Inligting

Kan voëls siektes deur kontakoppervlakke aan mense oordra?

Kan voëls siektes deur kontakoppervlakke aan mense oordra?



We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

My vriend het my die volgende vraag gevra. Sy het 'n duif wat op haar venster nesmaak en die duif raak gereeld aan die venster, en my vriend raak soms ook aan die venster (bv. Maak dit oop en toe). Die vraag is of die aanraking van haar en die duif in 'n gemeenskaplike oppervlak (die venster) infeksies of siektes van die duif na haarself kan oordra? Is daar 'n risiko dat die duif op haar venster laat nesmaak?


Mits sy haar hande was na aanraking van oppervlaktes wat direk met die duif in aanraking gekom het, behoort daar geen relevante gesondheidsrisiko's te wees nie.

En net omdat dit klink asof die duif op een of ander manier BINNE haar woonstel nes maak: Let daarop dat duiwe myte kan dra wat in die woonstel kan versprei en plante kan besmet. Ek sal afraai om wilde duiwe in die woonstel te hê!

WYSIG:

As u weet dat die duif buite is, is dit nie 100% nodig om die nes te verwyder nie. Dit hang af of hierdie venster vir ontluchting en die rigting van lugdruk gebruik word. (gaan die wind in of uit aan hierdie kant van die huis?). Dit hang ook af van die visuele netheid van die nes. Voëlmis kan moontlik 'n gesondheidsrisiko inhou, aangesien dit deur die lug kan versprei sodra dit uitdroog, terwyl dit moontlik gevaarlike mikroörganismes bevat. Dieselfde met vere wat rondlê.

As daar dus gereeld wind van die kant van die nes kom, kan sy die veiligheidsredes verwyder, veral as die venster in die kombuis is. Anders kan sy nie daardie skuldgevoel oorkom deur gesondheid te blameer nie.


Wat is soönotiese siektes?

Soönotiese siektes, ook genoem soönose, is siektes wat veroorsaak word deur kieme wat tussen diere en mense oorgedra word.

'Eenvoudig gesê, 'n soönotiese siekte is 'n siekte wat by diere ontstaan ​​en by mense siektes kan veroorsaak,' sê Barbara Han, 'n siekte -ekoloog by die Cary Institute of Ecosystem Studies in New York.

Soönotiese siektes kom oral in die wêreld voor, waaraan hulle kan lei virusse, bakterieë, parasiete of swamme, en kan ligte of ernstige siekte of dood veroorsaak. Kenners beraam dat ongeveer 60% van die bekende aansteeklike siektes by mense deur diere versprei kan word, en 3 uit elke 4 nuwe siektes by mense het hul oorsprong in diere, volgens die Sentrums vir Siektebeheer en -voorkoming (CDC).


V: Is daar ander maniere om voëls, behalwe voerders, waar te neem en te help?

A: Natuurbeplanning behels die aanplant van inheemse plante en die installering van wildvriendelike landskapskenmerke wat skuiling, kos en water bied vir 'n verskeidenheid spesies. Eerder as om aanvullende kos soos 'n voëlvoerder te verskaf, bied natuurskaping diere die nodige habitat. WDFW se Habitat at Home -program het baie inligting oor hoe u u eiendom meer wildlewe -vriendelik kan maak, selfs al is dit 'n klein gebied, of die PAWS (Progressive Animal Welfare Society) hulpbronbiblioteek het meer inligting oor die natuurskoon en plant van inheemse plante.

V: Kan kolibries salmonellose opdoen? Moet ek ook kolibrievoerders afneem?

A. Alhoewel die risiko van salmonella -oordrag baie laer is met die ontwerp van kolibrievoerders, is daar steeds 'n mate van risiko. Om so veilig as moontlik te wees en die risiko so veel as moontlik te verminder, sal dit die beste wees om hulle ook af te haal.

V. Moet ek die uitsaai- of strooivoeding van wilde voëls ook staak?

A. Ja, enige aktiwiteit wat 'n konsentrasie voëls in een gebied bevorder, moet voorlopig gestaak word.

V. Hoe lank nog totdat ek my voëlvoeders weer kan opsit?

A. WDFW het die situasie aan die einde van Februarie heroorweeg en vasgestel dat daar steeds berigte van dooie en siek voëls by die departement inkom. Op grond hiervan is besluit om aan te beveel dat lede van die publiek hul voëlvoerders tot 1 April in beide Oos- en Wes-Washington laat staan.

Kan salmonellose na mense oorgedra word?

A. Alhoewel dit ongewoon is, kan salmonellabakterieë van voëls na mense oorgedra word deur direkte kontak met besmette voëls, mis of deur huiskatte wat siek of dooie voëls teëkom. As u voëls, voëlvoerders, voëlmis of voëlbaddens hanteer, dra handskoene en was u hande deeglik daarna.

V: Kan salmonellose na ander diere oorgedra word?

A. Honde, katte, wasbeer, roofvoëls en ander diere kan beslis met salmonella besmet raak, maar werklike verslae daarvan is redelik skaars. Om die risiko soveel as moontlik te verminder, maak gemorste saad en karkasse skoon (sien hoe hierbo genoem), en moenie dat katte en honde karkasse eet nie. Pluimvee is ook vatbaar vir salmonella. Omdat WDFW se bevoegdheid nie huisdiere is nie, kan jy die Washington Departement van Landbou of die WSU-uitbreidingskantoor kontak vir inligting oor hoe om hoenders en ander mak hoenders veilig te hou. Oor die algemeen is die beste idee om hul area skoon te hou en weg te hou van wilde voëls se voerplekke.

V. Hoe moet ek ontslae raak van dooie voëls wat ek vind?

A. Om die verspreiding van salmonellose te voorkom, moet u handskoene dra wanneer u dooie of siek voëls hanteer en in 'n plastieksak, seël of das sit en in die asblik gooi. Jy kan ook plastieksakke verdubbel, dit oor jou hand sit, die voël optel, dan die sak binneste buite oor die voël draai en verseël of bind

WDFW het onlangs 'n vennootskap aangegaan met die Seattle-afdeling van die Audubon Society vir 'n virtuele aanbieding en vraag-en-antwoordsessie oor hierdie onderwerp. Kyk dit hieronder.


Voorgestelde artikels

Alhoewel die meeste aansteeklike siektes slegs by katte voorkom, kan sommige van hierdie siektes van katte na mense oorgedra word. Siektes wat van diere na mense oorgedra kan word, word soönotiese siektes genoem. Alhoewel dit nie omvattend is nie, beklemtoon hierdie artikel die algemeenste soönotiese siektes wat katte kan dra en eenvoudige voorsorgmaatreëls wat u kan tref om die risiko om hierdie siektes op te doen, te verminder. Kontak u dokter/gesondheidswerker vir meer inligting oor spesifieke risiko's, diagnose en behandeling van soönotiese siektes.

WAT IS DIE RISIKO?
Die waarskynlikheid dat 'n gemiddelde persoon 'n soönotiese siekte van 'n kat opdoen, is laag, maar individue met onvolwasse of verswakte immuunstelsels is meer vatbaar vir hierdie siektes. Dit sluit in babas, individue met verwerfde immuniteitsgebreksindroom (VIGS), bejaardes en mense wat kankerchemoterapie ondergaan of ander middels ontvang wat hul immuunstelsels kan onderdruk.

GEMEENSKAPLIKE FELINE ZOONOTIESE SIEKTE

Bakteriële infeksies
Cat scratch disease (CSD) word veroorsaak deur 'n bakterie genaamd Bartonella henselaewat in die speeksel van besmette katte en in die lywe van katvlooie gedra kan word. Soos die naam aandui, word hierdie bakteriële infeksie gewoonlik deur middel van skrape van kat na mens oorgedra, hoewel dit ook via bytwonde oorgedra kan word en as 'n kat die oop wonde van 'n persoon lek. Onder katte word hierdie bakterie meestal oorgedra deur die byt van besmette katvlooie, en dit kan ook voorkom in die ontlasting van hierdie vlooie, wat as bron van infeksie kan dien as dit blootgestel word aan 'n oop wond in 'n kat of 'n mens .

Mense met CSD ontwikkel gewoonlik swelling en moontlik 'n blaas op die plek van die byt of krap. Limfkliere in die wondstreek kan swel en pynlik word, en aangetaste individue kan koors, hoofpyn, seer spiere en gewrigte, moegheid en swak eetlus ondervind. Gesonde volwassenes herstel oor die algemeen met geen blywende gevolge nie, maar dit kan 'n paar maande neem voordat die siekte heeltemal verdwyn. Mense met gekompromitteerde immuunstelsels kan meer ernstige gevolge hê, insluitend infeksies van die oë, brein en hart. Ernstige gevalle van CSD kan antibiotiese terapie vereis om op te los.

Ongeveer 40 persent van die katte is besmet Bartonella henselae, maar die meeste toon geen tekens van siekte nie. Antibiotika genees infeksie by hierdie katte nie betroubaar nie en word tans nie aanbeveel nie. Vir mense vermy dit om die risiko van CSD te voorkom deur krap en byt te vermy (byvoorbeeld deur nie toe te laat dat kinders met katte speel nie), hande was nadat hulle met katte gespeel het, vlooie bestry en katte binne gehou het. Omdat die meeste gevalle van CSD die gevolg is van kontak met katjies jonger as een jaar, moet immuunonderdrukte mense sulke kontak vermy.

Pasteurella multocida is 'n bakterie wat tussen 70 en 90 persent van die katte in die mond voorkom, en dit is gevind tussen 50 en 80 persent van katbyte by mense wat ernstig genoeg word om mediese hulp te soek. Katbyte wat met hierdie organisme besmet is, kan binne 24 tot 48 uur pyn, swelling en rooiheid op die wondplek ontwikkel. Pasteurella-besmette katbytwonde word in die oorgrote meerderheid gevalle suksesvol behandel met antibiotiese terapie, maar in seldsame gevalle kan ernstiger komplikasies, soos die verspreiding van bakterieë deur die bloedstroom en infeksie van hartkleppe, voorkom.

Salmonella vergiftiging, ook genoem salmonellose, word veroorsaak deur 'n groep bakterieë wat genoem word Salmonella, Dit kan lei tot diarree, koors en maagpyn wat een tot drie dae na infeksie begin. Mense kry gewoonlik salmonellose deur besmette voedsel te eet, soos hoender of eiers wat nie gaar is nie, maar dit is moontlik om die siekte op te doen by besmette katte, wat kan dra Salmonella bakterieë en gee dit deur in hul stoelgang. Alhoewel salmonellose gewoonlik op sy eie oplos, benodig sommige individue mediese aandag om ernstige diarree of die uitwerking van die infeksie op ander organe as die spysverteringskanaal aan te spreek.

Salmonella kom meer algemeen voor by katte wat voed op rou vleis of wilde voëls en diere, sodat eienaars die risiko van salmonellose in hulself en hul katte kan verminder deur katte binne te hou en gekookte of kommersieel verwerkte voedsel te voer. Dit word ook aanbeveel om handskoene te dra by die skoonmaak van rommelbakke of tuinmaak (as buitekatte in die grond ontlas) en deeglik hande was.

Parasitiese infeksies
Vlooie is die algemeenste eksterne parasiet van katte, en hul byt kan jeuk en ontsteking by mense sowel as katte veroorsaak. Vlooie kan ook as vektore dien vir CSD en ander soönotiese siektes. Katte wat deur vlooie besmet is, kan besmet raak met lintwurms van vlooie wat ingeneem word tydens die versorging. Alhoewel dit nie algemeen is nie, kan mense ook met lintwurms besmet raak deur per ongeluk vlooie in te neem.

Skurfte, of infeksie deur die skurftemyt Sarcoptes scabiei, is nog 'n soönotiese uitwendige parasiet van die vel van katte. Alhoewel dit nie so algemeen is soos vlooibesmettings nie, kan hierdie myte van besmette katte na mense oorgedra word, waar dit in die vel ingedring word en jeukende, verhoogde letsels veroorsaak. Behandeling by mense behels gewoonlik die gebruik van aktuele salf om jeuk te verminder, ywerige behandeling van besmette troeteldiere en sorgvuldige skoonmaak van klere en beddegoed.

Sekere katintestinale parasiete, insluitend rondewurms (Toxocara) en haakwurms (Ancylostoma), kan ook siektes by mense veroorsaak. Kinders loop veral 'n risiko as gevolg van hul groter kans op kontak met grond wat deur katteontlasting besmet is. Alhoewel die meeste mense wat met katintestinale parasiete besmet is, nie tekens van siekte toon nie, kan sommige mense siek word.

Viscerale larwe migrans, 'n potensieel ernstige siekte wat verskeie organe kan beïnvloed, is die gevolg van die verbruik van Toxocara eiers (byvoorbeeld wanneer vuil vingers in die mond geplaas word). Toxocara larwes kan dan na buikorgane migreer, insluitend die lewer, of na die sentrale senuweestelsel. Simptome van viscerale larwe migranse kan koors, moegheid, hoes, asemhaling en buikpyn insluit. Okulêre larwe migrans is die term wat gebruik word vir 'n toestand waarin Toxocara larwes migreer na die oog, wat visuele steurnisse, abnormale oogbewegings of oogpyn en ongemak veroorsaak.

Kutane larwes migrans, 'n jeukerige velsiekte, word veroorsaak deur kontak met grond wat besmet is Ancylostoma larwes. Hierdie larwes kan penetreer en migreer onder die vel, met gevolglike ontsteking, jeuk en pyn, en verhoogde, rooi lineêre letsels in die vel wat die larwe se migrasie volg. Behoorlike higiëne, insluitend die was van hande voor etes, die skoonmaak van grond van groente, en die vermindering van blootstelling aan kat ontlasting kan infeksie voorkom. Anti-parasiet medisyne vir katjies en jaarlikse fekale ondersoeke vir volwasse katte kan besmetting deur die omgewing verminder en die risiko van menslike infeksie verminder.

Swaminfeksies
Ringwurm (of dermatofytose) word glad nie deur 'n wurm veroorsaak nie. Dit is eerder 'n velinfeksie wat deur 'n groep swamme veroorsaak word. Besmette katte kom meestal uit omgewings waarin 'n groot aantal diere woon. By katte verskyn ringwurm gewoonlik as 'n droë, grys, skubberige vlek op die vel. By mense kom ringwurm dikwels voor as 'n ronde, rooi, jeukerige letsel met 'n skaalring om die rand. Letsels kan op verskillende plekke voorkom, insluitend die kopvel, die voete (waarna dit verwys word as "atleetvoet"), die lies of die baard. Ringwurm word oorgedra deur kontak met die vel of pels van 'n besmette dier, direk of vanuit 'n besmette omgewing. Besmette katte laat swamspore voortdurend uit hul vel en pels val. Hierdie spore, wat vir baie maande in staat bly om infeksie te veroorsaak, is moeilik om uit 'n huishouding uit te roei. Kinders loop veral 'n risiko vir infeksie. Die behandeling behels die gebruik van aktuele antifungale salf of mondelinge antifungale medikasie, afhangende van die erns en ligging van letsels. Om besmetting deur die omgewing te verminder, beperk besmette katte tot een kamer totdat hulle vry is van infeksie, maak die huis deeglik skoon en ontsmet.

Protozoale infeksies
Protosoë is eensellige organismes. Die drie mees algemene protosoë siektes by katte en mense is kriptosporidiose, giardiasis en toksoplasmose.

Kriptosporidiose kan diarree, braking, koors, maagkrampe en dehidrasie by beide katte en mense veroorsaak. Direkte of indirekte kontak met die ontlasting van katte wat besmet is Cryptosporidium organismes kan lei tot die oordrag van hierdie siekte. Soos met die meeste ander soönotiese siektes, loop die immuungekompromitte die grootste risiko vir infeksie. Om die verspreiding van infeksie te voorkom, skeduleer jaarlikse fekale ondersoeke vir u katte en genees besmette katte volgens u veearts se instruksies. Ander voorkomende maatreëls sluit in die dra van handskoene tydens die hantering van ontlasting-besmette materiaal en daarna hande was.

Giardiasis word veroorsaak deur infeksie met die mikroskopiese parasiet Giardia. Baie dierspesies (insluitend die kat), is vatbaar vir infeksie met Giardia, wat in die ontlasting oorgedra word en gewoonlik versprei word na ander diere en mense via besmette waterbronne, oppervlaktes of in ongekookte voedselitems. Die simptome van Giardia infeksie sluit in diarree, winderigheid, maagkrampe, naarheid en dehidrasie. 'n Aantal voorskrifmedisyne is beskikbaar om hierdie toestand te behandel, en die meeste mense wat besmet is, herstel sonder probleme. Dit is belangrik om te besef dat die meeste gevalle van giardiasis by mense nie as gevolg van infeksie deur katte voorkom nie, maar eerder deur die inname van water of voedsel wat deur plaasdiere of wild besmet is.

Toksoplasmose word veroorsaak deur die parasitiese protosoë Toxoplasma gondii. Mense met verswakte immuunstelsels en babas wie se moeders tydens swangerskap besmet is, kan ernstige siektes van hierdie parasiet ontwikkel. Die meeste mense wat besmet is met Toksoplasmatoon egter geen duidelike tekens van siekte nie.

Katte kan aanskaf Toksoplasma deur besmette knaagdiere, voëls of enigiets wat met ontlasting van 'n ander besmette dier besmet is, te eet. 'N Besmette kat kan die parasiet tot twee weke lank in sy ontlasting werp. Nadat die ontlasting in die ontlasting gestort het, moet dit vir een tot vyf dae volwasse word voordat dit infeksie kan veroorsaak. Dit kan egter vir baie maande in die omgewing voortduur en grond, water, tuine, sandkaste of enige ander plek waar 'n besmette kat ontlas het, besmet. Alhoewel swanger vroue of immuunonderdrukte persone dikwels aangeraai word om katte uit die huishouding te verwyder om die risiko van toksoplasmose te verminder, is dit onwaarskynlik dat direkte kontak met katte infeksie met hierdie organisme kan versprei.

Katte kan oordra Toksoplasma vir mense deur hul ontlasting, maar mense word meestal besmet deur te gaar of rou vleis te eet, of deur onbedoeld besmette grond op ongewaste of te gaar groente te eet. Die simptome van toksoplasmose is griepagtige spierpyne en koors, en hoofpyn. In seldsame gevalle kan meer gevorderde simptome soos verwarring, aanvalle, braking of diarree waargeneem word.

Basiese higiëne kan die verspreiding van voorkom Toksoplasma van katte tot mense. Dra handskoene wanneer u potensieel besmette materiaal hanteer (byvoorbeeld as u tuinmaak of die rommelbak afskep) en was u hande daarna. Bedek kinders se sandkaste wanneer dit nie gebruik word nie, om te voorkom dat katte daarin ontlont.

Swanger vroue of immuunonderdrukte individue is die veiligste as ander huishoudelike lede die rommelbak skoonmaak.

Virale infeksies
Hondsdolheid is 'n virussiekte wat deur die byt van 'n besmette dier versprei word. Alhoewel die meeste virusse slegs hul natuurlike gasheersoort besmet, is hondsdolheid 'n belangrike uitsondering. Katte is hoogs vatbaar vir hondsdolheid, wat die sentrale senuweestelsel aanval, wat 'n verskeidenheid tekens veroorsaak. Hondsdolheid is byna altyd dodelik. By mense kom hondsdolheidsinfeksies gewoonlik voor wanneer 'n besmette dier 'n persoon byt. Ten einde menslike gesondheid te beskerm, word hondsdolheid-inenting van katte in baie gebiede deur die wet vereis. Selfs as u kat binne gehou word, is dit belangrik om hondsdolheid -entstowwe op datum te hou omdat katte soms buite ontsnap, en omdat hondsdol diere soos vlermuise en wasbeer soms huise binnekom. Om jou risiko van hondsdolheid verder te verminder, vermy kontak met wild en rondloperdiere en sien dadelik 'n dokter as jy deur 'n dier gebyt is.


Voëlpokke

Voëlpokkies is 'n virale velinfeksie wat verskyn as vrotgroei op die kop (veral langs die oë en bek), bene, vlerke of ander liggaamsdele van die besmette voël.

Die groeisels is gewoonlik grys, pienkerig, rooi of geel van kleur, en kan 'n aansienlike grootte bereik. Kleiner bruin of grys letsels kan met bosluise verwar word. Geaffekteerde voëls voed en beweeg normaalweg rond. Die voëls wat die meeste geraak word, is tiete, donkies en duiwe.

Poelvirus versprei tussen voëls deur insekte te byt, deur direkte voël-tot-voëlkontak en deur indirekte kontak via besmette oppervlaktes, soos sitplekke of voëlvoerders. Die virus is relatief bestand en kan vir lang tyd op besmette oppervlaktes voortduur.

Verseker optimale higiëne by voëlstasies in die tuin, met spesiale aandag aan gereelde ontsmetting van oppervlaktes waarmee die aangetaste voëls in aanraking gekom het, soos sitplekke of voerhuise. Maak daagliks voëlbaddens skoon en vul met vars water.

As 'n groot aantal geaffekteerde voëls saamdrom, oorweeg dit om die hoeveelheid wat jy voed te verminder terwyl geaffekteerde voëls die tuin besoek om noue kontak tussen hulle en gesonde voëls te help verminder.


Inleiding

Na raming besit meer as 60% van die westerse gesinne 'n troeteldier. Die meerderheid van hierdie huishoudings hou 'n hond aan. Honde word al meer as 14 eeue as troeteldiere aangehou. Baie studies het die kosbare rolle van troeteldiere in die menslike lewe bevestig. Bewyse het getoon dat die besit van 'n troeteldier die aktiwiteit van troeteldier eienaars kan verhoog en gevolglik die cholesterol van die serum, lae trigliseriedvlakke en minder kardiovaskulêre gebeurtenisse kan verminder [1,2]. Sommige ander studies het ook getoon dat eienaars van troeteldiere minder aan depressie en geestelike spanning ly en 'n hoër selfbeeld het in vergelyking met ander. Alhoewel honde verskeie positiewe uitwerking op die psigososiale en psigiese gesondheid van hul eienaars het, word baie siektes onder mense aan hulle toegeskryf [3]. Kinders en immuunonderdrukte individue loop veral 'n groter risiko om soönose-infeksies te ontwikkel. Verskeie studies het getoon dat huishonde 'n dramatiese rol speel in die ontwikkeling van soönose siekte en hospitalisasie [4,5].

Wat huishonde betref, het die toename in die populasie van verdwaalde en halfhonde in stedelike gebiede die risiko van soönose -siektes verhoog. Ongeveer 5 miljoen mense wêreldwyd word jaarliks ​​deur honde gebyt. Baie parasitiese en soönotiese patogene word deur honde oorgedra [6,7]. Hierdie oorsig fokus op die belangrikste virale en bakteriële soönotiese siektes wat deur honde oorgedra kan word.

Hondsdolheid is 'n enkelstrengige RNA -virus wat aan die Rhabdoviridae -familie behoort. Hondsdolheidsinfeksie is 'n antieke siekte met 'n hoë sterftesyfer by mense en diere. Gebaseer op die Wêreldgesondheidsorganisasie se verslae, het jaarliks ​​tussen 30000 en 70000 sterftes oor die hele wêreld voorgekom as gevolg van hondsdolheid infeksie [8]. Honde is die belangrikste dierreservoirs vir hondsdolheidsinfeksie. Die meerderheid van die besmette pasiënte in ontwikkelende lande word deur hondebyte besmet, terwyl wilde diere, insluitend wasbeer, vlermuise en jakkalse, die belangrikste oorsaak is van die oordrag van hondsdolheid in ontwikkelde lande [9]. In 'n studie in die Verenigde State is 'n hondsdolheidsprogram uitgevoer deur uitgebreide inenting by huishonde te gebruik en die hondsdolheidsinfeksie te verminder [8]. Die inkubasietydperk vir hondsdolheid wissel van 4 dae tot 'n paar jaar, afhangende van die plek van die inentingswond en die hoeveelheid geïnduseerde virusse. Pasiënte kan agitasie, angs, verwarring, hallusinasie en hidrofobie toon. Voorbehoeding na blootstelling met gereelde dosisse menslike hondsdolheid immunoglobulien (HRIG) binne 14 dae nadat die vermoedelike hondbyt die siekte kan voorkom. Deur die wond met water en seep te was, kan die virale lood dramaties verminder word en gevolglik die waarskynlikheid van hondsdolheidsinfeksie [10].

Norovirusse

Norovirusse is 'n heterogene enkelstrengige RNA -virus wat aan die Caliciviridae -familie behoort. Norovirusse is die hoofoorsaak van sporadiese en epidemiese gastro -enteritis by mense [11]. Hierdie virus kan mense van alle ouderdomme beïnvloed. Die virus kan in die spysverteringskanaal voorkom en gevolglik in die ontlasting of diarree van die besmette honde. Dit kan van besmette voedsel of water na mense oorgedra word en die infeksie kan vinnig in die menslike bevolking versprei word deur fekale orale tempo. Serumterapie moet oorweeg word vir pasiënte met akute gastro-enteritis [12].

Pasteurella

Pasteurella-spesies is Gram-negatiewe coccobacilli, wat hoofsaaklik by diere aangetref word. Pasteurella spp is normale flora van die boonste lugweg van honde en katte. Pasteurella -infeksie kan aan mense oorgedra word deur direkte en indirekte kontak soos byt of lek van honde of katte en selfs katskrape [6]. Verskeie aansteeklike siektes by mense word toegeskryf aan Pasteurella spp. Die sagteweefselinfeksie is die belangrikste infeksie wat deur Pasteurella spp oorgedra word. Meningitis, been- en gewrigsinfeksies en respiratoriese infeksie kan egter oorgedra word deur Pasteurella spp [13]. In 'n voornemende studie in die Verenigde State het die skrywer getoon dat Pasteurella spp. was die organisme wat die meeste voorkom, geïsoleer van honde- en katbyte [2]. Pasteurella -infeksie kan behandel word deur tweede en derde generasie kefalosporien, makroliede, fluorokinolone, kotrimoksasool en penisillien [14].

Salmonella-spesies is anaërobiese en beweeglike gram-negatiewe basille wat in die dikderm van 'n verskeidenheid soogdiere koloniseer, veral in die distale deel van die kolon en die mesenteriese limfknope van die hond. Mense kan ook besmet raak deur die spysverteringskanaal [fekale oordrag] en verskeie aansteeklike siektes ontwikkel, soos gastro -enteritis, enteriese koors, bakterieemie en osteomiëlitis. Gastro -intestinale siektes is die algemeenste kliniese manifestasies van salmonella by mense en honde, maar die meerderheid besmette diere of mense is asimptomaties en kan die patogeen vir 6 weke deur ontlasting stort en die patogeen na ander diere of individue oordra. In ontwikkelende lande is Salmonella spp. kom ook meer voor as in ontwikkelde lande [15,16]. 'N Antibiogram moet oorweeg word vir pasiënte wat met Salmonella spp besmet is. Dit kan egter behandel word deur verskillende families van antibiotika, insluitend fluorokinolone, beta-laktamme en makroliede [17].

Brucellose is een van die mees voorkomende soönose, wat die nasionale gesondheidsdienste swaar lê. Dit word algemeen aan mense oorgedra deur ongepasteuriseerde suiwelprodukte te gebruik. Verskillende soorte brucella spp. is erken wat menslike brucellose soos B. melitensis, B. abortus en B. suis tot gevolg gehad het, maar B. canis was minder bekend as 'n gewone patogeen by brucellose -infeksie by mense [18,19]. Alhoewel B. canis nie verantwoordelik is vir die brucellose -infeksie by mense nie, is die gevalle wat gerapporteer is, meer gereeld onder boere bevolkings gesien wat blootgestel is aan liggaamsvloeistowwe van honde wat met B. canis besmet was. Die inkubasietydperk kan van een tot vier weke tot 'n paar maande duur [19]. Die pasiënte kan asimptomaties wees of selfs ernstige kliniese simptome toon, veral koors, nagsweet en lae rugpyn in die endemiese gebied wat onderskei moet word van tuberkulose en ander kwaadaardighede [20]. Brucellose moet behandel word om komplikasies en gevolge van die siekte te voorkom. Kombinasieterapieë, wat wyd gebruik word in die behandeling van brusellose, het bestaan ​​uit doksisiklien plus streptomisien of rifampien vir 6 weke [21].

Yersinia enterocolitica

Y. enterocolitica is 'n gram-negatiewe soönotiese coccobacillus-patogeen wat yersiniose by mense en diere veroorsaak. Verskeie diere is die belangrikste reservoirs vir Y. enterocolitica, insluitend voëls, varke, takbokke en beeste. Die patogeen is in sommige studies uit hondebytwond geïsoleer [22]. Die pasiënte kan in die vroeë stadium asimptomaties wees en as die patogeen die slymvlies van die ingewande binnedring, kan waterige of bloedige diarree voorkom. Die patogeen kan ook die peyer -kolle insluit en die simptome van appendisitis verteenwoordig [23,24]. Y. enterocolitica is meestal 'n selfbeperkende siekte wat nie antibiotika-terapie benodig nie, maar pasiënte met ernstige infeksie en immuun-gekompromeerde pasiënte moet behandel word met 'n kombinasie van 'n aminoglikosied en doksisiklien [24].

Campylobacter

Campylobacter spp. insluitend campylobacter jejuni en campylobacter coli is gram-negatiewe bakterieë wat gewoonlik tot kampylobacter enteritis lei. Hierdie organisme leef normaalweg in die spysverteringskanaal van baie diere. Direkte kontak met besmette diere of hul produkte is 'n hoofoorsaak van campylobacter-oordrag. Honde en hondjies is die belangrikste reservoirs vir campylobacter. Byvoorbeeld, in 'n studie is getoon dat ongeveer 47% van die fekale monsters van honde se campylobacter geïsoleer is [25,26]. Die inkubasietydperk van campylobacter enteritis wissel van een tot sewe dae. Die meeste pasiënte het koors, braking, diarree en buikpyn. Ook kan bloederige diarree teenwoordig wees in meer as 50 persent van die besmette pasiënte. Krampe en aanvalle kan by sommige pasiënte waargeneem word [27]. Hierdie infeksie is gewoonlik selfbeperk en benodig geen antimikrobiese terapie nie. Fokus op die regstelling van elektrolietwanbalans en hidrasie moet oorweeg word. Antibiotiese terapie met fluorokinolone, makroliede of aminoglikosiede word aangedui by pasiënte met ernstige siektes [28].

Kapnositofaga

Capnocytophaga canimorsus is 'n gram-negatiewe bakterie wat voorkom in die normale flora van die orofaryngeale kanaal van honde en katte. Die patogeen word meestal na die mens oorgedra deur honde wat byt en veroorsaak 'n oorweldigende sepsis, veral by bejaarde, immuungedraagde of aspleniese pasiënte [25]. Die patogeen kan ook lei tot ander dodelike infeksies, insluitend meningitis, osteomiëlitis, artritis, longabses of empieem en endokarditis. Daarbenewens kan trombotiese trombositopeniese purpura en hemolitiese uremiese sindroom geassosieer word met capnocytophaga septisemie, veral by pasiënte met immuunonderdrukking.25,29]. Die literatuurdata het getoon dat die sterftesyfer as gevolg van capnocytophaga septisemie na raming ongeveer een derde van die besmette pasiënte is. Gevolglik moet vroeë empiriese terapie met derde generasie kefalosporiene by pasiënte wat 'n hondbyt gekry het, oorweeg word [30].

Bordetella bronchiseptica

Bordetella bronchiseptica is 'n gram-negatiewe staafbakterie wat aan die genus Bordetella behoort. Die patogeen leef normaalweg in die boonste lugweg van die soogdiere soos honde en katte en word deur aërosol na mense oorgedra. B. bronchiseptica kan lei tot akute tracheobronchitis by honde, wat veroorsaak word deur erge en kennelhoes [31,32]. Menslike infeksie met B. bronchiseptica is egter baie skaars, maar die patogeen kan ook longontsteking en infeksie in die boonste lugweë veroorsaak by honde -eienaars [33]. Bewyse het getoon dat hierdie organisme bestand is teen makroliede en kefalosporiene, maar in verskeie studies was die organisme sensitief vir fluorokinolone en Trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole [34].

Coxiella burnetii

C. burnetii is 'n verpligte intrasellulêre gram-negatiewe bakterie wat Q-koors by mense veroorsaak. Die patogeen besmet gewoonlik individue via aërosol en direkte kontak met die liggaamsvloeistowwe van die besmette diere. Alhoewel honde nie die hoofreservoirs vir C. burnetii is nie, is daar egter in 'n studie getoon dat C. burnetii van ongeveer 10 persent van plaashonde geïsoleer is [35]. Daarbenewens is in 'n ander studie deur Buhariwalla en kollegas berig dat C. burnetii van 'n besmette, bevallige hond na die mens oorgedra kan word. Daarbenewens ontwikkel die pasiënte die simptome van Q -koors, insluitend koors, kouekoors, naarheid, braking en produktiewe hoes. Ondeursigtigheid is 'n algemene bevinding by borsradiografie, en tydens fisiese ondersoek kan krake tydens auskultasie gehoor word. Die inkubasietydperk in hierdie studie was na raming tussen 8 en 12 dae na blootstelling aan die besmette dier. Die pasiënte met C. burnetii kan suksesvol met fluorokinolone of doxycycline behandel word [36].

L. interrogans is 'n aërobiese spirochete, wat die belangrikste oorsaak van Leptospirose by mense is. Leptospirose is wêreldwyd soönose wat meestal deur omgewingsbronne na die mens oorgedra word, insluitend besmette grond, water, urine of weefsel van die besmette diere. Knaagdiere is die belangrikste reservoirs vir Leptospirose, maar huisdiere, insluitend honde, kan 'n belangrike rol speel in die oordrag van leptospirose in endemiese streke [37]. Slymvliese van die menslike liggaam, insluitend oog, vagina, neus, mond of erosiewe letsels, wat 'n direkte kontak met die besmette urine het, is die belangrikste maniere om Leptospirose oor te dra. Die inkubasietydperk vir hierdie infeksie is gemiddeld ongeveer 10 dae (wissel van 2 tot 26 dae) [38,39]. Leptospirose kan met verskillende simptome verskyn, van geen simptoom tot koors nie, nie -produktiewe hoes, hoofpyn, muskuloskeletale pyn, diarree, naarheid, braking, alveolêre bloeding en selfs breinvliesontsteking [39]. Verskeie antibiotika soos doxisiklien, ceftriaxoon, cefotaxime, penisillien, amoksisillien en ampisilien is suksesvol gebruik vir die behandeling van Leptospirose [40].

Staphylococcus intermedius

S. intermedius is a gram-positive bacterium with a coagulase activity that normally lives in the anterior part of the nasal cavity of several animals such as dogs, pigeons, and horses. Some evidences demonstrated that this pathogen could also be isolated from the gingival of healthy dogs [41]. S. intermedius is not a common zoonotic pathogen in humans however, several studies demonstrated that this bacterium is a potential pathogen associated with dog bite wounds and cellulitis can develop in inflicted humans [42,43]. This pathogen should be discriminated from staphylococcus aureus. Penicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanate are effective in the treatment of this infection [44].

Methicillin resistance staphylococcus aureus

Methicillin resistance staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of fatal infection in humans. Several investigations have reported that this pathogen has been isolated from some animals such as pigs, horses, cattle, cats and dogs. Of them, some believed that companion animals were the main reservoirs for the transmission of MRSA, being able to transmit the bacterium by direct contact with their owners. However, it seems that animal to human infection of MRSA is more seen in immunocompromised patients. Nevertheless, some evidences showed that this bacterium could be transmitted to healthy humans who own an infected animal [45,46]. Traditional anti staphylococcal antibiotics are not more effective in the treatment of infections caused by MRSA. Accordingly, newer drugs including vancomycin, linezolid and daptomycin are widely used in the treatment of MRSA infections [47].


Human Papillomaviruses Infection and Clinical Manifestations of Disease

Mucosal human papillomaviruses infections

Box 1

  • Condyloma acuminatum is one of the most common manifestations of HPV in the genital area 43 . They present as papules, nodules or soft, filiform, pinkish, sessile or pedunculated growths. In men, genital condylomas more commonly involve the coronal sulcus, the glands penis, and the penile shaft. In women, lesions commonly affect the external genitalia and the cervix 44 . The disease is usually sexually transmitted and is most frequently caused by low-risk HPVs, such as HPV 6 and 11, although many other genotypes can also be found, including HPV 2, 16, 18, 30–33, 35, 39, 41–45, 51–56, and 59 45-47 . As described in the text, the HPV types that cause benign genital warts can also cause problematic papillomas at oral sites, which can be difficult to treat because of their location.
  • Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a rare HPV-related disease of the oral mucosa that is more common in children and women. Lesions are mainly located in the lower lip, but less frequently may affect the upper lip, tongue, oral mucosa, oropharynx, palate, and floor of mouth. HPV 13 and 32 are the most common cause 48 .
  • Cervical neoplasia and cervical cancer. Precancerous cervical lesions are classified as c ervical CIN of different grades (1, 2, or 3). CIN1 pathology is broadly equivalent to the LSIL designation used in the Bethesda classification system, with CIN2 and 3 being equivalent to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion. The severity of neoplasia reflects the extent to which basal-like cells (i.e. poorly differentiated cells with a high nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio) extend toward the epithelial surface and the extent of suprabasal cell division. Low-grade lesions typically show evidence of productive viral infection with the presence of koilocytes in the suprabasal cell layers being regarded as a key manifestation of CIN1/LSIL. HPV is detectable in 90–100% of cervical abnormalities, ranging from incipient cytological abnormalities and dysplasia 49 to cervical cancer 50-52 .
  • Other anogenital cancers including those of the vulva, vagina, penis, and anus. Most vulvar cancers (92%) are solitary, keratinizing SCC. HPV prevalence is 90% in vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia and basaloid or warty cancers, but is found in only 6% of keratinizing SCC 53, 54 . HPV 16 is the most prominent type in vulvar cancer, with HPV 18, 21, 31, 33, and 34 detected at lower frequencies. In addition, HPV is responsible for 85% of vaginal cancer, with HPV 16 being detected in 60% of invasive tumors. HPV is also detected in basaloid and warty cancers of the penis, but only rarely in keratinizing SCC and verrucous cancers of the penis. In invasive penile cancer, HPV 16 is the most prevalent type (40–70%), followed by HPV 6 (22%), 52 (15%), and 11 (4%) 55 . HPV is present in 80–96% of anal cancer with HPV 16 being the most prevalent type 56 . Anal cancer is more common in men who have sex with men, individuals with a history of anal warts, and in immunosuppressed populations.
  • Head and neck cancer HPV is recognized as a major risk factor for the development of HNSCC. A recent meta-analysis showed that HPV prevalence in HNSCC increased significantly from 41% in 2000 to 72% in 2004 57 . HPV prevalence is significantly higher in oropharynx SCC than in the oral cavity with the tonsil having higher prevalence than other anatomic sites 58 . These HPV-associated cancers display clinical and molecular features distinct from other HNSCCs. The patients with HPV-positive cancer have at least a 50% improvement in overall survival at 5 years, which is equivalent to an approximate 30% difference in absolute survival. HPV association is now part of routine diagnostic procedure when assessing the prognosis of HNSCC. HPV 16 is the most common type found in HNSCC, but other HPV types such as 18, 31, 33, and 35 can also be detected 57 .

Cutaneous human papillomaviruses infections

Box 2

  • Common warts can be single or multiple and of varying sizes. They occur at many sites, but often on the back of hands 64 , with the knee also being a common site of infection in children. A prevalence of 3.5% 65 in adults to over 30% in schoolchildren has been reported 66 . Incidence increases in immunosuppressed patients, with lesions being more numerous and more recalcitrant. HPV 1, 2, 4, 27, and 57 are most prevalent types 67-69 ]. HPV 7 is found in the common warts of individuals whose hands are chronically exposed to moisture and cold because of their occupation 70 .
  • Plantar warts occur on the soles of the feet, particularly in children. HPV 1 and 4 are frequently the cause, although HPV 57, 60, 63, 65, and 66 can also be involved 68 . HPV 1 commonly induces lesions that manifest as a keratotic plug surrounded by a hyperkeratotic rim that are often painful. HPV 4 can be the cause of mosaic warts, which are more superficial lesions that occur in a confluent cobblestone pattern and are usually painless. Persistent plantar lesions can be very rarely associated with the development of verrucous carcinoma 72 .
  • Flat warts are slightly raised lesions of skin color or pigmented, with flat, smooth or, slightly rough surface. The face and back of hands are the most common sites of disease with HPV 3 and 10 most commonly detected in such lesions 64, 73 .
  • Filiform warts are pedunculated lesions growing in a perpendicular or oblique way in relation to the skin surface. The face and neck are the most frequent sites of disease. The detected HPV types are the same as common warts, especially HPV 2 73 .
  • Pigmented warts range from gray to blackish brown and are located on the palmoplantar or lateral surfaces of the hands, feet, fingers, and toes. HPV 4, 60, and 65 are most prevalent in such lesions 74 .
  • Epidermoid cysts can be caused by HPV types 57 and 60, with these types being detected in plantar epidermoid cysts 75, 76 . An unknown HPV type was reported in epidermoid cysts of the trunk and scalp 77, 78 . Immunostaining suggests that such lesions are distinct from the associated dermal eccrine duct, but have similarities with the suprabasal cells of the epidermis. It has been suggested that palmoplantar epidermoid cysts may in some instances arise as a result of epidermoid metaplasia of eccrine ducts following HPV infection 79 .
  • Skin cancer. Bowen's disease (BD) is a SCC in situ van die vel. In 3–5% of cases, it progresses to invasive carcinoma with the capability to develop metastasis. The mucosal HPV types are commonly detected in lesions of extra-genital BD, especially in the periungual region. Other HPV types have occasionally been detected in BD, including HPV 2, 6, 11, 54, 58, 61, 62, and 73 80 . The link between HPV and non-melanoma skin cancer, SCC and BCC, is not clear except in immunosuppressed individuals and in certain genetic backgrounds. Mucosal HPV types, especially HPV 16 can sometimes be detected in the SCC and BCC of the skin, but also more rarely HPV 2, 31, 34, 35, 58, 61, and 73 81, 82 . Molecular analysis of Beta HPV protein function and serology suggests a role of certain Beta HPV types (e.g. HPV 8, 20, 38) in the development of SCC in immunosuppressed individuals. A role in the early stages of cancer development is suspected (but not conclusively proven) in a fraction of keratinocyte cancers in the general population, with Beta HPV genomes from the cell being lost from the cell as the disease severity increases 83 .

Why fathers don't pass on mitochondria to offspring

Offering insights into a long-standing and mysterious bias in biology, a new study reveals how and why mitochondria are only passed on through a mother's egg -- and not the father's sperm. What's more, experiments from the study show that when paternal mitochondria persist for longer than they should during development, the embryo is at greater risk of lethality.

Harbored inside the cells of nearly all multicellular animals, plants and fungi are mitochondria, organelles that play an important role in generating the energy that cells need to survive. Shortly after a sperm penetrates an egg during fertilization, the sperm's mitochondria are degraded while the egg's mitochondria persist. To gain more insights into this highly specific degradation pattern, Qinghua Zhou et al. used electron microscopy and tomography to study sperm mitochondria (or paternal mitochondria) in Caenorhabditis elegans, a type of roundworm, during early stages of development.

Intriguingly, the paternal mitochondria were found to partially self-destruct before the mitochondria were surrounded by autophagosomes, which target components within a cell and facilitate their degradation. This suggests that another mechanism, something within the paternal mitochondrion itself, initiates the degradation process. RNA analysis of paternal mitochondria during early stages of embryonic development hinted that it is the cps-6 gene that facilitates this process, which the team confirmed by studying sperm lacking cps-6 without it, paternal mitochondria remained significantly later into the development stage.

Further investigation suggests that the enzyme that cps-6 encodes first breaks down the interior membrane of the paternal mitochondria before moving to the space within the inner membrane to breakdown mitochondrial DNA. When the researchers engineered paternal mitochondria to breakdown during later stages of development, this increased the chances that the embryo would not survive, suggesting that the transmission of paternal mitochondria is an evolutionary disadvantage.

Collectively, results from this study suggest that cps-6 plays a key role in initiating the self-destruction of paternal sperm, which likely benefits the embryo.


Can Pets Contract Coronavirus from Humans or Vice Versa?

Dr. Niels Pedersen, a distinguished emeritus professor at the UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine and a renowned expert on infectious and immunologic diseases in dogs and cats, addresses the question, "Can pets contract coronavirus from humans or vice versa?"

The simple answer is as follows: No, you won’t get or give the coronavirus to your family pet. Coronaviruses occur in virtually every species of animal, including humans, and are commonly associated with unapparent or transient intestinal and respiratory infections. They tend to be very species specific and cross-species transmission is uncommon.

The more complex answer goes like this: Coronaviruses have adapted themselves by mutation over a period of 50,000 years or more to virtually every species of animal, including humans. They only cause disease in their new species and tend to remain in that species in whatever genetic form that allows adaptation to their new hosts.

The various coronaviruses have been sequenced and their relationship to each other determined. The common cold-causing coronaviruses of humans (OC43, 229E and NL63) are in the alphacoronavirus group, along with the intestinal coronavirus of our pet cats and dogs. The more recently humanized strains of coronavirus, MERS, SARS and COVID-19 have jumped over from the betacoronaviruses of bats, possibly by intermediate infection of other animals such as camels and civet cats. Interestingly, MERS and SARS coronaviruses did not quite make the jump from bats to humans, and died out.

However, the new coronavirus appears to have successfully adapted to humans (i.e., it has become humanized) and is therefore looming as an even more severe disease problem than MERS and SARS. Viruses that have either not fully humanized, or have only recently adapted to humans, tend to cause much more severe disease, as is the case with the MERS-, SARS- and COVID-19.

Although coronaviruses can jump from one host to another, this is a slow process and requires significant genetic change. There is no evidence that coronaviruses of our common veterinary species have entered humans in the recent past or vice versa. However, the tendency for coronaviruses to jump species is an ongoing occurrence and it is possible that a coronavirus from a common pet species such as a cat or dog may enter humans and cause disease sometime in the future. However, if it should ever humanize, it will no longer be a cat or dog virus, but rather a new human virus. The same is true for a coronavirus of humans that decides to change their host species.


Nonrespiratory Bacterial Diseases

Fowl Cholera

Sinonieme: avian pasteurellosis, cholera, avian hemorrhagic septicemia

Species affected: Domestic fowl of all species (primarily turkeys and chickens), game birds (especially pheasants and ducks), cage birds, wild birds, and birds in zoological collections and aviaries are susceptible.

Clinical signs: Fowl cholera usually strikes birds older than 6 weeks of age. In acute outbreaks, dead birds may be the first sign. Fever, reduced feed consumption, mucoid discharge from the mouth, ruffled feathers, diarrhea, and labored breathing may be seen. As the disease progresses birds lose weight, become lame from joint infections, and develop rattling noises from exudate in air passages. As fowl cholera becomes chronic, chickens develop abscessed wattles and swollen joints and foot pads. Caseous exudate may form in the sinuses around the eyes. Turkeys may have twisted necks (see Table 3).

Oordrag: Multiple means of transmission have been demonstrated. Flock additions, free-flying birds, infected premises, predators, and rodents are all possibilities.

Behandeling: A flock can be medicated with a sulfa drug (sulfonamides, especially sulfadimethoxine, sulfaquinonxalene, sulfamethazine, and sulfaquinoxalene) or vaccinated, or both, to stop mortality associated with an outbreak. It must be noted, however, that sulfa drugs are not FDA approved for use in pullets older than 14 weeks or for commercial laying hens. Sulfa drugs leave residues in meat and eggs. Antibiotics can be used, but require higher levels and long term medication to stop the outbreak.

Prevention: On fowl cholera endemic farms, vaccination is advisable. Do not vaccinate for fowl cholera unless you have a problem on the farm. Rodent control is essential to prevent future outbreaks.

Omphalitis

Sinonieme: navel ill, mushy chick disease

Species affected: chickens

Clinical signs: Affected chicks may have external navel infection, large unabsorbed yolk sacs, peritonitis with fetid odor, exudates adhering to the navel, edema of the skin of ventral body area, septicemia and dehydration (see Table 3).

Oordrag: Infection occurs at the time of hatching or shortly thereafter, before navels are healed. Chicks from dirty hatching eggs or eggs with poor quality shells, or newly hatched chicks placed in dirty holding boxes, are most susceptible. Chicks removed prior to complete healing of the navel due to improper temperature and/or humidity are also more susceptible. Eggs that explode in the hatching tray contaminate other eggs in the tray and increase the incidence.

Behandeling: There is no specific treatment for omphalitis. Most affected birds die in the first few days of life. Unaffected birds need no medication.

Prevention: Control is by prevention through effective hatchery sanitation, hatchery procedures, breeder flock surveillance, and proper preincubation handling of eggs. Mushy chicks should be culled from the hatch and destroyed. If chick mortality exceeds 3 percent, the breeder flocks and egg handling and hatching procedures should be reviewed.

Pullorum

Sinonieme: bacillary white diarrhea, BWD

Species affected: Chickens and turkeys are most susceptible, although other species of birds can become infected. Pullorum has never been a problem in commercially grown game birds such as pheasant, chukar partridge, and quail. Infection in mammals is rare.

Clinical signs: Death of infected chicks or poults begins at 5&ndash7 days of age and peaks in another 4&ndash5 days. Clinical signs including huddling, droopiness, diarrhea, weakness, pasted vent, gasping, and chalk-white feces, sometimes stained with green bile. Affected birds are unthrifty and stunted because they do not eat (see Table 3). Survivors become asymptomatic carriers with localized infection in the ovary.

Oordrag: Pullorum is spread primarily through the egg, from hen to chick. It can spread further by contaminated incubators, hatchers, chick boxes, houses, equipment, poultry by-product feedstuffs, and carrier birds.

Behandeling: Treatment is for flock salvage only. Several sulfonamides, antibiotics, and antibacterials are effective in reducing mortality, but none eradicates the disease from the flock. Pullorum eradication is required by law. Eradication requires destroying the entire flock.

Prevention: Pullorum outbreaks are handled, on an eradication basis, by state/federal regulatory agencies. As part of the National Poultry Improvement Program, breeder replacement flocks are tested before onset of production to assure pullorum-free status. This mandatory law includes chickens, turkeys, show birds, waterfowl, game birds, and guinea fowl. In Florida, a negative pullorum test or certification that the bird originated from a pullorum-free flock is required for admission for exhibit at shows and fairs. Such requirements have been beneficial in locating pullorum-infected flocks of hobby chickens.

Necrotic Enteritis

Sinonieme: enterotoxemia, rot gut

Species affected: Rapidly growing young birds, especially chickens and turkeys 2-12 weeks of age, are most susceptible. Necrotic enteritis is a disease associated with domestication and is unlikely to threaten wild bird populations. Necrotic enteritis is primarily a disease of broilers, roasters and turkeys. Ulcerative enteritis, on the other hand, commonly affects pullets and quail.

Clinical signs: Initially there is a reduction in feed consumption as well as dark, often blood-stained, feces. Infected chickens will have diarrhea. Chronically affected birds become emaciated. The bird, intestines, and feces emit a fetid odor (see Table 3).

Oordrag: Necrotic enteritis does not spread directly from bird to bird. Bacteria are ingested along with infected soil, feces, or other infected materials. The bacteria then grow in the intestinal tract. Infection commonly occurs in crowded flocks, immuno-suppressed flocks, and flocks maintained in poor sanitary conditions.

Behandeling: The clostridia bacteria involved in necrotic enteritis is sensitive to the antibiotics bacitracin, neomycin, and tetracycline. However, antibiotics such as penicillin, streptomycin, and novobiocin are also effective. Bacitracin is the most commonly used drug for control of necrotic enteritis. As with all drugs, legality and withdrawal time requirements must be observed.

Prevention: Prevention should be directed toward sanitation, husbandry, and management.

Ulcerative Enteritis

Sinonieme: quail disease

Species affected: Captive quail are extremely susceptible and must be maintained on wire-bottom pens or on preventive medications. Chickens, turkeys, partridges, grouse, and other species are occasionally clinically affected.

Clinical signs: In quail, the disease is acute with high mortality. In chickens, signs are less dramatic. Acute signs are extreme depression and reduction in feed consumption. Affected birds sit humped with eyes closed. Other signs included emaciation, watery droppings streaked with urates, and dull ruffled feathers (see Table 3). Accumulated mortality will reach 50 percent if the flock is not treated.

Oordrag: Birds become infected by direct contact with carrier birds, infected droppings or contaminated pens, feed and water. Bacteria are passed in the droppings of sick and carrier birds. Infection can be spread mechanically on shoes, feed bags, equipment, and from contamination by rodents and pets.

Behandeling: Bacitracin and neomycin can be used singly or in combination. Other antibiotics and drugs such as tetracyclines, penicillin, Lincomycin, and Virginomycin are also effective. Consult a veterinarian for dose, route, and duration of treatment.

Prevention: Ulcerative enteritis is difficult to prevent in quail. When quail have access to their own droppings, this disease commonly occurs. To eradicate, depopulate stock, thoroughly clean and disinfect, and start over with young, clean stock.

Botulisme

Synonyms: limberneck, bulbar paralysis, western duck sickness, alkali disease

Species affected: All fowl of any age, humans, and other animals are highly susceptible. The turkey vulture is the only animal host known to be resistant to the disease.

Clinical signs: Botulism is a poisoning causing by eating spoiled food containing a neurotoxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Paralysis, the most common clinical sign, occurs within a few hours after poisoned food is eaten. Pheasants with botulism remain alert, but paralyzed. Legs and wings become paralyzed, then the neck becomes limp. Neck feathers become loose in the follicle and can be pulled easily (see Table 3).

If the amount eaten is lethal, prostration and death follow in 12 to 24 hours. Death is a result of paralysis of respiratory muscles. Fowl affected by sublethal doses become dull and sleepy.

Transmission: Botulism is common in wild ducks and is a frequent killer of waterfowl because the organisms multiply in dead fish and decaying vegetation along shorelines.

Decaying bird carcasses on poultry ranges, wet litter or other organic matter, and fly maggots from decaying substances may harbor botulism. There is no spread from bird to bird.

Treatment: Remove spoiled feed or decaying matter. Flush the flock with Epsom salts (1 lb/1000 hens) in water or in wet mash. It has been reported that potassium permanganate (1:3000) in the drinking water is helpful. Affected birds can be treated with botulism antitoxin injections.

Prevention: Incinerate or bury dead birds promptly. Do not feed spoiled canned vegetables. Control flies. Replace suspected feed.

Staphylococcus

Synonyms: staph infection, staph septicemia, staph arthritis, bumblefoot

Species affected: All fowl, especially turkeys, chickens, game birds, and waterfowl, are susceptible.

Clinical signs: Staphylococcal infections appear in three forms—septicemia (acute), arthritic (chronic), and bumblefoot. The septicemia form appears similar to fowl cholera in that the birds are listless, without appetite, feverish, and show pain during movement. Black rot may show up in eggs (the organism is passed in the egg). Infected birds pass fetid watery diarrhea. Many will have swollen joints (arthritis) and production drops (see Table 3).

The arthritic form follows the acute form. Birds show symptoms of lameness and breast blisters, as well as painful movement (see Table 3). Birds are reluctant to walk, preferring to sit rather than stand.

Bumblefoot is a localized chronic staph infection of the foot, thought to be caused by puncture injuries. The bird becomes lame from swollen foot pads (see Table 3).

Transmission: Staphylococcus aureus is soil-borne and outbreaks in flocks often occur after storms when birds on range drink from stagnant rain pools.

Treatment: Novobiocin (350 g/ton) can be given in the feed for 5&ndash7 days. Erythromycin and penicillin can be administered in the water for 3-5 days or in the feed (200 g/ton) for 5 days. Other antibiotics and drugs are only occasionally effective.

Prevention: Remove objects that cause injury. Isolate chronically affected birds. Provide nutritionally balanced feed.