺘% suiwerheid 92% van die Z isomeer) en β-mirseen (MYR Fluka, 95% suiwerheid). LA is opgelos in MilliQ -water met dieselfde konsentrasie as vir individuele oefeningseksperimente (22 mmol l 𢄡). Om 'n soortgelyke humiditeitsvlak te verseker, is 'n sterk geaktiveerde gedragsteller by muskiete – OKT (14 mmol l 𢄡) en Z3H (91 mmol l 𢄡) ook in MilliQ -water verdun. Hierdie konsentrasies is gekies om dieselfde wisselvalligheid te pas as reuke wat suksesvol gebruik word in gedragsassesseringsparadigmas soortgelyk aan ons eie (Cooperband et al., 2008). Vir MYR -behandelings het ons 'n 1/10.000 reukverdunning (0.58 mmol l 𢄡) gebruik, aangesien hoër konsentrasies vermydingsgedrag veroorsaak het, wat veroorsaak dat geen insekte die beginkamer verlaat nie.

In 'n voorlopige eksperiment is mikro-ekstraksievesels in vaste fase in die twee arms van die olfaktometer geplaas terwyl Z3H in water in die een arm en Z3H in minerale olie in die ander arm gelewer word. Dit het ons in staat gestel om (via GCMS) die emissiesnelheid van Z3H wat in water of minerale olie verdun is, te kwantifiseer. Die ontleding het getoon dat die emissiesnelhede tussen die twee arms nie statisties verskil nie (0.98 ଐ.33 ng min 𢄡 vir minerale olie 1.09 ଐ.13 ng min 𢄡 vir water).

Net soos met individuele opleiding, is die lugleweringsisteem gekoppel aan houers van insekte om die reuk of die ‘geen reuk ’ (MilliQ water) -beheer (Fig. 1A) af te lewer. Die opleidingsessie het begin toe die reukmiddel vir 2 min in die houer geperfuseer is. Die groep is daarna vir 20 minute aan die bloedtoevoer blootgestel terwyl hy nog steeds die reukmiddel afgee. Hierdie opeenvolging van gebeure verteenwoordig een opleidingsproef. Wat die individueel opgeleide muskiete betref, is groepe voorgelê aan twee oefenproewe met 'n afstand van 20 minute ITI.

Een uur voor toetsing is groepe verkoel en wyfies is in individuele houers oorgeplaas. Muskiete wat nie tydens die oefensessie gevoed het nie (bepaal deur die afwesigheid van bloed in die buik of deur die afwesigheid van abdominale distensie) is as ongemotiveerd beskou en word dus uit die analise weggegooi. Toetse is daarna soortgelyk aan die individuele oefeningseksperimente uitgevoer, een muskiet op 'n slag getoets. Die toetssessie is 24 uur na opleiding uitgevoer. Om te bepaal of die muskiete 'n aangebore voorkeur vir die reuke van die toets toon, is kontrolegroepe ook getoets. Insekte van hierdie groepe was naïve en was nie voor die toets aan die reukstof blootgestel nie.

Effek van leer op DEET -afweer

Ons het 'n ekstra reeks oefeningseksperimente uitgevoer om te toets of muskiete se vermoë om die verband tussen reukmiddels en bloedvoeding te leer, die werking van insekweermiddels soos DEET (N,N-dietiel-meta-toluamide Supelco, �% suiwerheid). Ons het dus 'n reeks eksperimente uitgevoer met vooraf blootgestelde, DEET-opgeleide en DEET-na ïve diere. In hierdie eksperimente is 100 x 100 ml van óf 10% DEET/90% etanol (DEET) óf 100% etanol (oplosmiddel) op 'n filterpapier (Whatman) gelaai wat in 'n 20 ml -fles (20 ml) geplaas is (DeGennaro et al. ., 2013).

Verskillende prosedures is getoets: (a) vroue wat opgelei is in LA is getoets vir hul reaksie op LA+DEET versus kontrole (skoon lug+oplosmiddel) skoon lug + oplosmiddel) (c) wyfies wat vooraf aan DEET 1 uur voor opleiding blootgestel is, is dan opgelei na LA en getoets vir hul reaksies op LA+DEET teenoor beheer (skoon lug + oplosmiddel) en (d) wyfies wat vooraf aan DEET blootgestel is 1 uur voor opleiding is opgelei in LA+DEET en getoets vir hul reaksie op LA+DEET teenoor beheer (skoon lug + oplosmiddel).

Geheue karakterisering

Die waargenome prestasie van opgeleide diere berus op die vorming van 'n menslike spoor wat vir verskillende duur kan duur, afhangende van die gekonsolideerde aard daarvan (Tully et al., 1994 Tully et al., 2003). Omdat korttermyn (STM) en middeltermyn (ITM) herinneringe van 'n paar tot 'n paar uur duur (Tully et al., 2003), verwag ons dat die geheue wat ons 24 uur na opleiding waargeneem het, behoort tot langdurige vorms van geheue. Onder hulle word die narkose-weerstandige geheue (ARM) wat gevorm word na massale opleiding en oefensessies, nie deur koue-geïnduseerde narkose ontwrig nie, maar is dit ongevoelig vir die proteïensintese-remmer CXM, terwyl die langtermyngeheue (LTM) slegs gevorm word na opleiding op afstand. en is sensitief vir CXM (vir 'n oorsig, sien Tully et al., 1994).

Bykomende behandelings is dus uitgevoer om die aard van die geheue wat tydens kondisioneringseksperimente gevorm is, te ondersoek. Vier groepe individueel opgeleide muskiete is onderworpe aan 'n 15 min koue skok (2.6ଌ) 1 uur voor oefening, 20 min na oefening, 2 uur na oefening of 6 uur na oefening. Die koue skok is opgelewer deur die individuele houer in 'n ysgevulde piepklein boks (30 x#x000d735 휠 cm) te plaas. Twee addisionele groepe is saamgestel en individue uit hierdie groepe is vir 14� uur uitgehonger en dan toegelaat om te voed met óf 17 óf 35 mmol l 𢄡 CXM (Tully et al., 1994) in 'n 10% sukrose-oplossing vir 16& #x0201318 h voor die oefensessie. Alle groepe is 24 uur na opleiding getoets. 'N Bykomende groep is gevoed met 35 mmol l 𢄡 CXM voor sy reaksie op CO2 is getoets (CXM positiewe kontrolegroep). Vir hierdie groep is insekte vir dieselfde duur as die eksperimentele groepe gevoer met 35 mmol l 𢄡 CXM in 10% sukrose en getoets vir hul reaksie op CO2 (positiewe beheer, [CO2] = 2300 ppm bo omgewingsvlak) teenoor omringende lug.

Dit is die moeite werd om te noem dat die CXM-behandelde groepe 'n hoër sterftesyfer as die suikergevoede groepe getoon het (34.6% van mortaliteit word 8 dae na opleiding waargeneem in vergelyking met 12% vir suikergevoede wyfies). Interessant genoeg blyk dit dat die verhoogde mortaliteit wat veroorsaak word deur die inname van CXM te wyte is aan die inname van 'n warmbloedmaaltyd, aangesien CXM-gevoede muskiete wat nie bloed gevoer is nie sterftesyfers gehad het soortgelyk aan dié van sukrose-gevoede (kontrole) muskiete ( 16% van sterftes). Hierdie resultate dui daarop dat die geneesmiddel ook hul vermoë om die hittestres wat veroorsaak word deur die inname van warm bloed, te hanteer, benadeel (Benoit et al., 2011).

Om seker te maak dat CXM -effekte nie die muskiete se vliegmotoriese reaksies of reukwaarneming beïnvloed nie, is opsporing van vlugbane uitgevoer deur video -opname (Logitech Quickcam pro, 2MPixel Newark, CA, VSA) van die eksperimente in die olfaktometer en daaropvolgende analise van die data in MATLAB (v7.02, The MathWorks, Natwick, MA, VSA) met behulp van die DLT -gereedskapskas (DLT DigitizingTools) (Hedrick, 2008). Drie behandelingsgroepe is getoets: naïve muskiete gevoed met 10% sukrose oplossing (naïve beheer) opgeleide muskiete gevoed met 10% sukrose oplossing (opgeleide behandeling) en opgeleide muskiete gevoed met 35 mmol l 𢄡 van CXM in 10% sukrose -oplossing (CXM -behandeling).

Toets protokolle

Die toetssessies het begin toe 'n enkele muskiet in die beginkamer aan die einde van die beginarm van die olfaktometer geplaas is en deur 'n deursigtige pleksiglasdeur (Fig. 1B) toegemaak is. Na 'n kennisperiode van 30 sekondes, is die deur oopgemaak. Led by its positive anemotaxis and optomotor responses (Kennedy, 1940 Takken and Knols, 1999), the insect flew along the starting arm and, at the bifurcation, could choose to follow one of the olfactometer arms, one bearing the stimulus and the other only clean air (plus the associated solvent), by entering into one of the two choice arms. We considered the first choice made by mosquitoes when they crossed the entry of an arm. Females that did not choose or did not leave the starting chamber were considered as not responding and discarded from the preference analyses. On average, 42% of females were motivated to leave the starting chamber of the olfactometer and chose between the two choice arms. For both individually trained and group-trained experiments, more females were active in the trained groups (52% on average) than in the corresponding control groups (33%) (χ 2 test: Pπ.001).

Data-analise

For both individual and group experiments, binary data collected in the olfactometer were analysed and all statistical tests were computed using R software (R Development Core Team, 2013). Comparisons were performed by means of the exact binomial test (α=0.05). For each treatment, the choice of the mosquitoes in the olfactometer was compared either with a random distribution of 50% on each arm of the maze or with the distribution of the corresponding control when appropriate. For binary data, the standard errors (s.e.m.) were calculated as (Le, 2003):

waar bl is the observed proportion and n is the number of observations.

For each experimental group, a preference index (PI) was computed the following way: PI=[(number of females in the test arm – number of females in the control arm)/(number of females in the control arm + number of females in the test arm)]. A PI of +1 indicates that all the motivated insects chose the test arm, a PI of 0 indicates that 50% of insects chose the test arm and 50% the control arm, and a PI of 𢄡 indicates that all insects chose the control arm of the olfactometer (adapted from Schwaerzel et al., 2003). Means of instantaneous flight speeds were analysed in Excel and flight speed comparisons were made in R, by means of Student's t-test (α=0.05).


14 March 2008

The homeless hikers

In the morning after the school run, I often go for a hike in the Santa Monica mountains. These are one of the glorious things about living in Los Angeles.

"Here, the weather never stops you from doing what you want," said a mountain biker friend. "You'll get used to it. You'll never want to go back to Paris."

This morning I hiked up Temescal Canyon as far as the waterfall. It was dawn. The only sounds were my own breathing and my footsteps, the birds singing, and the rushing water in the little creek. Spring flowers were everywhere, and the sun was shining. Ek was alleen. It was hard to believe that a city of many millions was close by.

A blond woman in sweatpants came down the trail clutching a water bottle. She wished me good morning. An Asian-American man passed me ten minutes later. He nodded hello. Except for his clothes, he could have been a Malibu millionaire.

The homeless who live in the mountains.


Unseen Essence

What must be remembered is that what appears as purely negative in tragedy also has a positive dimension. This is the pinnacle of Greek tragic wisdom. Why does Woman present itself as the apocalypse of man in this tragedy? It is because of an original betrayal of the feminine reality committed by the mortal family of Dionysus. By his entire family when they initially rejected him, and by Pentheus when he returned. This is what causes the breakdown of the Theban social order and the revenge of Woman.

In the same way that Woman is a constitutive element of the reality of sex, including the reality of man. The Dionysian rituals that the maenads take part in, that return to a primordial being and oneness, are constitutive of the Theban social order. It is even the root of the Theban social order. The unconscious reality of Thebes exists as the basis for its conscious and institutional realities.

It is precisely because the rituals of Dionysus exist outside of Thebes, in the rituals of the maenads on Mt. Cithaeron, that it is the base of Theban society. It is precisely because the maenads are all women whose rituals are constitutive of the male Theban social order. And it is precisely because the maenads come from the east that they constitute the western social order of Thebes. Dionysus and his cult are the external essences of Theban society. Essence, unlike appearance, is always unseen.


The Unsettling Truth About the ‘Mostly Harmless’ Hiker

Om hierdie artikel te hersien, besoek My Profiel en Bekyk dan gestoorde stories.

Illustration: Sam Whitney Getty Images

Om hierdie artikel te hersien, besoek My Profiel en Bekyk dan gestoorde stories.

Sometimes the most alluring stories we tell are the ones with the details left out. Objects and faces can be prettier in the half light. We see a faint shape and we add the lines and shadows we want. We hear one part of a story and add another part that we hope might be true.

I first learned of the man called Mostly Harmless this past August. A WIRED reader sent a note to my tip line: The body of a hiker had been found in a tent in Florida in the summer of 2018, but scores of amateur detectives, and a few professional ones too, couldn’t figure out who he was. Everyone knew that he had started walking south on the Appalachian Trail from New York a year and a half before. He met hundreds of people on the trail, and seemed to charm them all. He told people he was from Baton Rouge, Louisiana, and that he worked in tech in New York. They all knew his trail name, but no one could figure out his real one.

I had just spent three days hiking on and off the Appalachian Trail with my 12-year-old son, and I was pulled in. We live in an age of constant machine surveillance and tracking. Yet somehow Mostly Harmless had escaped the digital dragnet. He had traveled without a phone or an ID. He carried cash and couldn’t be tracked by credit card receipts. His fingerprints weren’t in any database and his image didn’t turn up any results when run through facial recognition software. The authorities in Collier County, Florida, where his body was found, were stumped, but they were certain he had died of natural causes. He must have been smart. He appeared to have been kind. He was handsome in a general, familiar kind of way. It was easy to map a gentle story onto his past.

This article appears in the March 2021 issue. Subscribe to WIRED.

His life was a mystery packed inside a tragedy. A man had died alone in a yellow tent, and his family didn’t know. “He’s got to be missed. Someone must miss this guy,” said Natasha Teasley, a woman in North Carolina who organized a Facebook group with several thousand people dedicated to discovering his identity. Members of the group lit candles for him. They talked about “bringing him home.” They scoured every missing-persons database. Everyone had a story they wanted to be true: He was trying to escape modern society. He was trying to escape a medical diagnosis. He was trying to escape someone who wanted to hurt him. This was a way to use the internet to do something good.

I published an article about Mostly Harmless the day before the presidential election. More than one and a half million people read the story and looked at photos that other hikers had posted. People sent me theories about who he could have been or what he might have been doing. He had a long scar on his abdomen and readers diagnosed potential illnesses. He had perfect teeth, which suggested good dental care as a child. Others dug into Da Vinci Code–level clues. He had signed in at hostels as “Ben Bilemy,” which, with some creative effort, could be read in reverse as “Why me, lib?” And sometimes they just let their imaginations fly. “I think he could be a space alien,” one reader wrote to me. “A kind of astral Tocqueville taking a long, long trip to get a sense of the people and the planet, and when he was done, he wasted away and went back to Alpha Centauri. Think about it.”

And, of course, people thought they knew who he was. A few hours after the story went live, I got my first ID via DM. “Hi, this is a crazy note to be sending but I believe I know who the hiker was.” My correspondent had gone to high school with someone who looked like the hiker and whose name was something like Bilemy. A few phone calls later and it was clear the lead was a red herring. Her former classmate was alive and well.

The tips kept coming in. One Louisiana woman sent me a photograph of her brother, who bore an uncanny resemblance to the missing man, and told me she suspected Mostly Harmless was the illegitimate son of her drug-dealing uncle. A man was convinced the hiker had played in a hardcore punk rock band in New Orleans. But by far the most enticing tip came from a man in Virginia who persuaded me, briefly, that he had known the hiker and that his name was Daryl McKenzie. My correspondent told a moving story of befriending the man in a Newport News bowling alley and hearing that Daryl had terminal cancer and planned to hike to his death. Daryl had supposedly said, “I came into this world without a name and I’m going to go out of this world without one.”

I began searching for details to validate the tale. I told my editor, who got obsessed too, and she found a Facebook page for a Daryl McKenzie that hadn’t been active since 2017, the year Mostly Harmless started his trek. McKenzie had just four Facebook friends and his only posts were photos of the wilderness. It had to be him. I contacted one of the friends and explained that a hiker had disappeared and that his name might have been Daryl McKenzie. I’d written about his story and posted it online. She burst into tears. “Oh, no, Daryl,” she said as her voice quavered.

I felt awful. I’d wanted to help identify the missing hiker. But I hadn’t focused on all the pain that could bring. I told her that I was sorry to have broken such terrible news so suddenly. She should take her time and call me back whenever, if she even wanted to. Two minutes later my phone rang. “That’s not Daryl,” she said. The photos in my story didn’t look at all like her friend, who was indeed a hiker but who was alive and well in Los Angeles. He had never been bowling in Newport News.

Meanwhile, the dedicated Facebook hunters kept going. And they were ingenious. On the trail, Mostly Harmless had carried a notebook full of ideas for Screeps, an online strategy game for programmers. And so a group focused on digital forensics went through the accounts of every possible user who had been on Screeps up until April 2017, the date Mostly Harmless had given other hikers for when he’d begun his journey. They had a bead on a user named Vaejor. Meanwhile, a woman named Sahar Bigdeli had arranged for one of the country’s leading isotope analysts to study the hiker’s teeth in hopes that clues could be discovered about where he had lived. A genomics company, Othram, had taken his DNA and started to do cutting-edge genetic analysis to identify him. Collier County had sent them a bone fragment they had extracted the hiker’s DNA and then begun searching for genetic similarities among people in a database called GEDmatch to build a tree of potential relatives. They learned that the hiker had Cajun roots that his family had come from Assumption Parish, Louisiana and that there were family members with the name Rodriguez. The founder of the company, David Mittelman, went on Facebook to talk about the case. I bought Facebook ads on my personal page to promote my story in the region of Louisiana where I thought his relatives likely lived.

In the middle of December, photographs of Mostly Harmless found their way to a group of friends in Baton Rouge, one of whom called the Collier County Sheriff’s Office. This friend, who asked to be referred to by her middle name, Marie, told the detective that she knew who the hiker was. The sheriff’s office had received hundreds of bad tips. But this one seemed real. Marie recognized the face and she knew all about the scar. The handwriting was familiar, and the coding style too.

At 5:30 the next morning, my phone rang. It was the same person who had first sent the tip in August. We have a name, he said: Vance John Rodriguez. He texted two new photographs that looked just like Mostly Harmless. The nose was the same. The ears. The eyes with dark circles around them. I was elated to some degree. The mystery appeared to be solved. But then I thought back to my phone call to the friend of Daryl McKenzie. Someone was going to have to tell his family now. Someone would have to tell all the people who missed him.

I started reaching out, first to Marie, then to other old friends and girlfriends. I and others worked to confirm his identity, with the first press story about Rodriguez appearing in late December in Adventure Journal. The puzzle was formally solved today, when Othram confirmed that the DNA of the hiker matched that of Rodriguez’s mother.

Weɽ all been telling ourselves stories about his life. But the man whose journey had ended in the yellow tent wasn’t who anyone thought or hoped. If he had been trying to escape something, it was himself.

Vance John Rodriguez, a k a Vaejor, was born in February 1976 near Baton Rouge. He had a twin sister and an older brother. He told friends over the years that his father had deeply hurt him, but no one I spoke with seems to be clear exactly how. When he was about 15, according to friends, Rodriguez headed off into a field with a gun, intending to kill himself. He fired into his stomach. But then, as he lay bleeding to death, he decided to live. He raised his hand weakly and a passing truck saw him and pulled over. The surgeries that followed were the cause of the scar that had so intrigued the Facebook group. Later, he would tell friends that he wanted to be buried in that field.

At 17, with the consent of his parents, Rodriguez was emancipated by a Lafayette, Louisiana, court. Marie, who lived with him as a friend for several years in his twenties, says he was angry that his parents had institutionalized him after the near suicide. “He would not talk about his parents except to say ‘fuck them,’” Marie recalls. I wrote to his parents and sister in early January, two weeks after they heard the news. His sister wrote back, “My family has no comment.”

After graduating from high school, Rodriguez enrolled at the University of Southwestern Louisiana, now the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. In the school’s computer lab, he came to know a man named Randall Godso. They became off-and-on roommates for the next five years. Occasionally they would go out and party one friend of Rodriguez’s wrote that she remembers him coming to her dorm and playing “Nothing Else Matters” by Metallica on the piano. “I could be quiet around him,” she wrote, “and it never felt awkward.”

Godso and Rodriguez were both computer nerds, with Rodriguez taking it to the extreme. Godso remembers his roommate playing games for 18 hours a day and shutting everything else out. “He would go through huge bouts of depression. He’d go for a year without smiling or being nice to people,” Godso recalls. Rodriguez, according to his roommate, had cut off all contact with his family. “He was depressed and moody his whole life,” Godso recalls. “But I needed a roommate and we got along OK.” Godso adds that he doesn’t remember Rodriguez ever showing any interest in spending time in the wild. “Outside was between the car and the building.”


Inhoud

Halberstam earned a B.A. in English at the University of California, Berkeley in 1985, an M.A. from the University of Minnesota in 1989, and a Ph.D. from the same school in 1991. Halberstam is Jewish [8] of Bohemian descent. [9]

Assigned female at birth, Halberstam goes by the pronouns he/his and the name "Jack", [6] but says that he is "loosey goosey" and a "free floater" when it comes to his gender. [10] He says "some people call me Jack, my sister calls me Jude, people I've known forever call me Judith" and "I try not to police any of it. A lot of people call me he, some people call me she, and I let it be a weird mix of things." [6] He says that "the back and forth between hy en sy sort of captures the form that my gender takes nowadays" and that the floating gender pronouns have captured his refusal to resolve his gender ambiguity. He does, however, say that "grouping me with someone else who seems to have a female embodiment and then calling us 'ladies', is never, ever ok!" [10]

Female Masculinity Wysig

In Female Masculinity (1998), Halberstam seeks to identify what constitutes masculinity in society and within the individual. The text first suggests that masculinity is a construction that promotes particular brands of male-ness while at the same time subordinating "alternative masculinities". The project specifically focuses on the ways female masculinity has been traditionally ignored in academia and society at large. To illustrate a cultural mechanism of subordinating alternative masculinities, Halberstam brings up James Bond and GoldenEye as an example, noting that gender performance in this film is far from what is traditional: M is the character who "most convincingly performs masculinity", Bond can only perform masculinity through his suave clothing and gadgets, and Q can be read "as a perfect model of the interpenetration of queer and dominant regimes". This interpretation of these characters challenges long-held ideas about what qualities create masculinity. [11] Halberstam also brings up the example of the tomboy, a clear case of a youthful girl exerting masculine qualities—and raises the complication that within a youthful figure, the idea of masculinity expressed within a female body is less threatening, and only becomes threatening when those masculine tendencies are still apparent as the child progresses in age.

Halberstam then focuses on "the bathroom problem". Here, the question of the gender binary is brought up. Halberstam argues that the problem of only having two separate bathrooms for different genders, with no place for people who do not clearly fit into either category to use, is a problem. The assertion is further made that our bathroom system is not adequate for the different genders found in society. The problem of policing that occurs around the bathrooms is also a focal point for examination of the bathroom problem not only is this a policing on the legal level, but also on the social level. The social aspect of policing, according to Halberstam, makes it even more difficult for people who do not clearly and visibly fall into one category or another to use public restrooms without encountering some sort of violent or uncomfortable situation.

The Queer Art of Failure Wysig

In The Queer Art of Failure, Halberstam argues that failure can be productive, a way of critiquing capitalism and heteronormativity. Using examples from popular culture, like Pixar animated films, Halberstam explores alternatives to individualism and conformity. L. Ayu Saraswati calls The Queer Art of Failure "a groundbreaking book that retheorizes failure and its relationship to the process of knowledge production and being in the world." [12]

Introduction: Low Theory Edit

In his introduction, Halberstam proposes low theory as a way to deconstruct the normative modes of thought that have established uniform societal definitions of success and failure. Low theory is a term that Halberstam borrows from cultural theorist Stuart Hall, using it to undermine heteronormative definitions of success and to argue that failure to live up to societal standards can open up more creative ways of thinking and being in the world. Halberstam points out that queer and feminine success is always measured by male, heterosexual standards. The failure to live up to these standards, Halberstam argues, can offer unexpected pleasures such as freedom of expression and sexuality.

Halberstam clarifies his points encouraging failure in a lecture called "On Behalf of Failure": "My basic point with failure is that in a world where success is countered in relationship to profit . or relayed through heteronormative marriage, failure is not a bad place to start for a critique of both capitalism and heteronormativity." [13]

Halberstam describes low theory as a "utility of getting lost over finding our way". [14] In reference to societal norms and definitions of success, Halberstam asks the reader how to avoid those forms of knowing and being that relegate other forms of knowing to redundancy and irrelevancy.

Halberstam provides several examples of publications, films and popular cultural artifacts in order to aid in explaining the concept of low theory. Dit sluit in SpongeBob SquarePants, Monsters, Inc., Klein Juffrou Sonskyn, and the writings of Monique Wittig and Barbara Ehrenreich among others. As Halberstam notes:

I do believe that if you watch Dude, Where’s My Car? slowly and repeatedly and while perfectly sober, the mysteries of the universe may be revealed to you. I also believe that Finding Nemo contains a secret plan for world revolution and that Chicken Run charts an outline of feminist utopia for those who can see beyond the feathers and eggs. [14]

Chapter One: Animating Revolt and Revolting Animation Edit

In the first chapter of his book Jack Halberstam focuses on certain animated films and how they inherently teach children about revolt. He then relates this sort of revolt into her idea about Queer Theory. He opens the chapter by simply stating how animated films "revel in the domain of failure". [14] He states how it isn't enough for an animated film to focuses on success and triumph because that it not what happens in childhood. He explains how childhood is "growing sideways," as stated by Kathryn Bond Stockton in her work The Queer Child or Growing Sideways in the Twentieth Century. [15] Halberstam goes on to speak about how Stockton has shown that childhood is queer in nature but society trains children to be heterosexual, by our parents placing emphasis and guiding their kids toward marriage and heterosexual reproduction. Simply put heterosexuality is made, not born. Halberstam explains that revolt and rebellion are inherent in children, and if these traits weren't, then society would have no reason to train them. He then makes the transition back to animated films, saying how they address the disorderly child who sees the large world beyond his controlling family. These animated films get to the root of the struggle between human and non-human creatures.

He gives these animated films a name, calling them "Pixarvolt" films. Pixar, referring to the company that created the first-ever computer-animated feature film. [16] Pixarvolts have themes that would never be seen in adult films, according to Halberstam. These films also make subtle and obvious connections between communist revolt and queer embodiment. Halberstam argues that although Marxist scholars have dismissed queer theory as 'body politics', these films do a great job of showing "that alternative forms of embodiment and desire are central to the struggle against corporate domination" (Halberstam 29). He begins talking about Speelgoedstorie (1995), the first movie Pixar created. [16] What made Speelgoedstorie such a success was its ability to engage children with the fantasy world of talking, living toys and also capture the nostalgia of older generations by employing the cowboy main character, Woody. He argues that the narratives of the film, past and present, adult and child, live and mechanic, show all the possibilities that this new animation world has created. Speelgoedstorie set the themes that are involved in all Pixarvolt film. These films are interested in social hierarchies, the outside world versus the imaginary world, and these films are all powered by revolution, transformation and rebellion. Most Pixarvolt films deal with escape to a utopian freedom. One such film about an escape to utopia is Chicken Run (2000). [17] These chickens escape using a natural solution combined with an engineering solution, which is using all the chicken's flying abilities to power one large plane so they can escape. The queer element of this film is that most all these chickens are female so the utopia is full of free green pastures of chickens with only a few roosters around. "The revolution in this instance is feminist and animated" (Halberstam 32).

Halberstam then speaks of how humans project our worlds onto animals. He explains the term of human exceptionalism, which he defines in two ways: Humans thinking they are more superior, and unique to other animals and Humans using cruel forms of anthropomorphism. He most speaks about anthropomorphism, which is the attribution of human characteristics to an animal. He speaks of a New York Times "Modern Love" article in which the author begins training her husband with the same techniques she saw the trainer in Sea World using on Shamu the killer whale. [18] Halberstam first knocks how committed this shows humans are to failing structures, like marriage, that we think we ourselves are failing and must try different things. He then goes on to explain how drawing on animal behavior makes humans feel heterosexuality is more natural or primal. She imposes her boring domestic lifestyle on the life of this exotic animal, which is anthropomorphism, just to maintain her flawed sense of natural heterosexuality. Halberstam moves on to talk about the successful documentary, Maart van die pikkewyne (2005). [19] Like other animal documentaries, this humanizes animal life and reduces animals to human ways of life. He explains how this film perpetuates heterosexuality in a false way. The film leaves out key facts about penguins journey to find love and have a baby. The first fact it leaves out is that penguins are not monogamous they mate for one year and move on. They also leave their babies after they know they are able to swim in the water. The baby penguins then gain five years of their lives on their own, before starting another mating cycle. Halberstam claims, "the long march of the penguins is proof neither of heterosexuality in nature nor of the reproductive imperative nor of intelligent design" (Halberstam 41).

Lastly Halberstam talks about monstrous animations and their direct connection to the queer way of thinking. Animation started to create these odd human-like figures that were not human, but not animal either. Halberstam goes on to reference the movie Monsters, Inc. (2001). [20] In this movie the corporate world relies on screams of little children to power themselves. When one monster goes to scare a little girl, and she is not scared, it scares him partially. Halberstam relates this to allowing the child to stand up to its 'boogeyman'-type figure, but at the same time form an affectionate relationship with the figure. This bond is queer in that it lets the child control the transgression of its own boundaries. It interrupts the more conventional romantic bond with a bond that seems odd and misplaced. He ends the first chapter by giving the differences on Pixarvolt films versus regular animated films. The main difference is that regular animated films stress family, human individuality and extraordinary individuals. Pixarvolt films focus more on collectivity, social bonding and diverse communities. Halberstam explains that, "Two thematics can transform a potential Pixarvolt film into a tame and conventional cartoon: an overemphasis on nuclear family and a normative investment in coupled romance" (Halberstam 47). He lastly says how Pixarvolt films show the importance in recognizing weirdness of bodies, sexuality and gender, but do it through other animal worlds.

Chapter Two: Dude, Where's My Phallus? Wysig

In the second chapter of Judith Halberstam's The Queer Art of Failure, Halberstam highlights things such as stupidity, forgetfulness, and how they have impacted views on Queer culture. The second chapter illuminates how stupidity is viewed differently upon men and women, and how it can sometimes even be a gateway for the queer culture. He highlights certain movies scenes and novels where stupidity and forgetfulness couple together to actually opens the door for certain groups of individuals such as the LGBT community.

Halberstam begins to define stupidity on page 54 where she says "Stupidity conventionally means different things in relation to different subject positions for example, stupidity in white men can signify new modes of domination, but stupidity in women of all ethnicities inevitably symbolizes their status as, in psychoanalytic terms, "castrated" or impaired." Stupidity can mean a variety of things depending on the scenario. Right off the bat he gives an example of how stupidity in men is generalized compared to that of women. Stupidity in women seems to be strictly looked down upon, while stupidity in men can be seen as charming. Women have always been oppressed by the idea, which was created by past hierarchy systems, that women are just not as intelligent as men.. "Stupidity is as profoundly gendered as knowledge formations in general thus while unknowing in a man is sometimes rendered as part of masculine charm, unknowing in a woman indicates a lack and a justification of a social order that anyway privileges men. Though we both punish and naturalize female stupidity, we not only forgive stupidity in white men, but we often cannot recognize it as such since white maleness is the identity construct most often associated with mastery, wisdom, and grand narratives." [21] White males were the symbolization of knowledge and power, not stupidity. The election of 2004, between George W. Bush and John Kerry, was used as an example of how stupidity is beneficial in certain scenarios for men. John Kerry was the well-educated, hard-working, and well-spoken candidate who gets edged out by George W. Bush, a man who sold himself on being a fun-loving, fun to be around type of guy. Bush sold himself to the public in a way to show that he was just an average person like "everyone else". Society loved that he was a Yale student but not a 4.0 kind of student. Stupidity in men does not hurt their chances in society, unlike that of women. In a male-dominated culture, stupidity in men does not have a negative downside. In this case, it actually helped the person. Stupidity can also help shed light on queer culture also.

Halberstam goes on to talk about the movie, Dude, Where's My Car? and how the film used the stupidity and forgetfulness of the main characters, Jesse and Chester, to show that in given situations that would normally be uncomfortable for heterosexual white males, is not uncomfortable at all. The stupidity of Chester and Jesse in Dude, Where's My Car? led to many homosexual and transsexual references throughout the film. Halberstam says that by interjecting this idea of forgetting into Jesse and Chester's characters causes a certain queer phenomenon throughout the film. Jesse willingly knew that he was receiving a lap dance from a transsexual, but forgets the social norms that would typically go along with that. Most white heterosexual men would not willingly accept a lap dance from a transsexual, but Jesse is too stupid to realize what is taking place. His stupidity takes sexual orientation out of the equation because he doesn't think about the fact that it's a transsexual giving him the lap dance. Although Massachusetts was the first state to legalize gay marriage in 2004, Dude, Where's My Car? was released in 2000. [22] ). The film brought light to the gay community using stupidity and forgetfulness as a staple. In 2000, gay acceptance was not nearly what it is today, thus making Dude, Where's My Car? somewhat controversial. It was not until 2015 that same-sex marriage had become legal in all 50 states. [23] Even though it is legal in all 50 states, some states such as Mississippi tried to pass a law that protects those who object to same-sex marriage, but was blocked. [24] The queer culture was brought to light in this film when Jesse and Chester share their convincing kiss at the end in their car next to a heterosexual couple. The stupidity of Jesse and Chester was the gateway into the kiss.

Halberstam says that forgetting is one of the best ways for the queer group to break through. To forget about the past, forget family traditions and start new without having to conform to old societal norms. He goes on to explain that forgetting family as the standard mother and husband is essential to create a gateway for the queer community. We must forget these societal norms in order to make way for equality. Forgetfulness in the case of Dory in the film Finding Nemo brings about a queer version of selfhood. Since Dory's memory is so bad, it causes her to live in the present and forget about the past essentially. Dory cannot remember her past, causing her to forget and live in the moment. Forgetting is a way to keep the disturbing memories of the past, in the past. Forgetting opens up the doors for new things while suppressing the awful memories. Halberstam notes the importance of forgetfulness in the queer community and how positive that can be. Forgetting in this way can help one handle the stress of being oppressed for being part of a community such as the LGBT which is and has been discriminated against. Forgetting simply makes it easier for those to move on and accept a new beginning.

Chapter Six: Animating Failure: Ending, Fleeing, Surviving Edit

In Chapter 6 of The Queer Art of Failure, Judith Halberstam focuses more on the specific works of queer theory scholars, and examines works such as "Kung Fu Panda" and "Disney", to push her points forward. The sixth chapter truly encompasses the way animation is a ". rich, technological field for rethinking collectives, transformation identity, animality and post humanity." [14] A few of the large and popular examples she uses to prove her point and argue those of queer theory scholars are comparison of "George W. Bush" to the "Kung Fu Panda", Disney films and cartoons as a form of revolt, and the depth of form in Pixar films, such as Finding Nemo, Monsters, Inc. en A Bug's Life.

In the chapter "Animating Failure: Ending, Fleeing, Surviving", Halberstam starts off by criticizing the view of Slavoj Zizek on Kung Fu Panda. Zizek compares the panda to George W. Bush, explaining that just like Bush, the panda rose to success because of the system, and that it was inherently tipped in his favor. Halberstam states that Kung Fu Panda ". joins new forms of animation to new conceptions of the human-animal divide to offer a very different political landscape than the one we inhabit, or at least the one Zizek imagines . " [25]

In addition to Kung Fu Panda, Halberstam goes in-depth on the complexity of animation, specifically in A Bug's Life, where a new form of "crowd scenes" were introduced. Once the technique behind the animation of the "crowd" is available, you then must make it believable by adding the proper story line. For example, in the film Vegklub, there is a scene of the brain created with much complexity, using L-systems, and is not as much an image of the brain or of cells as it is "an animation of the theory of cellular life". [26] The first step to animation is the technique, a ". heady mix of science, math, biology . " [27] However, without the narrative, it will not be effective, and the inner complexity of the image is what propels it forward to accurately represent what it is attempting to.

Stop-motion animation is the last point Halberstam touches on in this chapter. She goes into examples of "SpongeBob SquarePants", "Mr. Fox", "Chicken Run" and "Coraline" explaining how ideas of racism, entrapment, masculinity and political progression are present heavily in stop-motion films. Themes of remote control and imprisonment are also heavily present in stop-motion animation. The use of stop-motion animation can help evoke different emotions as well. Byvoorbeeld, in Chicken Run, the start-stop jerkiness allows the narrative to be even more humorous. Themes of remote control and imprisonment are also heavily present in stop-motion animation. However, we must remember that ". the comedic soul of Chicken Run is not its operatic escape . it's about the viewer's personal relationship with his or her inner chicken." [28]

"Telling Tales: Brandon Teena, Billy Tipton, and Transgender Biography" Edit

"Telling Tales" is an essay concerned with the politics of "passing" as well as the ethics of transgender biography. The essay discusses how women who "pass" are often accused of being deceptive, and they are subjected to brutal violations and murder. Halberstam poses questions about who controls narratives that circulate about the lives of transgender people. The paper discusses "transgender biography as a sometimes violent, often imprecise project, one which seeks to brutally erase the carefully managed details of the life of a passing person and which recasts the act of passing as deception, dishonesty and fraud" (Halberstam 14). The essay also provides a brief transgender history that is accompanied by a definition of terms such as female masculinity, transsexual, realness, the 'real', female-to-male transsexuals (FTM), butch, and femme. The author thinks that trans bodies have a certain illegibility, and he is suspicious of "experts" who try to read, document, and pin down "lives filled with contradiction and tension" (Halberstam 20).

This essay is also an earlier iteration of a book chapter published In a Queer Time and Place, where his interests lie in cultivating something akin to a queer “archive of our own” whose entry is, in many ways, delimited by queer subcultural producers, theorists, and all those agents who tarry the line between the two. His archival practice is, in some ways, barred against those agents indebted to cultural logics that would reenact the violence of transgender histories. However, this closure of who can and should not write transgender biography isn’t an identitarian concern inasmuch as a cautioning against the “willful biographer” who reads for the lie (Halberstam 28). His archival practice might also understood as an ethics of transgender biography, manifesting as the refusal to read for the lie and a commitment to read for the life. [29]

Gaga Feminism Wysig

In Gaga Feminism Halberstam uses Lady Gaga as a symbol for a new era of sexual and gender expression in the 21st century. The book has been noted as "a work that engages in the theorizing of contemporary gender relations and their cultural narratives, and the practice of calling for a chaotic upending of normative categories in an act of sociopolitical anarchy." [30] Halberstam describes five tenets of Gaga feminism:

  • Wisdom lies in the unexpected and the unanticipated.
  • Transformation is inevitable, but don't look for the evidence of change in the everyday look around, look on the peripheries, the margins, and there you will see its impact.
  • Think counterintuitively, act accordingly.
  • Practice creative non-believing.
  • Gaga Feminism is outrageous . impolite, abrupt, abrasive and bold. [31]

Halberstam uses contemporary pop culture examples such as SpongeBob SquarePants, Strooimeisies, and Dory from Finding Nemo to explore these tenets.

Other works Edit

In a Queer Time and Place: Transgender Bodies, Subcultural Lives, published in 2005, looks at queer subculture, and proposes a conception of time and space independent of the influence of normative heterosexual/familial lifestyle. Halberstam coedits the book series "Perverse Modernities" with Lisa Lowe. [32]

Trans*: A Quick and Quirky Account of Gender Variability, published in 2018, examines recent developments in the meanings of gender and gendered bodies. Through dissecting gendered language and creations of popular culture, Halberstam presents a complex view of the trans* body and its place in the modern world.

Halberstam is one of six children, including Naomi, Lucy, Michael, Jean and John. Halberstam's father, Heini Halberstam, and mother, Heather Peacock, were married until Heather's death in a car accident in 1971. Heini Halberstam married Doreen Bramley shortly thereafter, and they had a marriage of 42 years until Heini's death on January 25, 2014 in Champaign, Illinois at the age of 87. [33]

Halberstam is attracted to women. After a relationship of 12 years, Halberstam has been romantically involved with Macarena Gomez-Barris, a sociology professor from Los Angeles, since 2008. [34] Halberstam has said that he feels no pressure to marry, viewing marriage as a patriarchal institution that should not be a prerequisite for obtaining health care and deeming children "legitimate". Halberstam believes that "the couple form is failing". [35]

Halberstam has been nominated three times for Lambda Literary Awards, twice for the non-fiction book Female Masculinity.


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