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Waarom is direkte diagnose van aansteeklike siektes deur mikroskope nie 'n algemene ding nie?

Waarom is direkte diagnose van aansteeklike siektes deur mikroskope nie 'n algemene ding nie?


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Ek is nie seker of ek akkuraat hieroor is nie, maar van wat ek weet oor diagnostiek (kyk Huis MD ens.), as 'n dokter 'n vermoede van 'n patogeniese infeksie het, skryf hy/sy gewoonlik ooreenstemmende medikasie voor sonder om 'n soort van 'n bevestigende toets. Maar is dit nie moontlik om net die bloedmonster onder 'n mikroskoop te kyk en dit dan te bevestig nie? Ek dink dit kan nie gedoen word vir virusse nie, want hulle het 'n elektronmikroskoop nodig om hulle uitmekaar te los, maar ek dink normale bakterieë kan geïdentifiseer word deur meer algemeen beskikbare mikroskope te gebruik.


Die probleem hiermee is dat A) die infeksie plaaslik kan wees, en baie min indien enige bakteriese selle kan in sirkulasie wees, en B) selfs al is die infeksie sistemies, kan daar so min as 'n paar bakterieë per miljoen rooi en witbloedselle, wat visuele bevestiging onmoontlik maak. Meer dikwels, as die behandelende geneesheer die behoefte voel aan 'n direkte ID om die korrekte medikasie voor te skryf, word 'n kultuur van die plek van infeksie geneem of bloed getrek, en dan onderwerp aan een van enige aantal verskillende outomatiese ID-stelsels en /of kultuurtoestande om die spesifieke tipe bakterieë teenwoordig te identifiseer. Dit kan so eenvoudig wees soos Gram-kleuring om Gram-positiewe vs. Gram-negatiewe bakterieë te identifiseer (verskillende tipes antibiotika werk op die twee klasse) tot by 'n volledige identifikasie (genus, spesie, stam) gebaseer op molekulêre volgordebepaling, tipies van ribosomale RNA.


Donkerveldmikroskopie: beginsel en gebruike

Donkerveldmikroskopie is 'n tegniek wat gebruik kan word vir die waarneming van lewende, ongekleurde selle en mikroörganismes. In hierdie mikroskopie word die monster helder verlig terwyl die agtergrond donker is. Dit is een tipe ligmikroskoop, ander is helderveld, fasekontras, differensiële koppelvlakkontras en fluoressensie. Komponente van helderveldmikroskoop en verskil in beligting met donkerveldmikroskoop.
(Beeldbron: Geskep met BioRender.com)

Beginsel

Donkerveldmikroskopie gebruik 'n ligmikroskoop met 'n ekstra ondeursigtige skyf onder die kondensorlens, of 'n spesiale kondensor met 'n sentrale verduisterde area, as gevolg waarvan die lig wat van die bron af nie direk in die objektief kom nie.

Beginsel van Donkerveldmikroskopie
(Beeld met vergunning: Olivier Haeberlé)

Die pad van die lig is so gerig dat dit teen 'n wye hoek deur die buitenste rand van die kondensor kan gaan. slaan die monster teen 'n skuins hoek. Slegs die lig wat deur die monster verstrooi word, bereik die objektiewe lens vir visualisering. Alle ander lig wat deur die monster gaan, sal die doelwit mis, dus word die monster helder verlig op 'n donker agtergrond.

Gebruike van donkerveldmikroskopie

  • Visualisering van spirochetes soos Treponema pallidum (sifilis), Borrelia burgdorferi (lyme borreliose) en Leptospira interrogans (leptospirose) in kliniese monsters.

Borrelia in donkerveldmikroskopie
(Beeld met vergunning S Bhimji)

Spirochetes kan nie deur ligmikroskopie gesien word nie as gevolg van hul dun afmetings.


CHEMTRAILS EN MORGELLONS – DIT’S ERGER AS WAT JY GEDINK HET!

Hierdie artikel is geredigeer deur Bridget Conroy en Mike Caraway.
Meer van
Blou’s foto's kan gesien word in die “ Galery “ Hierdie skakel sal jou na Arizona Skywatch gaan na hul galery vir nog baie foto's van chemtrails en Morgellons-monsters.


Reproduksie van hierdie werk word aangemoedig, slegs vir nie-winsgewende, opvoedkundige doeleindes.

Gereproduseer deur MorgellonsExposed.com

Hierdie navorsing is begin in 'n poging om fisiese en neurologiese simptome wat deur my vir 'n geruime tyd waargeneem is en in omtrent almal, insluitend myself, te verduidelik. Dit was soos 'n splinter in my gedagtes.

Ek’ve waargeneem in onlangse jare dat kollegas, diegene wat ek’ve probeer het om veral op te lei, blykbaar almal hul korttermyngeheue verloor. Hulle sal 'n koffiebeker neersit en 10 sekondes later vergeet, hulle sal aan goed werk vir die veld en die kantoor daarsonder verlaat. 10 jaar gelede kon leerlinge drie of vier take op 'n slag gegee word en onthou hulle almal, nou kan hulle op sy beste net een op 'n slag hanteer, baie spookagtig. Kinders in die besonder, diegene wat 'n sterk geheue moet hê, lyk ook geraak. Winkelklerke en ander ly blykbaar ook aan dieselfde neurologiese simptome.

Wat my betref, my neus loop baie, my ore lui nou gedurig en my visie in een oog het 'n bietjie vaag geword, my gewrigte pyn, ens. Dit is hierdie waarnemings en my voortdurende waarnemings van die lug wat my op hierdie soeke gelei het om te kyk of daar 'n verband kan wees.

Ek moes altyd die weer dophou om die spanne en toerusting te beskerm en die taak op hande te voltooi. Ek het aktief die aërosol wat bo die Wit berge spuit, gefotografeer. (6500 voet hoogte.) van Ariz. sedert 2005 en het 'n hele fotoblog geskep van een jaar se waarnemings ten minste 50 uur per week wat in Desember 2005 begin het. My gevolgtrekking was dat die hele boonste troposfeer bevat wat slegs beskryf kan word as sintetiese wolke wat deur vliegtuie ingebring is. Ek het nie net die bespuiting gefotografeer nie, maar die omvorming van hierdie stof in wolke van 'n veselagtige aard en ander bisarre wolkformasies wat nie in vroeë/ENIGE wolkhandboeke gevind word nie. Sien: “Strange Days Strange Skies”

In die afgelope jaar het ek egter 'n buitengewone glans rondom die son waargeneem en gefotografeer, wat aandui dat 'n versadigingsvlak bereik is, en die bespuiting is nou selde in vergelyking I.E. een of twee keer per week (ten beste). Hierdie glans kan ook rondom stadionligte op TV gesien word. Ek’ve onlangs opgemerk dat wanneer die lug is 'n blou blou, soos dit moet wees, die vliegtuie sal nie lank wees om die gat te verseël ek dink. Ek het probeer om uit te vind hoe die wolke soms so veselagtig kan lyk, en verstaan ​​nou dat hierdie proses waarskynlik 'n funksie van nano-tegnologie polimeer se selfsamestellingstegniek sal wees (sien wolke wat verbind in die Lakeside-aërosolfoto's ). Gasse kon nie so streep nie, en wat opgaan, weet jy, Newton was reg.


Net die gebruik van 'n sterk flitslig wat snags opwaarts wys en in die gefokusde ligstraal kyk, bewys dat ons in 'n virtuele bad leef van wat navorsing deur ander suggereer 'n eksotiese vorm van barium, aluminium is en God weet wat nog, maar ek kan nie bekostig nie voltooi om myself te toets (sien “carnicom.com”bariumtoets bevestig).

Hierdie goed het so versadig geraak in ons atmosfeer, ten minste hier in die Witberge dat sonlig dikwels gesien kan word wat na die grond daardeur streel as dit bewolk is, baie soos wanneer sonlig deur 'n mens se vensterblindings intrek wanneer jy rook of ander rook kook. teenwoordig binne. Hierdie goed het ons sonlig verminder in vergelyking met twee jaar gelede, aangesien ek toe 'n ligmeter gestel het en dit meet nou 'n afname in lig van omtrent die helfte. Dit word ook bewys deur my kamera, wie se flits nou soggens meer werk as wat dit gebruik het, en soms word ligte by die park wat op fotosensitiewe skakelaars (en motors) is, bedags aan of voor skemer aan. , baie kommerwekkend.

Die alkalisering van water en enige watergebaseerde lugasemhalingsorganisme maak voorsiening vir verhoogde berging en selfs die skepping van gelykstroom, veral wanneer dit met ander komponente/chemikalieë gemeng word. Ek het dit in myself bewys met slegs 'n redelik goeie digitale voltmeter. Ek meet my spanning voortdurend deur net my vingers nat te maak en die probes te druk.

Ek het begin kyk na die versamelde water met 'n ou mikroskoop in die begin van April deur droog sowat 30 druppels op 'n mikroskoop skyfie en het dadelik gesien wat blyk te wees wat ek’d gesien kom van Morgellons pasiënte op die web. Ek het regtig gedink die storie is eerlikwaar 'n hoax, maar weet nou anders. Ek het na al my monsters begin kyk en tientalle van hierdie vesels gevind. Bevestiging van wat hierdie vesels was, het op 18 April 2007 gekom, toe 'n “Goldenhead” nanosensor geïsoleer is. Hierdie bevestiging was nogal die skok omdat ek geweet het toe almal van ons in die Witberge ten minste almal besmet is met hierdie bisarre nano-aandoening, besmetting, infeksie.

Hoekom die spanning ding so belangrik is: Ek het in my flesse wat geelektroliseer is waargeneem dat die groei van wat ek geleer het “sintetiese model organismes” (of kunsmatige lewensvorme) genoem word, aansienlik verbeter en verhoog word. Die vesels wat hulle Morgellons noem neem toe in ongeveer 6 maande. tot amper sigbaar met die blote oog of vergrootglas. Een so 'n klomp vesels het van 'n dosyn mikroskopiese vesels tot ongeveer 'n honderd gegaan en kan maklik met 'n pincet onttrek word. Twee van die deurskynende silikoon-nanobuisvesels is duidelik eweredig gesegmenteer en dit lyk of een string 'n DNA-string het wat deur sy kern draai. Hoe dit moontlik is, weet ek nie, maar dit is nie 'n dwaling of illusie soos ek nog het nie en dit gereeld waarneem.

Aangesien ek kan waarneem dat ons nou leef in 'n energieke elektriese bad wat verskaf word deur die “wonderwerk groei” goed (metaaldeeltjies) bygevoeg met die steeds toenemende mikrogolftorings, selfoontorings, radiotorings, satellietuitsendings, elektriese lyne, wi- fi-stelsels ens., koppel dit met die immer deurdringende teenwoordigheid van plastiekwaterpype, plastiekplante, plastiekwolke, kosverpakking, motorinterieurs, plastiekklere, plastiek kersfeesboom’s, ens., daar baie plastiekkomponente met wat om te werk, indien dit moontlik is. Plastiek is in 'n konstante toestand van agteruitgang en dus verdamping. Een geloofwaardige verduideliking van hoe die plat lintagtige vesels selfs op glas groei, is dat hierdie sintetiese model-organismes plastiekkomponente uit die lug, water of waar ook al teenwoordig kan saamstel en gelykstroom as deel van hul samestellingstegniek kan gebruik, of hulle voed af die silikoon in die glas of albei. Dit is bewys dat plante die meeste van hul minerale inhoud uit die lug onttrek, nie uit die grond soos vroeër geglo is nie. Nano-tegnologie is ontwerp om die dinge na te boots wat die mens ontdek het oor hoe die natuur werk, homself saamstel ens.

Dit sou ook verduidelik hoe hierdie klein vesels hul pad van die binnekant van ons/my liggaam na die buitekant van die vel gewerk het, ongemerk deur ons immuunstelsel. Ons het geleef, asemgehaal en gedrink plastiek oorblyfsels nou vir so lank, dit’s geword deel van ons liggaam’s samestelling. Aangesien die vel gedurig van binne na buite afstort, en die vel homself elke sewe jaar heeltemal regenereer, is my raaiskoot dat dit ongeveer tien jaar geneem het om na vore te kom soos gefotografeer. Ongeveer. toe al die aërosolprogramme of sogenaamde chemtrails begin het.


Ek het begin kyk na gedroogde druppels van hierdie versamelde water voor elektrolise en dit’s toe al die pret begin het. Ek het begin sien wat ek op die net gesien het, en is Morgellons-vesels genoem. Ek het hierdie storie gesien oor mense met vesels wat uit hul vel groei, maar het aanvanklik gedink dit is 'n internet-hoax. Daar is gesê hierdie vesels kan op hul eie groei en het 'n magdom simptome van velletsels tot breinmis en geheueverlies geskep.“rense.com” het onderhoude met Morgellons-pasiënte en sommige dokters wat hulle behandel)


My eerste reaksie was om uit die gebied te vlug, maar dit was ekonomies onmoontlik, en het besluit om voort te gaan om die probleem te bestudeer. Ek het nog 'n toetsstasie 300 myl ver opgerig wat dieselfde resultate opgelewer het. Teen hierdie tyd asof dit alles nie genoeg was nie, nou was daar ander dinge wat in die water groei. Die eerste een wat ek opgemerk het, was 'n klein lintwurm lyk wat ek interessant Fred genoem het. Dit het begin as 'n speldekopgrootte bruin kolletjie in die bodem van my pot. Hierdie ding het homself redelik vinnig in ongeveer twee weke bymekaargemaak van omtrent die grootte van 'n penkop tot sy huidige grootte ongeveer 1 1/4 lank.

Ek het elke aand en elke naweek ure op die mikroskoop begin spandeer om na hierdie bisarre groeisels te kyk. Geen sigbare biologie soos ons dit hoegenaamd ken nie. In dieselfde fles wat Fred gegroei het, het 'n paar dosyn morgellons-vesels saamgeklomp en Fred het op 'n tyd redelik goed daarin verstrengel geraak. Tot my verbasing het Fred hom stadigaan bevry van hierdie gemors wat ek so 3-5 dae lank gekyk het. Die vesels akkommodeer die moeite deur uit die pad te beweeg. Tot vandag toe jy kan’t kry hulle om te verstrengel. Ek het die hele maand van Mei spandeer om hierdie bisarre groei, die vesels te bestudeer en ander toetse te doen. Ek het toe besluit om noord 1100 myl te toets, in Idaho.

/>Die geleentheid om my werk te bedank het voorgekom en 'n aanbod van 'n aansienlike verhoging in salaris is geweier. Ek het baie respek vir hierdie vriend gehad, aangesien ons in die verlede goed saamgewerk het. Ek het gevoel ek skuld hom 'n verduideliking oor hoekom ek hom gaan afwys en beweeg, so ek het hom die omvang van my navorsing gewys. Ek het hom die omvang van die chemiese vergiftiging waarin ons leef en die konsekwentheid van daardie vergiftiging van week tot week gewys (ten minste 'n dosyn flesse). Ek het die ander kantoor ook die chemiese vergiftiging gewys, maar nie die biologiese goed nie. Ek het vir hom my hele versameling weeklikse toetse gewys en hom vertel van die morgellonsvesels wat ek in die water gevind het. Ek het vir hom vir Fred gewys, die ding wat saam met 'n kleiner een van dieselfde gegroei het. Ek het vir hom gesê ek kan sonder enige skaduwee van redelike twyfel bewys dat ons tans nie net onder chemiese aanval is nie, maar ook biologies (sinteties). Ek sou dit vir niemand vertel het as ek dit nie ad nauseum kon bewys nie. Sy reaksie soos die meeste was redelik sag, maar het nog nooit van Morgellons gehoor nie en het nie geweet wat dit in sy toekoms sou beteken nie. Hy het die volstruis ding gedoen soos almal (nog 'n waargenome neurologiese simptoom), as jy nie 'n probleem herken nie, moet dit nie bestaan ​​nie. Ek glo as hy na die Rense oudiolêers geluister het, sou sy reaksie anders gewees het.

/>Ek het gou na Idaho vertrek en die eerste drie dae daar was die sigbaarheid goed, en 'n klein skynsel om die son het beteken dat ek dalk 'n veiliger hawe gevind het vir my gesin om te trek. Teen die derde dag kon 'n groot spuitoperasie egter na die ooste gesien word en ek het in spinnerakke begin kyk en na die sap van bome en na die nuwe sap van my motor. Die gevolgtrekking: hierdie vesels is oral. Die angs, vrees en verskrikking het teruggekeer wat ek gedurende Mei-maand kom bedwing het om na dit alles te kyk. My hoop vir die toekoms is vernietig en die besef dat almal van hier tot Idaho besmet is met hierdie gruwelike mensgemaakte skepping (tik morgellons in “you tube”) het 'n werklikheid geword. Hierdie spesifieke dorp’ se watertoevoer word uit die meer getrek, wat net kan beteken dat hulle 'n dubbele dosis kry, nie net hul lug nie, maar ook hul water.

Ek het teruggekeer van Idaho en besluit om voort te gaan met my navorsing, wat net meer bisar geword het, as dit moontlik is. Ek het 'n ander ding ontdek wat groei, 'n vierkantige buigbare (miskien proteïen) kristal van 'n soort van ongeveer 1/4 in vierkant groei. Dit word steeds dikker en brei nie uit soos 'n mens sou verwag nie en verdik tot vandag toe stadig.

Ek het 'n houtraam 13吉 in gemaak en ultra duidelike pakband geneem en dit heeltemal bedek en dit oor die opening gestrek. Ek het dit met klewerige kant hemelwaarts gelê en dit oornag buite gelaat. In die oggend het ek dit in 'n geslote area laat droog word en dan 'n 12合 stuk dun glas op die band geplaas om my oornagversameling van uitval uit die lug in te verseël. Ek het van die glaskant af na die band gekyk met 'n goedkoop $10 60x-100x mikroskoop van radio shack, (goed om ook na jou vel te kyk) en daar was hulle, wat bevestig dat dit een bewysbare bron is vir hierdie vesels om te kom. Spinnerakke het dieselfde effek.


Ek het in elk geval 'n ander toetsstasie opgerig en besluit om hierdie een vir twee weke te laat loop en nie die water te elektroliseer nie. Dit het nuwe sintetiese model-organismes opgelewer wat verskil van die res. Dit (3d morg) het soos 'n Fred-ding begin lyk, maar het 'n eienaardige swart saadagtige ding gehad met vreemde klein spykers wat uitsteek. Dit was omtrent so groot soos 1/20 penkop en soos die Fred was dinge omring met die bruin kleurstof van Fred.

Dit het gespring, dink ek en het 'n soort sak geskep. Die sak het bestaan ​​uit honderde vesels wat 'n bietjie anders gelyk het as die lintagtige morgellons-vesels, hoewel baie daarvan teenwoordig was. Op hierdie stadium het ek besef ek het nodig kameras, want niemand sal iets hiervan glo nie

reeds. Hel ek kan nog’t glo meeste hiervan. Ek het twee mikroskope gekoop en al hierdie goed en meer begin fotografeer.

Ek het self bewyse gesien van hierdie repliserende tegnologie in spinnerakke, (ook op vel en in hare) deur duidelike silikoon-nanobuise te vind wat plantstrukture en ander dinge naboots, maar op 'n baie kleiner skaal. As soos beweer word, kan hierdie ding in aanraking kom met 'n bio-vorm en dele van dit se RNA/DNA repliseer (deur transkripsie en kworum-waarneming), en dan probeer samestelling met beskikbare komponente, silikoon is die volopste, sal isolasie vir studie wees amper onmoontlik. Vesels wat op glas leef, stel voor dat hierdie ding silikoon uit glas kan suig om self te monteer, kyk noukeurig na die hegpunte van hierdie vesels op glas.

Dit bly my groot kommer dat komponente van virusse of die volledige virus self ook gerepliseer kan word en bly 'n onopgemerkte / onbekende aspek van hierdie tegnologie. Ek bied my waarnemings aan met die versekering van dupliseerbaarheid. Ek teken eers aan wat ek kan dupliseer. Ek bied hierdie werk met uiterste dringendheid aan en glo dat tyd dalk min is. Die groei van skimmelstrukture in my bessies (en heel waarskynlik joune) is 'n werklike bekommernis, die mees waarskynlike verdagte is 'n gewapende fusarium-swam.

Dit bly 'n idee dat hierdie ding slegs verslaan mag word met resonante frekwensies, ingestel om die Quorum-waarnemingskapasiteit van hierdie tegnologie, oorvloedige tegnologie, te vernietig. Dit bly 'n waarneming dat miskien liggolf-tegnologie. kan hierdie dinge beïnvloed, aangesien outo-fluoressensie bereik is en is na my mening bewys van die frekwensies waarteen hierdie vesels vibreer. Dit bly 'n kommer dat suurstof 'n werklike tekort kan wees, atmosferies.

Dit bly logies om aan te neem dat mikroskopiese vesels wat elektriese stroom versamel / gelei, in ons brein groei en stadig ons neurone IE geheue, of Alzheimer’s, kortkort. Om geleiding aan hierdie wesens te ontken, is miskien die sleutel, hoewel dit oënskynlik onmoontlik is.

Nog 'n gedagte oor insekvektorering is dat hierdie tegnologie in die vloeistowwe van insekte kan woon, wanneer dit deur hulle gebyt word, word die tegnologie met die DNS/RNA van die insek oorgedra en probeer dan rekonstruksie, miskien van die gif, binne die menslike gasheer. Dit sou die DNS van insekte en plante wat in besmette mense geïsoleer is, verklaar.

'n Nuwe en nogal ontstellende waarneming/moontlikheid oor ons huidige situasie is soos volg: Volgens getuienis gelewer deur diegene wat besmet is, 'n korf mentaliteit is waargeneem deur diegene wat geteister word. Dit dui daarop dat A.I. of “kunsmatige intelligensie”, maar tot watter mate is onbekend.

Ook die laer vlak wolkstrukture wat nou verskyn, word nou baie meer gereeld uitmekaar gehaal as twee jaar gelede. Oorspronklik het my chemtrail-fotoprojek begin nadat ek gesien het hoe 'n taamlike groot wolk heeltemal uitmekaar gehaal het in 'n soort poeier en binne minute sigbaar wegwaai op die briesie en ook deur my medewerker waargeneem is.

Die onlangse artikel van 'n luggryp studie in Phoenix getiteld “chemtrails skokkende Phoenix luggehalte studie” bewys of regverdig my werk en ontdekkings. Aluminium gemeet teen 6400x bo die toksiese limiet, saam met Mangaan op 5820x, Yster teen 28000x, Barium teen 278x, ens.

Dit is die begin van die moessonseisoen hier en ek is redelik seker te oordeel hoe dikwels sonlig na die grond soos sonlig deur 'n venster in 'n rookgevulde kamer gesien kan word, dat dit baie erger is om hier te woon as in Phoenix in dat al die besoedeling van onder af hier opstyg om reënwolke te vorm. Wolke wat nou uitmekaar gehaal word, verdamp nie so gereeld dat ek dit nie meer fotografeer nie, en het my chemtrail-fotografie amper heeltemal gestop aangesien dit nie meer saak maak nie.

Dit is duidelik dat ons steeds stadig deur metaaldeeltjies versmoor word.

Die suiwerste vorm van wetenskap is waarneming en na honderde ure se waarnemings kan ek sonder huiwering sê: “Houston ons het 'n probleem !!”.

In 'n neutedop, soos ek deel van ons dilemma sien, is baie van hierdie sintetiese wolke nano-tegnologie-polimere wat vooraf geprogrammeer is met sekere meetkundige samestellingsfunksies om soos regte wolke te lyk. Hulle kan hierdie programmering tot op die nano-tegnologie-vlak behou soos hulle afbreek. Hul programmering kan uiteenlopend van aard wees, IE-samestelling, assosiasie, selfreplikasie, al drie of meer, ens. Dit impliseer onmiskenbare intelligensie en of voorafprogrammering of beheer van een of ander aard. Bo en behalwe die metaaldeeltjies wat deur my in ons lug verwyder is, in my bloed gefotografeer en uit my urine geelektroliseer is, het ons plastiekkomponente (foto afbrekend op hierdie oomblik en oral teenwoordig) van mikroskopiese grootte, wat in staat is om geometriese patroon te herstel en te repliserend / selfoorlewingsgedrag. Die Morgellons-sindroom kan meer korrek gemerk word “Sintetiese Wolk-infeksiesindroom”.

/>Ek het Cliff Carnicom’s geverifieer “carnicom.com” werk vir jare en sy bloedwaarnemings (6 mededelings 03-07-08) is a moetlees nou. Alle bloed waarna tot dusver gekyk is, het anomalieë in. Selfs my honde s'n. Die eerste keer wat ek na my bloed gekyk het, het dit my weke geneem om daaroor te kom en weer te kyk. Dit’s so erg. Bloed moet nie veel meer as rooi en witbloedselle bevat nie. Om nou te weet wat’s in die chemtrails maak my ineenkrimp wanneer ek hulle sien spuit.
Dit is niks minder nie as staatsgesanksioneerde / geborgde terrorisme / massamoord. T />alhoewel die regering die wetlike reg voorbehou het om goed op ons te toets (usc 1520a), het die state 'n wetlike / morele / etiese verpligting om ons te beskerm, dink ek, tensy hulle meer belastinggeld, beskerming, en of belowe is. die teenmiddel.

Ek het onlangs ’n vriend gehad wat gediagnoseer is met wat beskryf is as ’n seldsame vorm van bloedkanker. As ek na my bloed kyk, kan ek nie help om te wonder of dit werklik die ware of seldsame oorsaak was nie. Alle mense wat na bloed kyk vir 'n lewe moet weet wat werklik aangaan.

Velfoto's: />
Die velfoto's wys duidelik 'n metaalglans het in ons velle opgebou, saam met dowwe rooi kolle. Hierdie metaalglans verhoed noukeurige waarnemings van die omvang van die deurskynende veselbesmetting, wat waarskynlik nie fyn hare is soos ons dit ken en verstaan ​​nie. Speldekopgrootte veluitbarstings wat redelik vinnig ontwikkel en dan weke neem om te genees, is gevind en gefotografeer. Hierdie veltoestande is ook op ander waargeneem / gefotografeer.

Die gom stok goed:

/>Ek het heel toevallig ontdek dat 'n goedkoop warmsmelt-gomstokpistool goed is om mikroskoopskyfies te seël aangesien dit die monster bewaar en soos 'n pluisborsel vir Morgellons-vesels is. Sprei 'n bietjie op 'n skyfie, laat afkoel en vryf dan oor jou voorarm. Die klein vesels sal aan hierdie gom goed vashou en as jy nie glo dis Morgellons vesels nie wag 'n paar maande en kyk weer daarna. Hulle hou nie net daarby nie maar sal redelik vinnig groei, veral die rooies. Vreemd genoeg sal ongeveer 20% />van die tyd die gomstokgoed self op die skyfie ook in bisarre stringe groei. Ek het opgemerk balle gom wat sou verskyn, en verwyder hulle net om hulle weer op dieselfde plek te vind. Dit bly 'n waarneming dat die skyfies wat ingedrukte kersies in het die primêre skyfies is waarop of waarin die gomstok groei. Soms groei dit vinnig soms in maande. My booswigte kan op een of ander manier die oorsaak wees. God red ons.

Die afgelope paar maande blyk 'n nuwe infeksie in ons neuse te groei. Veldwerkers kry almal hierdie vreemde neus-kielie (baie met snorre). 'n Vreemde wit, dun draderige gom is die oorsaak wat ek glo en het 'n dosyn of so op skyfies geplaas en na die groei gekyk oor tyd. Vreemd genoeg lyk hulle as hulle klein is soos vlieë maaiers, maar kan nogal lank word. Wat’s waargeneem is so bisar soos die res van hierdie storie. Geometriese kristalgroeisels, sneeuvlokkie-ontwerpe, Morgellons-veselgroei, skimmelagtige fibrilgroei met sporulasies.

Om hierdie eksperiment na 'n stort te dupliseer, blaas die neus in 'n gekleurde waslap of plastieksak en kyk vir klein wit draderige buffels wat nie wil skei nie, maar hulle sal as uitmekaar getrek word. Water laat hulle baie uitbrei. Plaas binne en aan die kant van 'n skoon geslote fles met net 'n klein bietjie vog in die fles en laat staan ​​vir 48 uur. Verwyder en dompel in bietjie gedistilleerde water en plaas op 'n mikroskoopskyfie. Druk liggies die dekplaat en verseël met gompistool, laat net genoeg lug onder vir voortgesette groei en let op. Nege maande later is meer gomstokkies gesien. Hierdie ontdekking van wat blykbaar vorm in ons neuse kweek, is 'n groot bekommernis, aangesien baie soorte vorm neurotoksies vir die brein is. In klein maar konsekwente dosisse kan skade ongemerk bly totdat dit te laat is, maar dit kan reeds waar wees. Dit sal egter 'n aantal neurologiese simptome verduidelik wat deur Morgellons-pasiënte beskryf word. Deur net 'n lekker droë boeg uit te grawe en in gedistilleerde water vir ongeveer 5 min te week sal omtrent dieselfde resultate gee en daar is altyd vesel in hulle. Ek het egter’t toegang tot wetenskaplike graad gedistilleerde water.

/>Enigiemand wat enigiets hiervan aan hulself moet bewys, benodig net 'n halwe ordentlike mikroskoop ten minste 40x-100x en spinnerakke (of hul eie goggatjies of bloed). Gebruik 'n mikroskoopskyfie en ultrahelder pakband om die web aan jou skyfie te verseël. Die web moet tot 'n mate oud en vuil wees, maar hoef nie regtig vuil te wees nie. Ek het meer verifieerbare voltooide nano-tegnologie-dinge in spinnerakke ontdek as op enige ander plek. Gesegmenteerde silikoon nanobuise en nanovere (sien Cliff Carnicom se carnicom.com foto's en werk), altyd Morgellons vesels ens.

/>Die seesteragtige goed van meervoudige beenontwerp bly 'n huidige fassinasie. In die middel van byna al hierdie wesens is daar 'n beherende veselagtige stof/struktuur wat blykbaar groei beheer en/of rig. Hierdie wese / ding het geen waarneembare biologie soos ons dit ken nie en lyk dalk net van silikoon gemaak. (My instinkte glo dit is heel waarskynlik neuronvervangings / inplantings vir ons brein, tik in nanobots en neuron koppelvlak in you tube, hulle’ve is oorweeg indien nie gebou nie). />Hulle is gevind in byna alle buite webs maar nie binne as van die laat (5 buite 2 binne) waarskynlik omdat die buite webs is jare ouer as binne een’s.


Dit is noodsaaklik dat diegene wat betrokke is hul eie waarnemings maak en nie my werk glo nie, van jou afkom en dit self verifieer. (My lugversamelaar kan vir sowat $35 gemaak word) Vir die grootste deel fotografeer ek nie meer morgellonsvesels in spinnerakke nie, hulle is veels te gereeld en nie meer 'n verrassing nie. Elke spinnerak tot dusver het foto's opgelewer.


Nie-elektrolise sintetiese model organisme:

/>In Meimaand het ek by Hawley-meer op die reservaat gaan visvang. Hulle het gif klimop daar waarvoor ek altyd oppas. Ek het in die water gegaan om 'n lokmiddel omtrent tot by my kniebeen te haal. 'n Paar dae later het ek wat ek seker was gif klimop op my kalwers gekry, al het ek niks gesien waar ek visgevang het nie, dit het egter vir ongeveer 'n maand gehou, wanneer dit gewoonlik binne 'n week weggaan. Wanneer dit gekrap word, het dit maklik gebloei en lyk dit ietwat soortgelyk aan die beskrywing wat Cliff Mickelson gegee het. Dit’s bespiegel dat sedert my elektriese bio-veld is so sterk dat moontlik toe ek in die water hierdie nano dinge was na my getrek soos 'n magneet.

/>Tydens dit alles het ek besluit om van hierdie metale te probeer detoks en die ioniese voetdetoksbad gedoen wat nogal die ervaring was. Ek het dit eers 'n salon-truuk gedink totdat ek die goed elektroliseer het en met 'n mikroskoop na die water gekyk het na behandeling ek het dadelik opgemerk ek kon weer baie beter ruik en proe, maar nou het die lug 'n metaal smaak in my mond gelaat wat so 3 weke geneem het om weg te gaan, vermoedelik omdat ek weer aan die lug akklimatiseer het. Ek het toe akupunktuur en chlorella detox probeer maar moes ophou want ek kon my vulsels proe danksy die kwik daarin.

Ek het 'n druppel “miracle grow” (metale uit die lug) geneem, dit laat droog word en 'n druppel chlorella daarop gesit. Tot my verbasing het die chlorella met geweld oor die "wondergroei" gespoel en toe opgehou. Die chlorella óf gewen of verloor Ek weet’t weet watter. Ek het 'n druppel op 'n paar morgvesels probeer en niks het gebeur nie, stilte. Baie vreemd. My gevolgtrekking: detoks werk as jy van die giftige goed kan wegkom, maar kan andersins skadelik wees.

Die meeste van hierdie waarnemings is gedoen buite 'n klein dorpie (ongeveer pop. 10 000), ongeveer 6 myl aanvanklik. Sedert ek hier gewoon het, het ons 'n groot wilgerboom van omtrent 15 voet hoog en 10 voet breed. Wanneer dit blom, sal duisende heuningbye dit weke lank uitswerm. Die geraas van die bye kon binne gehoor word. Vanjaar 2007 het miskien 200 tot 300 bye kom voed. Toe ek in 2002 vir die eerste keer hierheen verhuis het, het vlermuise snags my stoep gepatrolleer en kolibries by die dosyne sou van hierdie stoep af vreet. Nou is daar’s geen vlermuise, min goggas en 'n paar kolibries (2007). Ons sou ook klein vliegagtige insekte kry wat op die vog op die vensters groei. In 2006 het byna geen goggas daardie somer op ons vensters gegroei nie en min vlieë het hul pad na binne gevind, al het ons geen sifdeure nie.

Opsomming —

“Om te sondig deur stilte maak lafaards van alle mense”

/>Opsommend wil jy weet hoekom ons, voëls, bye, paddas, en nou vlermuise (daar is min goggas oor) besig is om te vrek, (naar 'n appel wat hierdie jaar op hierdie berg gevind is, en my terugreis van Idaho af amper geen huckleberries gegroei het).Dit is onmiskenbaar dat ons en alle lewensvorme onder doelbewuste chemiese en biologiese nano-aanval is, DOE en DOD is heel waarskynlik betrokke, jou belastinggeld by die werk (om jou dood te maak met sagte-dood, hoë wins farmaseutiese wapens). Dat die chemikalieë wat deur my verwyder word, gevind in ons lug/bloed, water en urine 'n verrykte omgewing bied vir die versnelde groei van hierdie sintetiese model organismes. Hierdie chemikalie verhoog die liggaam en omgewing se elektriese vermoëns, wat die gelykstroom verskaf vir hierdie sintetiese organismes om self te monteer. Die diverse aard van die organismes wat waargeneem word, is dalk 'n funksie van die “silentsuperbug.com” maar Morgellons vesels is na my mening verskillende dinge. Die liggaam verskaf die elektriese stroom vir hierdie dinge om self te monteer, aangesien die liggaam eerste elektries en chemies tweede is. Elke lewende wese op die planeet word tans deur hierdie kunsmatige lewensvorme gekoloniseer, tot watter doel is nie bekend nie. This brings to mind the movie the “Matrix” and I wonder if and/or how they knew.

A new source for morg fibers was found in an old paper wick inside our humidifier. Its about 6-8 mo old and has not been used since the summer. It’s loaded with them and other things. The truth remains, every single time I look at new stuff it gets worse and worse.

In 2004 I believe, three weeks before Xmas a very spooky thing happened. An unusual chemical smell was in the air, that was noticed by others as well, that smelled like a pesticide. One morning I woke up and couldn’t remember the day, what time I was to go to work, etc. I panicked a little but drove to work anyway kind of stunned. I was afraid I had a stroke. At 6:00 am on the way to work there were not one but three major accidents on the main road. Highly unusual that early, rarely seen three accidents in a month. For the next month everyone in the office, store clerks, etc. seemed to have the same thing and jokingly the term early-onset Alzheimer’s was thrown around by others, I found it not funny however, I was aware something had happened. I slowly regained much of my memory but it felt like I had to fight for it back. I mentioned this observation to a co-worker and he told me his wife, an accountant for years, said she all of a sudden was having trouble with normal math during that same period and said he too had forgotten things more than usual. During X-mas, store clerks would take money and forget immediately what it was for, or stumbled trying to count change continually. I was, still am, quite concerned. It took about 3 mo. to recover and about 3 months later a Doctor named Patricia Doyle called the Rense program with the same exact story (type in amnesiacs). She said her small town back east was experiencing this memory dysfunction after heavy spraying, and she apologized for having to read notes she had made for the program, as she too was having short term memory problems.

About three years ago I was showing my aerosol spraying photos and some others I had gleaned from the net to the owner of a video store where we rented videos. A man at the counter became interested and looked at my photos. He immediately recognized some of the aircraft in the photos as C-130 cargo planes. He seemed concerned and vowed to investigate, then left. The owner told me that was her brother and if anyone could find out, he could as he was retired military intelligence. About four months later I asked if he’d found out anything, and this was the story she recounted. He said indeed the spraying was quite toxic and he had been present at a confrontation by I believe the Navaho nation and the EPA The EPA contended everything was ok until the Navahos presented their evidence to the contrary which was quite compelling. The EPA then closed up its books and left without another word. I asked her to have him call me with more details but two weeks later she closed up shop and left too. I’ve not been able to verify this story since.

/>Another recent revelation came from the article: Are microwaves killing our insects, birds ,frogs and us? The metal particulates which separated in my blood are photographically identical to the metal found in all air samples. This can only mean our cerebral fluids contain these particulates. Ever put metal in a microwave? What do you think happens when you stick a .5 watt microwave cell phone next to your 70% water 30% cholesterol brain with about 2-4% of some type of exotic metal flowing through it, micro-sparks would be a good guess. The article stated a 200 meter (approx. 600 ft) range around the base transmitters to be the most detrimental to any life form. How close to the road are most of our microwave antennae and why are they in our high school yard ?? I’ve read reports that at full power these transmitters can cook all life within 1/4 mile. They could turn them on full blast and by the time you realized driving through the field that something was wrong you’d be dying shortly, like within minutes of brain cooking !!

The disappearance of the bee’s, bugs, bats, birds etc. correspond with the installation of all the microwave antennae on this mountain.

/>This is why apathy doesn’t work and when we saw the spraying, (or were exposed to terrible injustices, the Kennedys, Vietnam, Waco, 911 etc.) we should have mobilized quickly to stop it. “To sin by silence makes cowards of all men”. It’s now my belief that Morgellons is what Alzheimer’s patients have and can likely be proven with post mortem brain slices perhaps from dogs, and the miracle grow stuff in our air is slowly but continually being electrolyzed in our brains and bodies perhaps in specific or targeted areas. It remains possible that we may all be incapable to respond to any threat, though that’s no excuse. Our pineal gland (the fight or flight receptor in our brain) has been plaqued over or destroyed is my guess and fluoride (see university of Texas studies) has likely helped do that. One year of sodium fluoride destroys this gland almost forever. It’s imperative that you reproduce any of these observations, should you care or dare to see how bad the air really is, but few if any seem to give a shit about anything anymore, another neurological observation of real real concern.

My true observations of people now believes the gov’t could start shooting people in broad daylight and people would just go about their business without intervention or condemnation. Oh wait it already happened at Waco (watch “rules of engagement, the true story of Waco!) and the current and past wars.

To understand what our future holds and for other ideas on this it’s highly recommended that all the morgellons interviews on “rense.com” are listened to backwards (14-7 will give the best overview).

I regret now having discovered all this, as I was much happier (though concerned/confused about all my neurological observations above) not knowing all this stuff, as it has completely disrupted my life, but it’s my hope that maybe a cure will be found (by accident maybe) by perhaps someone who gets this.

Reproduction of this work is encouraged, for non-profit, educational purposes only. It’s not for everyone but can be shown to others who might care, if you can find any. Photos may appear on web sites, credits to “Blue“, but may not be sold without my written permission. If you have received this, I’m sorry and may God bless you. Problems cannot be solved unless one knows they exist. Be cautious to whom you tell, don’t upload on your hard drive or transmit electronically or be on a computer hooked to the net. or near wi-fi systems. I recommend you review the work done by Cliff Carnicom.com (or type in aerosol crimes) and in the work by others.

It would appear man has out-smarted himself, or this is the wrath we deserve for our apathy, or this is the start of the promised 80% population reduction recommended in U.N. documents with a twist. The twist is they’ll mine us to pay for medical stuff as we die anyway. Make no mistake, the elites probably have the cure. This would however explain why so many highly trained microbiologists and others have been murdered (300+) over the past 5+ years, many satanically. If anything, this and all my other projects have taught me that man as a species has had all their self-survival instincts removed, as I’ve been pointing to these observations of our sky (as have millions of others) for years (late 90’s) only to be laughed at by those who worked inside mostly. It’s no joke any more, sadly though there’s always the chance I could be wrong, at this point maybe 2%, though I pray I am every day. Oddly enough “the more truth one seeks, the more truth one’s sent”, or at least that’s my story.

We are under attack from all directions.

How many lab rats developed severe organ damage eating GM potatoes? All of them (still gets FDA approval, you’ll eat some tonight probably)

How many days did it take to notice changes in the rats? 10

How many days to recover? 140

How many days can a rat survive on just water? 7

How many eating some common puffed breakfast cereals and water? 7

How many lab monkeys died eating aspartame (diet sugar)? All of them (its now in over 8,000 foods, click “DORway” for further info.

How many IQ points will sodium fluoride (toothpaste fluoride) remove over time? 6 to 10 at least (read the back, its poison, call them)

What’s the average IQ loss of vaccinated participants in the U.S.? 10-16 at least.

What was the autism rate in 1940? 1-400,000

What’s it now? 1-164 (soon projected at 1-94)

How many Amish and Pennsylvania Dutch un-vaccinated children have autism, in one clinic after 2,200+ children? Only 4,and they are among the only group of 12 kids who got all their vaccinations (read educate before you vaccinate).

Has the EPA granted license to test pesticides on orphans? Yes.

How many state government have responded with testing to thousands of requests from concerned citizens about chemtrails? None.

How many de-classified US documents of experiments on populations with chemical and/or bio. weapons are there? +20,000. (watch documentary “endgame”)

How many people were fired for failing to defend the US on 9-11? None.

How many healthy children were irradiated, in many cases to death, but parents were told it’s an experimental ring worm treatment? +10,000. Type in ringworm children.

In 1950 what rating was given to our education system? 1st place What’s it now? Near bottom of the industrial nations.

Hoekom? See all the above. Read “The Deliberate Dumbing Down of America” Now a free E-Book.

How many pigs (one of the most acute smell sensory animals) would eat GM corn when given a choice? None, almost to the point of starvation.

How many now after reviewing all the evidence above believe that global warming (and poisoning) is man made, well it is, and they are called pilots (your tax dollars again at work). What’s their solution? A global tax on us. Let’s summarize, they spray the stuff, deny there’s a problem, energize it which heats it, they blame it on us and our activity and tell us we need to give them more money to combat the problem they are continuing to create. Makes about as much sense as the war on terror while the borders remain wide open. These examples are what Orwell coined as “doublethink”, the ability to hold two contrary notions in one’s head and believe them both.

Are you starting to get the picture yet or do you need more proof? If you aren’t disturbed by anything above there is something seriously wrong with or perhaps controlling you.

Just because these heinous acts are/were committed against others doesn’t obviate your concern and/or intervention. They are crimes against all God’s wondrous creatures in general.

Everyone one of us and every living thing is living now in a state of sanctioned, deliberate, heavy metal intoxication / poisoning of differing degrees and stages, as inside air and outside air are different, as these positively charged metal particles are drawn to the ground first. Those of us who work outside will bear the brunt of this first, and those who work with or around transmitters will show advanced symptoms. But it’s still inside too. I’ve been to houses which have ventilation hoods and where the people don’t smoke, yet even in those houses sunlight can be seen streaking in through the blinds and is written off as “just dust particles”. I’ll say !

If you listened to the Rense audios, you’ll understand the psychological degradations associated with this infection, and the heavy metal intoxication / poisoning will make it much worse. Negative traits are amplified and many law enforcement personnel who enjoy domination over others will worsen, and they are likely to become more brutal. This is already evidenced on you tube videos of police brutality, and reported treatment of the local citizenry.

By now you’re probably thinking I’ll just drink more water and flush this metal stuff out, which would normally really help, except try this, electrolyze a glass of your tap water and remember this process will only remove the metals (ionic salts) in your tap water All metal is poisonous, heavy or not, in high doses and outside evolutionary time parameters. MMM doesn’t that look good, but the water company says it’s ok to drink my guess is they’re lying, too.

How could we be so blind…………… see all the above, it’s been by design.

How could God (or just your sense of “fair play”) forgive us for allowing such blatant travesty as above, he can’t , he won’t. You wouldn’t .

Evil spreads when good people do nothing.

All species and life forms are under deliberate, multiple attack. It’s not like a dog barking or rattle snake near you, that your instincts know to react to, and understand your instincts aren’t your own anymore, they’ve been co-opted, it’s an awareness of your surroundings, LOOK UP, what goes up must come down. Does that look like a normal contrail or cloud, if not you’re probably breathing that. Maybe you should be concerned. No those aren’t clouds they’re chemicals (type in strange days strange sky’s, or see my photos). Think again for your survival and most importantly others’. Spend a few hours proving anything you’ve been told to believe. You’ll likely find them to be all lies. The state and feds have all said those are normal contrails and not to worry, see my photos, are those clouds or chemicals? If they look like chemicals, they probably are, are you worried yet?? Do you still believe them? If so you’re in trouble as we all are.


Anyone who has studied “smart dust”, a military 3D modeling satellite system, knows that for years they been dumping nano-tech stuff on us and everyone else.

What can be done you ask, anything? Waiting for the CDC to help is moot, they’re in the pocket of the insurance industry. Play with this stuff, (wear gloves you’ll feel better) find something it reacts to, sulfur, garlic, baking soda, glue, static electricity, kerosene, ammonia, chaparral extract, etc. I’m in this now 900+ hours and $1,000 in equip. because I love all God’s creature’s and understand it’s my duty to defend them at my own expense, not because it’s what God commands, because it’s the right thing to do.


How Long Does Support Last?

NIAID awards T32s for five years, with the chance to renew. We make awards annually, with further support contingent on performance and funding availability.

Trainee appointments are usually in one-year increments new appointments must be at least nine months except when we've approved a short-term training position. A trainee can remain in a program for a maximum of five years for predoctoral trainees three years for postdoctoral trainees.

For more details, see the trainee appointments section of T32 and T35 Training Grants—Key Administrative Information.

T35s may be awarded for periods up to five years and are renewable. Trainees must pursue research training for two to three months on a full-time basis, devoting at least 40 hours per week to the program.


What Happens After the Biopsy?

After the tissue is collected and preserved, it's delivered to a pathologist. Pathologists are doctors who specialize in diagnosing conditions based on tissue samples and other tests. (In some cases, the doctor collecting the sample can diagnose the condition.)

Continued

A pathologist examines the biopsy tissue under a microscope. By noting the tissue cells' type, shape, and internal activity, in most cases a pathologist can diagnose the problem.

The time it takes to get results from a biopsy can vary. During a surgery, a pathologist may read a biopsy and report back to a surgeon in a few minutes. Final, highly accurate conclusions on biopsies often take a week or longer. You will probably follow up with your regular doctor to discuss the biopsy results.

Sources

National Cancer Institute: "Dictionary of Cancer Terms."

Zuber, T. American Family Physician, March 15, 2002.

WebMD Medical Reference: "Breast Biopsy."

National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse: "Kidney Biopsy."


Physical Examination

Down syndrome is usually quite evident as soon as a baby with the disorder is born, as many of its distinctive physical characteristics are present at birth. These include:

  • A round face with a flat profile and small facial features (nose, mouth, ears, and eyes)
  • Protruding tongue
  • Almond-shaped upturned eyes with epicanthus folds
  • White flecks in the colored part of the eyes (Brushfield spots)
  • A short neck and a small head that's somewhat flat in the back (brachycephaly)
  • A single crease across the palm of each hand (normally there are two), short stubby fingers, and a pinky finger curves inward—a condition called clinodactyly
  • Small feet with a larger than normal space between the big and second toes
  • Hypotonia, or low muscle tone, which causes the newborn to appear “floppy” due to a condition called hypotonia.

These characteristics are red flags that a newly born baby has Down syndrome. To confirm the diagnosis, a blood sample will be taken and used to create a karyotype.


Current and Emerging Technologies for the Diagnosis of Microbial Infections

Hannes Pouseele , Philip Supply , in Methods in Microbiology , 2015

Abstract

Efficient molecular-guided epidemiological control of tuberculosis is especially important, because of the complex epidemiology, the insidious transmission and the specific biological features of its etiologic agent Mycobacterium tuberculosis . The most used typing system for epidemiological tracing of the pathogen is MIRU-VNTR typing, which has been internationally standardised under two formats (standard 24-locus based and 4 hypervariable locus based), optionally combined with spoligotyping. This generalised use has been facilitated by the portable numerical genotypes that are generated, the precisely calibrated molecular cluster definition and the option to use published protocols or ready-to-go kits directly compatible with multifunctional web-based databases. However, such classical typing systems can inherently not capture all possible micro-variation that can occur in the genome. Near complete capture of the available genetic information is increasingly performed by whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Such approaches take advantage of the rapid advances and increasing affordability of next-generation sequencing technologies, including benchtop platforms meeting the needs of routine clinical microbiology. However, such technologies rely on a number of key technical steps that are important, including in particular the critical bioinformatics analysis step. This chapter will therefore provide an overview of analysis parameters that are determinant for accurate WGS-based epidemiological surveillance of M. tuberculosis, linked to its restricted genetic diversity and the particular richness of its genome in repetitive regions.


Why DSM-III, IV, and 5 are Unscientific

If science is defined as some kind of systematic study of observed experience applied to hypotheses or theories, and then confirmation or refutation of those hypotheses or theories, followed by new hypotheses or theories that are further tested and refined by new observations – if this is the core of any scientific inquiry, I think that no objective observer can attribute the history of DSM-III, IV, and 5 to anything that approximates this process.

A Spirited Exchange about the Biology of Mental Disorders and DSM-5

The spirited exchange between Drs Ronald Pies and Nassir Ghaemi is, I contend, good for the field. Rather than avoid the sensitive or uncertain issues, both psychiatrists turn to face them with their own thought provoking styles and piercing insight. Would that we had more such collegial exchanges in psychiatry. Drs Pies and Ghaemi model for us how to abandon our defensiveness in an objective, respectful and passionate discourse.

As nobel laureate Erick Kandel points out, our field is highly complex, quite young and "our understanding of the biology of mental disorders has been slow in coming." But it is, in fact, slowly progressing. The question of how long it will take to gain a more precise understanding of the underpinnings of mental illness has no definite answer. Or as Dr Theodore Pearlman has stated - "is any psychiatrist's guess."

And so in this spirit of continued scholarly dialogue, I offer a well-reasoned, trenchant response to Dr Ghaemi by Dr Pearlman, which can be found at the end of Dr Ghaemi’s esssay.

Dr Ron Pies makes many insightful comments in the accompanying analysis. My view about why DSM revisions have been unscientific is based on concepts of science that are in agreement with much of what he describes. If science is defined as some kind of systematic study of observed experience applied to hypotheses or theories, and then confirmation or refutation of those hypotheses or theories, followed by new hypotheses or theories that are further tested and refined by new observations – if this is the core of any scientific inquiry, I think that no objective observer can attribute the history of DSM-III, IV, and 5 to anything that approximates this process.

Let’s review this history, so well documented now by historian Hannah Decker with archival, often unpublished evidence for DSM-III. 1 In the 1970s, scientific studies that meet the above definitions were collected mainly by researchers centered at the Washington University of St. Louis, and about 2 dozen diagnoses were found to be definable based on such empirical evidence. These were published a few times, lastly in 1978, as the Research Diagnostic Criteria. Within 2 years, Robert Spitzer had taken those scientifically-based diagnoses as the basis for DSM-III, but, through an immense amount of political wheeling-and-dealing (documented in painful detail by Decker), he produces 292 diagnoses. Obviously, in 2 years, a huge amount of scientific research did not suddenly identify 270 new diagnoses. Fourteen years later, with DSM-IV, 365 diagnoses were produced, but the original 270 were little changed. Now, about 20 years later, we still have almost 400 diagnoses, with little change in the original 292 from the Groundhog Year of 1980.

How were these other 200 to 300 diagnoses developed? Was it through a scientific process? As so well documented by Decker and historian Edward Shorter 2 and others who observed the process, like Michael Alan Taylor, 3 these other diagnoses were based almost entirely on the opinions and beliefs of leaders and interest groups in the psychiatric profession. Why do we have about 10 personality “disorders”? Because psychoanalysts believe in those ideas. Were those ideas tested with observational studies, and then revised based on confirmations and refutations of their content? Not before 1980, and hardly since. As an example, Taylor describes a DSM-IV conference on personality where a huge amount of scientific research was presented on personality traits, and then the DSM-IV leaders stated clearly that they would ignore that scientific evidence and would hardly change the DSM-III personality disorder definitions at all. 3 Twenty years later, after literally thousands more studies with some of the best possible scientific evidence possible in experimental psychology, the DSM-5 task force had no choice but to admit the need to add personality dimensions to the nosology. It got all the way to the APA Board of Trustees, and within weeks of publication, was simply rejected tout court.

The original DSM-III personality disorders were almost completely based on psychoanalytic opinion, with hardly any scientific validity literature to support them, as documented well by Hannah in her archival research. In the intervening 30 years, a number of scientific validity studies (using the classic nosology validators of phenomnelogy, course, genetics, and biological markers) have invalidated most DSM-IV personality disorders in other words, they have been falsified scientifically. In fact, this was the scientific conclusion of the personality disorder research summary provided for DSM-5 by the world’s most prominent personality researchers. 4 And yet DSM personality disorders have remained little changed in DSM-5 by fiat. This is another proof of being unscientific: the DSM nosology refuses to accept the falsification of its cherished beliefs.

This is the problem. It’s not complicated, and philosophically difficult. If you have opinion, and nothing else, it’s not science. If you refuse to change your opinions, it’s not science. Most of DSM has been based on opinion, and our profession has refused to change most of that opinion for 2 generations. How can anyone imagine that any profession would ever experience progress, much less scientific progress, if it refuses to change its opinions, themselves based on nothing but prior opinion?

We are much more ignorant than Hippocrates over 2 millennia ago. He knew that opinion breeds ignorance, while science is the father of knowledge. We mistake our opinions for science.

Dr Pies’ attempt to distinguish the terms “scientific” and “validity” is mistaken when applied to DSM, I think, partly because he uses the word “valid” in both English and scientific usage, which is not the same. “Validity” when applied to nosology means that a diagnosis is true it exists it is not wrong. Cancer is valid drapetomania is not. This is different from the English usage, when Dr Pies says [in his footnote] that the steady-state theory of the universe was invalidated by the Big-Bang theory. In the latter example, physicists were testing hypotheses by evidence, and changing their theories based on those experimental results. That’s science.

In the DSM process, psychiatric leaders enforce their opinions, and then they refuse to change them at all based on any experimental research. That’s not science. There are some cases, much less common, where DSM changes have been based on scientific evidence. So my claim here is not absolute, but it does reflect the predominant approach in DSM changes for the 4th revision almost entirely, and for the 3rd and 5th revisions mostly.)

Worse, the leader of DSM-IV is explicit that science is low in priority and should not be valued as the main method of revising diagnosis. 5 Instead, he says, we should base revisions mainly on “pragmatism,” meaning what DSM leaders think is good for everyone else. (A direct quote: It seems clear to me that pragmatic concerns for patient welfare always trump ‘science,’ especially since the ‘science underpinning psychiatric diagnosis is so thin and subject to alternative interpretations.”) 6

As usual, the disciples are far inferior to the master. Freud knew better when he wrote in Future of an Illusion: “No, our science is no illusion. But an illusion it would be to suppose that what science cannot give us we can get elsewhere.” 7

Nosological validity means applying scientific methods of hypothesis and experiment, and – most importantly – changing theories and hypotheses based on observations and experiments. This is not how the original 292 DSM-III diagnoses came about, and it is certainly not how they’ve been handled for the last 3 decades.

That’s why science and nosological validity (based on the 5 validators described by Dr Pies-see footnote) are synonymous in the field of psychiatric diagnosis. There’s no way to be scientific unless you use examine the evidence, which comes from those 5 areas. That’s nosological validity that’s science.

The issue is not whether scientific ideas are later “invalidated” here Dr Pies is using the word in its English meaning, not in its technical meaning in the science of nosology. Validity in nosology means studies that use the 5 validators (or pathology) that is different from the use of the term in the general English meaning that something is tested and confirmed based on experiment. The KIND of experiment varies from science to science: in histology, validity is based on microscopes in astrophysics, telescopes in psychiatric diagnosis, the 5 validators. The use of the word “invalidated” is English, and different from the term “validity” in nosology.

If you divide the 2 dozen somewhat validated psychiatric diagnoses, by the 400 or so claimed by DSM-5, we can precisely state that DSM-5 is about 97% unscientific. We need to change the attitude of 2 generations in our profession: paying lip-service to science, and then ignoring it.

Verwysings
1. Decker HS. The Making of DSM-III®: A Diagnostic Manual's Conquest of American Psychiatry. New York: Oxford University Press 2013.
2. Shorter E. Before Prozac: The Troubled History of Mood Disorders in Psychiatry. New York: Oxford University Press 2009.
3. Taylor MA. Hippocrates Cried: The Decline of American Psychiatry. New York: Oxford University Press 2013.
4. Widiger TA, Simonsen E, Krueger R, et al. Personality disorder research agenda for the DSM-V. J Pers Disord. 200519:315-338.
5. Frances A. DSM in Philosophyland: Curioser and Curioser. 2010 http://alien.dowling.edu/

cperring/aapp/bulletin.htm. Accessed November 8, 2010.
6. Frances A. DSM-5 and practical consequences. Psychology Today. December 23, 2010. http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/dsm5-in-distress/201012/dsm-5-and-practical-consequences. Accessed November 9, 2013.
7. Freud S. Future of an Illusion. Vol 22. London: Hogarth Press 1927.

In Defense of DSM

As an elder psychiatrist practicing before and after DSM-III became the standard diagnostic handbook for psychiatrists in the 1980s, I take issue with Dr Ghaemi’s position that DSM lacks scientific credibility. Dr Ghaemi wants psychiatry to confine its knowledge to diagnosing and treating only some dozen of the 265 DSM listed disorders-the conditions which he believes are the only true diagnosable psychiatric diseases. The rest Dr Ghaemi asserts, are essentially psychogenic entities, formulated through self-deception and agreed upon falsehoods by members of the DSM task forces in order to seemingly promote reliability but lacking true validity.

I believe that far from deviating from scientific truth, the task forces of DSM were spurred towards seeking a truthful classification of psychiatric illnesses for sound research and treatment purposes. Various criteria influenced this authenticity. Firstly, the DSM represented an atheoretical classification of mental disorders and avoided non-creditable speculation as to causation of psychiatric illness. Nowhere in the manual does the term disease associated with a functional psychiatric disorder appear which would erroneously imply proven structural brain pathology. Furthermore, in accordance with the concept of true illness, each diagnosis required a level of malfunction causing clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational or other important areas of functioning.

Before the advent of DSM-III, clinical psychiatry was bogged down by unproductive emphasis and debate on what appeared biological and genetic, versus psychological reactions to adverse environmental or personality factors. Hence as Dr Ghaemi has inferred, Sir Martin Roth, past doyen of British psychiatry and knighted by Queen Elizabeth for his services to British psychiatry, asserted that endogenous depression [phased in DSM-III into the nomenclature of Major depression] was exclusively a biological disease. Reactive depression termed neurotic depression by Roth was considered exclusively psychogenic in origin and to be managed with psychotherapy alone. 2

The problem with the Roth concept that endogenous depression is a structural brain disease is that the argument fails to mandate any proof of brain pathology. Instead there is speculation about the existence of innate brain molecular dysfunction which science thus far has failed to elucidate. Despite the unquestionable efficacy of antidepressants and ECT with endogenous depression, its pathology remains largely unknown. Symptom relief with SSRI and SNRI drugs or ECT does not directly imply an innate deficiency of brain amines, much as aspirin relieving fever in cases of strep throat does not imply deficiency of innate anti-fever substances in the body. How long psychiatry will take to discover the structural brain pathology of severe depressive illness, like bacteriology concerning the etiology of strep throat discovered centuries gone by, is any psychiatrist’s guess. In the meantime, while we wait for discovery of brain molecular pathology underlying endogenous depression, the DSM classification of depressive disorders on a continuum of diminishing severity namely from major to dysthymia, and both treatable with integrated biological and psychological treatment, remains psychiatry’s closest alignment to creditable scientific methodology and towards the ongoing search for the whole truth.


Oligodendrocyte Morphology

Composition of the Myelin Sheath

Compacted myelin comprises multiple fused phospholipid bilayers, and it is these lipids that provide the insulating properties of the sheath. Galactocerebroside (GalC) is a specific oligodendroglial lipid and is a useful immunohistochemical tool for studying oligodendrocytes. The other main constituent of myelin are proteins (30% of its dry weight), the major ones being myelin basic protein (MBP) and proteolipid protein (PLP), which are specific to myelin and are used immunohistochemically to identify and study myelinating oligodendrocytes. The main functions of MBP and PLP are in the fusion of the cytoplasmic and extracellular interfaces of the myelin lamellae, respectively. In addition, there are a number of proteins that in the CNS are specific to oligodendrocytes and which are important in myelin formation, including 2′,3′-cyclic nucleotide-3′-phosphodiesterase (CNP), myelin/oligodendrocyte specific protein (MOSP), myelin-associated/oligodendrocyte basic protein (MOBP), transferrin, carbonic anhydrase, and members of the tetraspan-protein family. Still other myelin-specific proteins are important in cell–cell interactions, for example, myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG), and oligodendrocyte-myelin glycoprotein (OMgp). Myelin is one of the most complex structures in the body and this is underscored by the large number of specialized proteins required for its formation and maintenance.


Does FNA biopsy always work? Does FNA needle biopsy of the thyroid always tell cancer of the thyroid?

  • The FNA needle biopsy is only as good as the guy holding the needle. Experience counts!
  • The diagnosis of thyroid cancer by FNA biopsy are frequently misinterpreted by unskilled or inexperienced Cytologists. The guy looking into the microscope needs to be experience too because they can get it wrong!
  • Bleeding at the FNA biopsy site is very rare except in people with bleeding disorders. Even when this occurs, the bleeding is almost always very self limited. Be sure to tell your doctor if you have problems with bleeding or are taking medicines that could affect bleeding, such as aspirin or blood thinners.
  • Sometimes an FNA biopsy will need to be repeated because the samples didn’t contain enough cells. This is called an "inadequate specimen", meaning the needle didn't suck up enough cells for the cytologist to look at under the microscope.
  • Most FNA thyroid biopsies will show that the thyroid nodule is benign, because, most thyroid nodules are benign (non-cancerous).
  • Rarely, the FNA thyroid biopsy may come back as benign even though a diagnosis of a thyroid cancer is actually present. In other words, it is possible (but quite rare) for the nodule to be cancerous but the result of the cytology report is that no cancer is present (benign).
  • Sometimes the cytology (microscope) results of the FNA biopsy comes back as “suspicious” for a diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer. When this happens, the decisions made should be just like the diagnosis of papillary thyroid canceris made. In other words, if the FNA results say "suspicious for cancer" then we treat it like it is cancer. Suspicious for cancer is treated the same as if it was diagnosed as cancer.

Indeterminant Thyroid Nodule Biopsy: What happens if the biopsy has a result of "Undetermined Significance (ACUS)?

ACUS is an abbreviation for “atypical cells of undetermined significance”. This occurs when the thyroid FNA findings don’t show for sure if the nodule is either benign or malignant. The pathologist looks at the cells and just can't be sure if it is cancer, or non-cancer (beingn). If this happens, an option that your doctor has is to gentic testing done on the cells of the biopsy to see if there are genetic abnormalities seen. There are several commercially available tests that doctors can send the samples to determine the risk of the cells being cancerous--they look for several specific abnormal pieces of DNA that are frequently associated with thyroid cancer. Before you consider one of these genetic tests, you should ask yourself “what information do I seek?” and “How will this information change my approach to my thyroid mass?” The point being, many thyroid nodule biopsies do not need this expensive genetic testing , and if the answer isn't going to change what you are going to do, then don't spend the extra money (and time) getting genetic testing. For example, if the thyroid nodule has other characteristics or symptoms and the plan is to have surgery to remove the nodule, then don't bother with the genetic testing. It won't change what you are planning on doing--you are already planning surgery.

Sometimes the genetic testing will indicate surgery is necessary. For example, if you have a small thyroid nodule that is less than 1.5 cm and the FNA biopsy result is "atypical cell of undetermined significance" (ACUS) and the plan was to just monitor the nodule with ultrasound every year, then getting genetic testing could change this plan and lead you to a surgery if the nodule contains a specific abnormal gene that is associated with thyroid cancer. In this case, the genetic testing changed the plan from "monitoring" to surgery.

From an opposite standpoint, if you are above 5o years of age and have a 4cm thyroid nodule that has abnormal vascularity and the FNA biopsy of the nodule is "atypical cells of undetermined significance" (ACUS) then genetic testing may not be necessary because surgery would already be recommended for multiple reasons including ultrasound appearance, the large size of the nodule, and your age. Genetic testing of this thyroid nodule would only be beneficial in this circumstance if the surgeon and patient would propose a total thyroidectomy based upon this additional information (instead of just a thyroid lobectomy).

Genetic Testing of Thyroid Nodules: Veracyte / Afirma, Asuragen, and Thyroseq

There are three commercially available genetic testing companies for thyroid nodules: Veracyte (Afirma), Asuragen, and Thyroseq. They are similar, but each has some unique advantages. Typically your doctor will send your FNA biopsy specimin to just one of these three. Here are some specifics about the the genetic thyroid tests:

  • Die Veracyte / Afirma test has the best ability to tell whether the FNA cytology is benign. This is called a “rule out” test. It is really good at seeing if a thyroid nodule is benign. If this test tells you the needle biopsy is benign, then the possibility of it actually being a cancer is less than 4%.
  • Both Asuragen en Thyroseq are “rule in” tests. This means that they look for genetic abnormalities known to be associated with a diagnosis of thyroid cancers. Finding these particular genetic changes makes a diagnosis of thyroid cancer much more likely, and in some circumstances may also play a role in determining the best surgery for the cancer.

If your FNA biopsy doesn't give you a good, reliable answer, (if it cannot tell the difference between a benign thyroid nodule and a thyroid cancer), you might need to take more invasive steps and even a biopsy during surgery to get a better sampling of cells from the thyroid nodule so the pathologist has more cells to examine under the microscope. If the doctor has reason to think the nodule is suspicious or worrisome for a thyroid cancer based upon the nodule size, symptoms, or ultrasound appearance, the preferred biopsy is to not stick needles in it again, but instead to REMOVE that entire half of the thyroid (called a thyroid lobectomy). The entire thyroid nodule will come out with the half of the thyroid (the thyroid "lobe") that it is growing in. A thyroid lobectomy can also be the main treatment for many patients with a diagnosis of thyroid nodules as well as many thyroid cancers. Said differently, sometimes removing half of the thyroid (thyroid lobectomy) will be all the surgery a patient needs and the cancer can be cured during this one operation. We have several videos discussing the pros and cons of removing half of the thyroid for thyroid cancer. There are many patients that can be cured of thyroid cancer just by removing half of the thyroid.


Kyk die video: Test: Bresser Junior Mikroskop 8855001 (Oktober 2022).