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Sou 'n mens langer lewe as so 'n persoon in 'n planeet met laer swaartekrag woon? (sê Mars)

Sou 'n mens langer lewe as so 'n persoon in 'n planeet met laer swaartekrag woon? (sê Mars)


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Ek het gewonder: sommige maatskappye beplan om Mars te koloniseer, baie van ons weet.

Maar as 'n mens op Mars sou woon, sou hierdie persoon langer lewe?

Dit lyk vir my dat 'n laer swaartekrag minder algehele skade aan die liggaamselle sou beteken, sodat hulle langer kan hou: wat 'n langer lewensduur tot gevolg het.

Of dalk gebrek aan swaartekrag = gebrek aan oefening = minder lewensduur?

Ek wil graag die mening van een of ander deskundige in die saak hê. Dankie.


Waarskynlik nie. Daar is 'n ding genaamd Hayflick limiet, wat basies 'n limiet van lewensverwagting is wat veroorsaak word deur 'n verkorting van telomere met elke seldeling. En aangesien die meeste van ons selle siklusse voltooi meer gebaseer op tyd (lewensiklus van RBC 100 dae), en nie as gevolg van skade aan 'n sel nie, sal ons telomere steeds teen dieselfde tempo verkort. Natuurlik kan die swaartekrag 'n klein rol speel sodra organe begin faal het, maar daar is baie ander faktore wat beïnvloed hoe lank dit neem vir alles om heeltemal agteruit te gaan, en sal nie 'n groot rol speel nie. Trouens, dit kan selfs lewensverwagting verkort, siende hoe ons liggame tans gebou is om in ons huidige gravitasieveld te leef. Sonder swaartekrag kan ons spiere swak word, wat ander probleme veroorsaak, en daarom het mense by die ruimtestasies gereeld toegewyde tye om te oefen om hul spiere fiks te hou.


Dit klink redelik dat die vermindering van die fisiese spanning op 'n liggaam die slytasie sal verminder, en dus die eienaar se leeftyd sal verleng.

Dit is egter net so redelik dat menslike liggame ontwerp is om onder stres te wees, en die drastiese verandering van die omgewing sal die liggaam op subtiele en selfs ooglopende maniere benadeel. Sommige navorsing toon byvoorbeeld dat long- en hartselle nie behoorlik sal groei as dit nie siklies gestrek word nie.

Totdat ons ernstige langtermynnavorsing kry, in die ruimte of op 'n kleiner planeet, sal ons nie regtig weet nie.


Kolonisasie van Mars

Die hipotetiese kolonisasie van Mars het belangstelling van openbare ruimte-agentskappe en private korporasies ontvang, en het uitgebreide behandeling in wetenskapfiksieskryf, film en kuns ontvang.

Organisasies het planne voorgestel vir 'n menslike sending na Mars, die eerste stap in die rigting van enige kolonisasiepoging, maar geen persoon het voet op die planeet gesit nie. Landers en rovers het egter die planetêre oppervlak suksesvol verken en inligting oor toestande op die grond gelewer. Virtuele besoeke aan Mars, met behulp van haptiese tegnologieë, is voorgestel, en kan mense voorafgaan wat die planeet besoek. [2]

Redes vir die kolonisering van Mars sluit in nuuskierigheid, die potensiaal vir mense om meer diepgaande waarnemingsnavorsing te verskaf as onbemande rovers, ekonomiese belangstelling in sy hulpbronne, en die moontlikheid dat die vestiging van ander planete die waarskynlikheid van menslike uitsterwing kan verminder. Probleme en gevare sluit in stralingsblootstelling tydens 'n reis na Mars en op sy oppervlak, giftige grond, lae swaartekrag, die isolasie wat Mars se afstand van die Aarde af vergesel, 'n gebrek aan water en koue temperature.

Die mees onlangse verpligtinge om permanente nedersetting te ondersoek, sluit in dié deur openbare ruimte-agentskappe—NASA, ESA, Roscosmos, ISRO en die CNSA—en private organisasies—SpaceX, Lockheed Martin en Boeing.


Jy’ll Crash

Kom ons sê jy’het baie maande spandeer op jou diep ruimtevaart, en jy het dit uiteindelik in 'n wentelbaan om die rooi planeet gemaak. Baie geluk! Nou moet jy na die oppervlak kom - en dit gaan moeilik wees.

Die probleem is Mars se atmosfeer. Die lug rondom Mars is taamlik dun–ongeveer 100 keer minder dig as die atmosfeer rondom die Aarde. Ruimtetuie wat na ons planeet terugkeer, maak staat op 'n kombinasie van valskerms en sleep uit die atmosfeer om hulle te vertraag. Hoe swaarder die voorwerp, hoe meer sleep het dit nodig om te verhoed dat dit in die oppervlak slaan.

Maar met so min atmosfeer rondom Mars, sal dit moeilik wees om 'n groot hoeveelheid gewig saggies op die planeet te land. Swaar voorwerpe sal te veel spoed optel tydens die afdraande, wat vir een diep impak sorg.

Lae-digtheid Supersoniese Decelerator

“Hoe ons deur die atmosfeer na die oppervlak kom, is 'n kritieke uitdaging,”, vertel Bret Drake, adjunkbestuurder van die eksplorasie-sendingbeplanningskantoor by NASA. Populêre Wetenskap. “Met huidige landingstegnieke kan ons slegs 'n metrieke ton op Mars land. Dit’s nie groot genoeg om 'n kolonie aan die gang te kry nie, ons sal baie groter vermoëns nodig hê.”

Volgens Drake sal NASA tussen 20 en 30 metrieke ton in een reis moet land om al die ruimtevaarders en voorrade wat vir 'n planetêre habitat nodig is, veilig na die oppervlak te kry. Om dit te doen, kom die ruimte-agentskap met unieke lander-ontwerpe vorendag - veral hul opblaasbare lae-digtheid Supersoniese Decelerator. Gevorm soos 'n ikoniese vlieënde piering, verhoog die LDSD se skyfvorm en bygevoegde opblaasballon die oppervlakarea van die lander, wat dit toelaat om in dunner atmosfeer te vertraag.

Die LDSD ondergaan steeds toetse hier op planeet Aarde, met 'n komende toets in Hawaii wat vir Junie geskeduleer is. Of die lander so 'n swaar loonvrag op Mars se oppervlak sal kan land, moet nog bepaal word.

Wat Mars One en SpaceX betref, is daar nog geen spesifieke inligting gegee oor hoe hulle beplan om op Mars te land nie.


Horlosies se akkuraatheid meer indrukwekkend?

Oor die algemeen is die span se bevindinge nie onverwags nie, want dit stem saam met algemeen aanvaarde teorieë van Einstein, het Kleppner gesê. (Lees "Einstein and Beyond" uit National Geographic tydskrif.)

"Ek dink wat hier indrukwekkend is, is die ongelooflike akkuraatheid van die horlosies."

Met verdere verfyning kan ultrapresiese horlosies soos dié wat in die nuwe studie gebruik word, wetenskaplikes eendag toelaat om geografiese variasies in die Aarde se gravitasieveld – ’n wetenskap genaamd geodesie – met ongekende presisie te meet.

Geodesie is belangrik vir die berekening van die aarde se massaverspreiding, wat kan help om byvoorbeeld die verspreiding van water op die planeet te bepaal en hoe daardie water beweeg. (Lees oor 'n nuwe fout wat in die Adriatiese See gevind is deur geodesie te gebruik.)

"Jy kan jou voorstel om hierdie horlosies oor die wêreld versprei te hê en tyd met hierdie akkuraatheid te vergelyk," het Kleppner gesê. "Dit sal 'n revolusionêre impak op geodesie hê."


Jy gebruik die frase "die vierde golf van wetenskap." Verduidelik wat dit beteken en hoe dit dit eendag moontlik kan maak om Mars te terraform.

Ons het drie golwe van wetenskaplike innovasie gehad. Die eerste golf, die Industriële Revolusie, het vir ons die stoomenjin, die lokomotief en fabrieke gegee. Die tweede golf was elektrisiteit en magnetisme, waardeur ons TV gehad het, binnebrandmotors, 'n begin van die ruimteprogram. Die derde rewolusie is hoë-tegnologie: rekenaars, lasers, die internet.

Nou het ons die vierde golf van innovasie: kunsmatige intelligensie, biotegnologie en nanotegnologie. Dit gaan die manier waarop ons Mars beskou, verander. Baie mense sê Mars is koud en verlate, en daar is niks om daar te groei nie. Ons kan plante en alge geneties verander om in die Mars-atmosfeer te floreer. Maar wie gaan die swaar take doen? Ons sal almal graag futuristiese stede op Mars wil sien, maar robotte gaan teen die einde van hierdie eeu baie meer aangepas word om in hierdie moeilike omgewings te werk, so ons verwag om robotkonstruksiewerkers te sien bou die fantastiese koepelstede wat jy in die wetenskap sien fiksie romans.

Elon Musk het onlangs sy ou Tesla-sportmotor in die ruimte gelanseer. Vertel ons van die "stryd van die miljardêrs" en hoe hulle die toekoms vorm.

Ruimte was baie duur in die 1960's. Daarom het ons belangstelling verloor nadat ons maan toe gegaan het. Nou praat ons van 'n nuwe goue era van ruimteverkenning, deels omdat 'n hele vloot Silicon Valley-miljardêrs hul kinderdrome verwesenlik en op hul eie ruimtehawens bou. Die Falcon Heavy-maanvuurpyl wat deur Space X gelanseer is, is deur Elon Musk se eie gefinansier sakgeld. Dit was die kragtigste vuurpyl ooit en belastingbetalers het nie een sent betaal nie.


6 Antwoorde 6

Sonder 'n beduidende onmiddellike effek, soos die uitwissing van sommige van die ooglopende tekens van veroudering (plooie, lewervlekke, ens.) binne 'n kort tydperk, sal die lewensverlengingseienskappe vir 'n paar dekades glad nie opgemerk word nie, indien enigsins.

Na 10 jaar sal 'n paar mense geleef het

5 jaar langer as wat hulle andersins sou hê. Dit is goed binne die normale variasie en sal heeltemal ongemerk bly.

20 jaar nadat die vrugte bekendgestel is, sal 'n groter groep mense 'n ekstra 10 jaar geleef het. Aangesien hulle aan die begin reeds in die 'baie oud' groep was, en baie van hul maats beswyk het aan siekte, voorafbestaande toestande ensovoorts. Terwyl die ouderdomsgetalle 'n statistiese drempel begin bereik, is die getalle nog redelik klein. Mense sal dalk begin agterkom dat baie meer mense oor 100 jaar leef, maar die gemiddelde ouderdom van sterftes het al vir eeue toegeneem, so dit is nie regtig groot genoeg om te wees nie interessant.

30 jaar, en nou kom ons by interessante gebied. Die rekord vir die oudste persoon in die wêreld is 'n paar keer gebreek. Die gemiddelde ouderdom van die top 100 oudste mense in die wêreld gaan van

115 jaar (ek weet, reg?) tot > 120 jaar. Dit is 'n groot statistiese afwyking, maar een wat dalk nie opgemerk word deur iemand wat nie aktief die ouderdomstatistiek bestudeer nie.

40 jaar later en die kans is redelik groot dat 'n persoon vir die eerste keer 130 jaar oud sal word. Mense begin kennis neem. Studies is begin om die oorsake te identifiseer, maar met 40 jaar van mediese vooruitgang ensovoorts gaan dit 'n rukkie neem voordat iemand eers besef dat die getalle 4 dekades terug begin het. Streng statistiese ontleding sal die tydraamwerk van die oorsaak identifiseer, dan sal 'n klomp studies gedoen word om te identifiseer wat rondom daardie tyd verander het. Met duisende faktore om in ag te neem, gaan dit 'n rukkie neem. Hulle sal dit waarskynlik uiteindelik vind, maar dit kan 50 jaar na bekendstelling wees voordat dit duidelik word dat die vrug die bron van die verlengde lewensduur is.

Daar is 'n paar maniere waarop dit verskriklik verkeerd kan gaan.


Die Mnr. Hofeldt Student WHS Student Run Astronomie Blog

Hier is 'n kort video om meer te wete te kom oor wat met jou liggaam in die ruimte gebeur:

Keer terug vanaf Zero Gravity na die Aarde

Vrae

32 opmerkings:

Hey Syd, goed geskryfde pos! Ek dink dit is 'n interessante onderwerp om 'n paar redes. Eerstens is dit interessant om in ag te neem dat ons nie werklik uitgebreide navorsing gedoen het oor wat geen swaartekrag op die langtermyn aan die liggaam doen nie. Ek dink dat ons iemand vir 'n paar maande op die maan moet laat woon en kyk of die feit dat daar aansienlik minder swaartekrag is as op aarde dieselfde impak het as nul swaartekrag. Tweedens, dit is ongelooflik hoe swaartekrag negatiewe uitwerking hier op aarde het. Dink jy dat ons moontlik langer kan lewe as daar minder swaartekrag op aarde was? Hoe sou dit ons lewenswyse verander? Dit is moeilik om daaraan te dink om in nul swaartekrag te gaan leef, maar ek sou dit waarskynlik doen as ek langer kon lewe. Ek dink die vreesaanjaendste deel van die hele ding is dat jy spierbeweging kan verloor as jy nie daardie spiere gebruik nie. Stel jou voor dat jy terugkom aarde toe en nie jou arms kan gebruik nie. Dit sou hartseer wees. Die artikel waarvoor ek die skakel geplaas het, is na 'n storie oor 'n ruimtevaarder wat amper 'n hele jaar in die ruimte deurgebring het. Dit praat oor hoe hy 'n spesiale masjien moet gebruik wat die bloed in sy bene afsuig. Dit is sodat hy nie beweging in sy bene verloor nie. Nogal knorrige goed. As jy meer hier wil lees: http://www.theverge.com/2016/3/1/11138102/scott-kelly-year-in-space-health-effects-return-to-earth

Eric, hulle het reeds 'n eksperiment hiervoor met twee tweelinge gedoen (een het op Aarde gebly as die kontrole en die ander het vir 500 dae opgegaan na die ISS). Ek het die skakel op my eie opmerking geplaas, maar die broer wat in die ruimte was, praat oor die effekte wat hy gevoel het terwyl hy in die ruimte was en toe hy terug op aarde was. Die effekte is redelik intens en omvattend. Sommige dinge wat hy ervaar het sou ek’ nie eers verwag het nie. Ek dink ook dat die lewe op 'n ander planeet jou nie langer sou laat lewe nie, want die liggaam sou net aanpas en ontwikkel om die omgewing te hanteer net soos ons liggame gedoen het met die hoeveelheid G’s wat hier op aarde is. Dit’s soos as niemand wenkbroue gehad het nie, sou dit vreemd wees om wenkbroue te hê. Maar aangesien almal dit het, sal dit vreemd wees om dit nie te doen nie. Haha dit’s 'n vreemde analogie, maar hou verband in 'n sekere sin.

Ek stem saam dat dit 'n goeie idee sal wees om iemand te stuur om op die maan te woon om die uitwerking van Zero G werklik op ons te sien. Jy sal waarskynlik meer as een persoon moet stuur om die beste resultate te kry, en dit kan 'n rukkie neem. Ek dink ook dat mense 'n langer lewensduur kan hê as daar geen swaartekrag op aarde was nie, maar as daar geen swaartekrag was nie, sou daar selfs mense wees? Dit’s soort van scary om oor na te dink. Dit sal interessant wees om te sien wat met ons sou gebeur as swaartekrag op Aarde ewe skielik sou stop. Sou ons op daardie stadium langer lewe of sou dit die planeet vernietig?

Eric, jy bring 'n paar interessante onderwerpe op, en die een wat my oog gevang het, was toe jy gesê het jy sal waarskynlik in 0 G leef as dit jou lewe sou verleng. Het jy al ooit daaraan gedink dat jy in 0G die meeste van jou spiere en bene sal begin verloor, 5% en 1% weekliks, dit 'n verwoestende uitwerking op jou daaglikse funksies sal hê, en in watter soort lewe sal jy leef 0 G? Daar is geen werk in die ruimte wat jou langtermyn kan ondersteun nie, en jy sal 'n groot bedrag geld moet betaal vir kos en water om by jou af te lewer, en jy weet nooit wanneer dit sal kan aankom nie. Miskien het jy oor hierdie dinge nagedink en dit was geïmpliseer in jou “verlenging van lewe” frase, maar indien nie, is dit 'n paar dinge om na te dink.

Ek voel dat hierdie eksperimente anders kan wees as jy verskeie mense binne die eksperiment het. Aangesien almal verskillende liggame het en die manier waarop geen swaartekrag mense beïnvloed, kan verskil met elke persoon wat onder daardie stres geplaas word. Die stres om in 'n scenario soos nul swaartekrag te wees, kan 'n persoon se geestelike toestand beïnvloed, asook om hulle in fisiese stres te plaas wat onvoorsiene mediese probleme kan veroorsaak. Dit is nog nie deur enige ruimte-agentskap getoets nie en slegs solovlugte. Dit kan verander in verdere vlugte waar hulle verskeie mense toets. Daar kan ook die moontlikheid wees van die skepping van geen swaartekragpakke wat die liggaam help aanpas.

Ek voel dat ons nooit werklik sal weet wat die lewe in die ruimte aan ons liggame sal doen nie, aangesien almal anders is. Baie mense sal sommige van dieselfde effekte ervaar, maar nie almal nie. En afhangende van hoe iemand’ se liggaam gebou is, sou hulle ook anders voel. Dit sal ook moeilik wees om die langtermyn-effekte te sien, aangesien dit natuurlik baie jare sal neem voordat ons 'n goeie tydreeks kan kry. Om te sien hoe hulle dit geestelik hanteer, sou 'n maklike ding wees om te sien, want jy kan begin sien hoe mense se mentaliteit verander soos dae of selfs weke verbygaan.

Goeie werk met hierdie pos, Syd! Met die vrae wat jy gestel het, het ek meer in diepte begin dink oor die verskil van lewe op ander planete teenoor Aarde. Aarde het natuurlik swaartekrag wat dit’s eie effekte op ons liggame het. Maar net soos evolusie, dink ek mense wat permanent in 'n omgewing met geen swaartekrag gewoon het of op 'n ander planeet gebore is, sou aanpas. Die menslike liggaam sou verander sodat sisteme met die omgewing sou werk en die mens in staat stel om so lank en so goed te lewe as wat ons hier op Aarde doen. So nee, ek dink nie dat die liggaam beskadig sou word lewe in 0g of enige swaartekrag minder as die Aarde’s as gevolg van dit’s veerkragtigheid. Met dit gesê, sou ek heeltemal gereed wees om die res van my lewe in die ruimte of op 'n ander planeet uit te leef. Ek dink dat verandering makliker is as jy nie probeer om terug te gaan na jou oorspronklike omgewing nie. Ek sou waarskynlik vir 'n rukkie in die ruimte woon en dan terugkom aarde toe, met die wete wat die uitwerking op my liggaam sal hê, net omdat die ruimte so fassinerend is. Om die geleentheid te laat verbygaan om ruimte toe te gaan net as gevolg van die moontlike reperkussies, sou mal wees. Scott Kelly, wat ongeveer 500 dae op die ISS was, verduidelik sy ervaring terwyl hy in die ruimte was en toe hy terug op aarde was. http://time.com/4371495/scott-kelly-space-body/

Jy is korrek, ons liggame sou uiteindelik aanpas by die verskil in swaartekrag, maar die vraag is hoe lank sal daardie proses neem en sal daardie mense wat by 0Gs aangepas is in staat wees om terug te kom aarde toe? Ek voel dat dit baie baie baie generasies sal neem voordat 'n mens in 'n 0g omgewing sal kan leef sonder enige skade aan hul liggaam. En sou hulle teen daardie tyd selfs as 'n mens beskou word? Hoe lank sal jy oorweeg om in die ruimte te wees? Ek sal graag vir ongeveer 'n maand in die ruimte wil wees sodat my liggaam nie heeltemal vernietig is nie en sodat ek kan terugkeer na my gewone lewe op planeet Aarde.

Hierdie opmerking is deur die skrywer verwyder.

Ek stem saam dat miskien ons liggame uiteindelik sou verander en aanpas nadat ons so lank in Zero G geleef het, net soos evolusie. Ons sou waarskynlik ook nie benadeel word nie, maar wat sou gebeur as ons teruggaan aarde toe en swaartekrag? Sal ons weer in staat wees om aan te pas en ons liggame terug te kry na “normaal”? Ek dink te veel verandering sal eintlik skade veroorsaak. Ek dink’t ons sal in staat wees om so baie so vinnig te ontwikkel en nie het dit negatief beïnvloed ons. Dit sal waarskynlik jare neem vir so iets om veilig te gebeur, en mense het nie daardie soort tyd nie.

In ooreenstemming met Emma en die ander respondente, glo ek nie die menslike liggaam sal as “beskadig” beskou word as mense in 'n omgewing met minder swaartekrag was nie. Ons liggame sal eerder aanpas by die verskil in die omgewing. Dit het baie nuuskierigheid by my laat ontstaan ​​oor hoe ons liggame sou aanpas by die verskil in swaartekrag. Sou die mensdom gemiddeld langer word? Sou die samestelling van ons vel verander? Sou ons liggame so aanpas dat ons onherkenbaar sou wees? Sal ons selfs vier ledemate nodig hê? Daar is soveel onbekendes as gevolg van die beperkte hoeveelheid navorsing wat oor hierdie onderwerp gedoen is.

Hierdie opmerking is deur die skrywer verwyder.

Wow goeie onderwerp!! Eerstens het ek nooit geweet dat ons elke dag 2 duim in hoogte verloor omdat ons vog in ons ruggraat verloor, en dat die vog herwin word wanneer ons gaan lê nie. Beteken dit dat langer mense baie gaan lê sodat hulle nie krimp nie?? Lol. Ek sal graag die ruimte wil besoek en kan ronddryf en net die aarde sien terwyl ons wentel. Ek sal ook graag in die ruimte wil wees, want dit sal my motivering gee om werklik te oefen, maar in plaas daarvan om spiere te kry, sal ek die spier behou wat ek reeds het. Dit het my laat dink aan die tipe oefensessies wat die ruimtevaarders in die ruimte doen, want jy kan nie net 'n halter gryp en rye begin doen nie. So ek het 'n vid opgesoek en uitgevind dat daar 'n masjien is wat weerstand bied deur silinder lug te gebruik en wanneer die ruimtevaarder die staaf lig, voel hy die weerstand uit die lug. Hulle kan eintlik meer lug in die silinder pomp as hulle meer weerstand benodig. Redelik gaaf. Ek wonder hoeveel die ruimtevaarders sou moes oefen as ons hulle na ander planete kon stuur, en of daar 'n planeet is waar oefen nie nodig sal wees nie. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YxImeOomkUk

Ek het geweet dat ruimtevaarders duim en gewig verloor het terwyl hulle in die ruimte was en dat dit vir hulle 'n moeilike oorgang was om terug te kom aarde toe, en die gereelde swaartekrag, maar ek het nie geweet dit kan so intens wees nie. Ek dink dit is baie gaaf dat hulle 'n uitvinding gemaak het sodat hulle nog kan uitwerk! Dit is regtig cool jy het daardie kyle gevind. Ek weet nie presies wat jy bedoel toe jy gevra het of daar 'n planeet is wat nie sal benodig om te oefen nie, maar ek gaan aanneem jy bedoel 'n planeet wat hulle nie sou toelaat om spiere te verloor nie. Ek dink daar sal nie 'n planeet wees nie, want dit is 'n effek van nul g en solank jy in die ruimte is, sal jy daardie effekte ervaar.

Sjoe die dinge wat ruimtevaarders daagliks moet doen net om gesond te bly in die ruimte kan baie vervelig lyk. Nou is dit op geen manier 'n absolute ernstige situasie wanneer jou winste in gevaar is nie. Tensy hierdie arme ruimtevaarders in hul snyfase is, ondergaan hulle beslis moontlike groot hoeveelhede spieruitputting. Nou gelukkig vir hierdie meneer het jy 'n baie interessante deurbraak in tegnologie gevind wat hierdie manne toegelaat het om voort te gaan oefen in die ruimte deur lugweerstand te gebruik. Alhoewel hulle nie soveel winste maak as wat hulle op aarde se gravitasiedruk was nie, het hulle sekerlik steeds die vermoë om hul liggaamsbou te handhaaf. In alle erns definieer hierdie uitvinding wat jy gevind het beslis die manier waarop jy jou daaglikse lewe sal moet verander terwyl jy in die ruimte leef.

Sjoe ek het nie geweet dat hulle soveel verloor het nie, ek het geweet dat hulle 'n bietjie lengte en gewig verloor het, maar ek het nie geweet dit was soveel nie. Ek dink ook dit sal gaaf wees om die ruimte in te gaan en rond te dryf amper sorgeloos op daardie oomblik. Maar die gevolge sou vroeër of later by my kom wanneer dit regtig erg raak of wanneer ek by die huis sou kom. Ek dink’t dink kon dit aan myself in die lang einde so ek sou waarskynlik’t doen nie. Maar om daaraan te dink sal wonderlik wees, maar ek sal dit nooit doen nie.

Ek het altyd gewonder die werklike rede hoekom my ouma besig is om te krimp. Dit is moeilik om te glo dat swaartekrag werklik so hard op ons ruggraat druk. Ek sal seker graag daardie ekstra twee duim terug wil hê sodat ek 'n bietjie langer kan wees. Ek sal beslis graag ruimte wil besoek al kan daar medies dinge met my gebeur wat my liggaam vir die res van my lewe kan beïnvloed. Ek dink om na die ruimte te gaan en te sien dat daar 'n ander plek daar buite is, weeg swaarder as ek nie die volle spiervermoë het om my arms of bene te beweeg nie.

Ek dink die feit dat hulle hoogte verloor terwyl hulle in die ruimte is, is gek. Wanneer die ruimtevaarders by die huis kom, moet hul liggame 'n goeie tyd neem om weer daaraan gewoond te raak. Persoonlik dink ek dit is baie vreemd dat wanneer die ruimtevaarders in die ruimte oefen, hulle net spiere behou, en dit nie regtig kry nie. Aangesien hulle dit so baie moet onderhou, sal hulle feitlik dieselfde spiermassa hê die hele tyd wat hulle daar is, maak nie saak hoeveel hulle hul oefensessies doen nie. Dit sal interessant wees om te sien wat hul dieetplan is om te behou wat hulle het.


Hsc hfst.1

Gesondheid—of sommige aspekte daarvan—kan bepaal of beïnvloed word deur faktore buite jou beheer, soos jou gene, ouderdom en familiegeskiedenis. Dink byvoorbeeld aan 'n 50-jarige man met 'n sterk familiegeskiedenis van vroeë hartsiektes. Hierdie faktor verhoog hierdie man se risiko om 'n hartaanval te kry op 'n vroeër ouderdom as wat verwag kan word.
Welstand word grootliks bepaal deur die besluite wat jy neem oor hoe jy leef. Dieselfde 50-jarige man kan sy risiko van 'n vroeë hartaanval verminder deur verstandig te eet, te oefen en gereelde siftingstoetse te hê. Selfs al ontwikkel hy hartsiektes, kan hy steeds 'n lang, ryk, betekenisvolle lewe lei. Hierdie faktore dui daarop dat hy moet kies om nie net fisies vir homself te sorg nie, maar ook om 'n positiewe uitkyk te handhaaf, sy verhoudings met ander te geniet, homself intellektueel uit te daag en ander aspekte van sy lewe te koester.
Bladsy 3
Welstand behels dus bewuste besluite wat risikofaktore beïnvloed wat tot siekte of besering bydra. Ons kan nie risikofaktore soos ouderdom en familiegeskiedenis beheer nie, maar ons kan leefstylgedrag beheer.

Die proses om welstand te bereik is voortdurend en dinamies (Figuur 1.1), wat verandering en groei behels. Welstand is nie staties nie. Die bemoedigende aspek van welstand is dat jy dit aktief kan nastreef. Hier is nege dimensies van welstand:

FIGUUR 1.1 Die welstandskontinuum. Die konsep van welstand sluit vitaliteit in in 'n aantal onderling verwante dimensies, wat almal bydra tot welstand.
Hierdie dimensies is onderling verwant en kan mekaar beïnvloed, soos die volgende afdelings verduidelik. Figuur 1.2 lys spesifieke eienskappe en gedrag wat met elke dimensie geassosieer word.

FISIESE WELSTAND EMOSIONELE WELSTAND INTELLEKTUELE WELSTAND
Eet goed
Oefen
Vermy skadelike gewoontes
Beoefen veiliger seks
Herken simptome van siekte
Kry gereelde ondersoeke
Vermy beserings
Optimisme
Vertroue
Selfbeeld
Selfaanvaarding
Selfvertroue
Vermoë om 'n mens se gevoelens te verstaan ​​en te aanvaar
Vermoë om gevoelens met ander te deel
Openheid vir nuwe idees
Vermoë om te bevraagteken
Vermoë om krities te dink
Motivering om nuwe vaardighede te bemeester
Sin vir humor
Kreatiwiteit
Nuuskierigheid
Lewenslange leer
INTERPERSOONLIKE WELSTAND KULTURELE WELSTAND GEESTELIKE WELSTAND
Kommunikasie vaardighede
Kapasiteit vir intimiteit
Vermoë om bevredigende verhoudings te vestig en te handhaaf
Vermoë om 'n ondersteuningstelsel van vriende en familie te kweek
Skep verhoudings met diegene wat anders as jy is
Behou en waardeer jou eie kulturele identiteit
Vermy stereotipering op grond van ras, etnisiteit, geslag, godsdiens of seksuele oriëntasie
Vermoë vir liefde
Deernis
Vergifnis
Altruïsme
Vreugde en vervulling
Omgee vir ander
Sin van betekenis en doel
Gevoel om aan iets groter as jouself te behoort
OMGEWINGSWELSTAND FINANSIËLE WELSTAND BEROEPSWELSTAND
Met oorvloedige, skoon natuurlike hulpbronne
Handhawing van volhoubare ontwikkeling
Herwinning waar moontlik
Verminder besoedeling en afval
Om 'n basiese begrip te hê van hoe geld werk
Lewe binne 'n mens se vermoë
Vermy skuld, veral vir onnodige items
Spaar vir die toekoms en vir noodgevalle
Geniet wat jy doen
Voel gewaardeer deur jou bestuurder
Bou bevredigende verhoudings met kollegas
Gebruik geleenthede om te leer en uitgedaag te word
FIGUUR 1.2 Eienskappe en gedrag geassosieer met die dimensies van welstand. Hersien elke dimensie noukeurig en oorweeg jou persoonlike welstand se sterk- en swakpunte.
Fisiese welstand
Jou fisiese welstand sluit nie net jou liggaam se algehele toestand en die afwesigheid van siekte in nie, maar ook jou fiksheidsvlak en jou vermoë om vir jouself te sorg. Hoe hoër jou fiksheidsvlak, hoe hoër jou vlak van fisiese welstand. Net so, soos jy die vermoë ontwikkel om na jou eie fisiese behoeftes om te sien, verseker jy groter fisiese welstand. Die besluite wat jy nou neem, en die gewoontes wat jy oor jou leeftyd ontwikkel, sal die lengte en kwaliteit van jou lewe bepaal.

Emosionele welstand
Vertroue, selfvertroue, optimisme, bevredigende verhoudings en selfagting is van die eienskappe van emosionele welstand. Emosionele welstand is dinamies en behels die op- en afdraandes van die lewe. Niemand kan heeltyd 'n emosionele "hoogte" bereik nie. Emosionele welstand wissel met jou intellektuele, fisiese, geestelike, kulturele en interpersoonlike gesondheid. Om emosionele welstand te handhaaf, vereis die ondersoek van gedagtes en gevoelens. Selfaanvaarding is jou persoonlike bevrediging met jouself – dit kan die verwagtinge van die samelewing uitsluit – terwyl selfagting verband hou met die manier waarop jy dink ander jou sien, selfvertroue kan deel van beide aanvaarding en agting wees. Om emosionele welstand te bereik beteken om oplossings vir emosionele probleme te vind, met professionele hulp indien nodig.

Intellektuele welstand
Diegene wat intellektuele welstand geniet, daag voortdurend hul gedagtes uit. 'n Aktiewe verstand is noodsaaklik vir welstand omdat dit probleme opspoor, oplossings vind en gedrag rig. Deur hul leeftyd hou mense wat intellektuele welstand geniet nooit op leer nie. Dikwels ontdek hulle nuwe dinge oor hulself.

Interpersoonlike welstand
Bevredigende en ondersteunende verhoudings is belangrik vir fisiese en emosionele welstand. Die aanleer van goeie kommunikasievaardighede, die ontwikkeling van die kapasiteit vir intimiteit en die kweek van 'n ondersteunende netwerk is alles belangrik vir interpersoonlike (of sosiale) welstand. Sosiale welstand vereis deelname aan en bydra tot jou gemeenskap en tot die samelewing.

Kulturele Welstand
Kulturele welstand verwys na die manier waarop jy met ander omgaan wat anders as jy is in terme van etnisiteit, godsdiens, geslag, seksuele oriëntasie, ouderdom en gebruike (praktyke). Dit behels die skep van verhoudings met ander en die opskorting van oordeel oor ander se gedrag totdat jy saam met hulle geleef het of " in hulle skoene geloop het." Dit sluit ook die aanvaarding, waardering en selfs viering van die verskillende kulturele maniere waarop mense in die wêreld omgaan, in. Die mate waarin jy kulturele identiteite handhaaf en waardeer, is een maatstaf van kulturele welstand.

Geestelike welstand
Om geestelike welstand te geniet is om 'n stel leidende oortuigings, beginsels of waardes te besit wat betekenis en doel aan jou lewe gee, veral in moeilike tye. Die geestelik gesonde persoon fokus op die positiewe aspekte van die lewe en vind spiritualiteit 'n teenmiddel vir negatiewe gevoelens soos sinisme, woede en pessimisme. Georganiseerde godsdienste help baie mense om geestelike gesondheid te ontwikkel. Godsdiens is egter nie die enigste bron of vorm van geestelike welstand nie. Baie mense vind sin en doel in hul lewens deur hul geliefdes of op hul eie – deur die natuur, kuns, meditasie of goeie werke.

Omgewingswelstand
Jou omgewingswelstand word gedefinieer deur die leefbaarheid van jou omgewing. Persoonlike gesondheid hang af van die gesondheid van die planeet – van die veiligheid van die voedselvoorraad tot die mate van geweld in die samelewing. Jou fisiese omgewing kan jou welstand ondersteun of dit verminder. Om jou omgewingswelstand te verbeter, kan jy leer oor en jouself beskerm teen gevare in jou omgewing en werk om jou wêreld 'n skoner en veiliger plek te maak.

Finansiële Welstand
Finansiële welstand verwys na jou vermoë om binne jou vermoë te leef en jou geld te bestuur op 'n manier wat jou gemoedsrus gee. Dit sluit in om jou inkomste en uitgawes te balanseer, om uit die skuld te bly, te spaar vir die toekoms en om jou emosies oor geld te verstaan. Sien die "Finansiële Welstand"-kassie.

NEEM BEHEER: Finansiële Welstand

Navorsers het byna 90 000 universiteitstudente ondervra oor hul finansiële gedrag en houdings. Volgens resultate wat in 2016 vrygestel is, voel 'n groot persentasie studente minder bereid om hul geld te bestuur as om byna enige ander aspek van die universiteitslewe te hanteer. Hulle spreek ook nood uit oor hul huidige en toekomstige finansiële besluite. Voorop in hul gedagtes is hoe om studieleningsskuld te bestuur. Finansiële welstand beteken om 'n gesonde verhouding met geld te hê. Hier is strategieë om daardie verhouding te vestig:

Volg 'n begroting
'n Begroting is 'n manier om na te gaan waarheen jou geld gaan en seker te maak jy bestee dit op die dinge wat vir jou die belangrikste is. Om een ​​te begin, lys jou maandelikse inkomste en uitgawes. As jy nie seker is waar jy jou geld spandeer nie, hou jou uitgawes vir 'n paar weke of 'n maand dop. Then organize them into categories, such as housing, food, transportation, entertainment, services, personal care, clothes, books and school supplies, health care, credit card and loan payments, and miscellaneous. Knowing where your money goes is the first step in gaining control of it.

Now total your income and expenditures and examine your spending patterns. Use this information to set guidelines and goals for yourself. If your expenses exceed your income, identify ways to make some cuts. For example, if you spend money going out at night, consider less expensive options like having a weekly game night with friends or organizing an occasional potluck.

Be Wary of Credit Cards
Students have easy access to credit but little training in finances. The percentage of students who have access to credit cards has increased from 28% in 2012 to 41% in 2015. This increase in credit card use has also correlated with an increase in paying credit card bills late, paying only the minimum amount, and having larger total outstanding credit balances.

Shifting away from using credit cards and toward using debit cards is a good strategy for staying out of debt. Familiarity with financial terminology helps as well. Basic financial literacy with regard to credit cards involves understanding terms like APR (annual percentage rate—the interest you're charged on your balance), credit limit (the maximum amount you can borrow), minimum monthly payment (the smallest payment your creditor will accept each month), grace period (the number of days you have to pay your bill before interest or penalties are charged), and over-the-limit and late fees (the amounts you'll be charged if you go over your credit limit or your payment is late).

Manage Your Debt
A 2015 study indicated that graduating college students often had debts of $35,000—and this amount is expected to rise. When it comes to student loans, having a direct, personal plan for repayment can save time and money, reduce stress, and help you prepare for the future. However, only about 10% of students surveyed feel they have all the information needed to pay off their loans. Work with your lender and make sure you know how to access your balance, when to start repayment, how to make payments, what your repayment plan options are, and what to do if you have trouble making payments. Information on managing federal student loans is available from https://studentaid.ed.gov/sa/.

If you have credit card debt, stop using your cards and start paying them off. If you can't pay the whole balance, try to pay more than the minimum payment each month. It can take a very long time to pay off a loan by making only the minimum payments. For example, paying off a credit card balance of $2000 at 10% interest with monthly payments of $20 would take 203 months—nearly 17 years. Check out an online credit card calculator like http://money.cnn.com/calculator/pf/debt-free/. If you carry a balance and incur finance charges, you are paying back much more than your initial loan.

Start Saving
If you start saving early, the same miracle of compound interest that locks you into years of credit card debt can work to your benefit (for an online compound interest calculator, visit http://www.interestcalc.org). Experts recommend "paying yourself first" every month—that is, putting some money into savings before you pay your bills. You may want to save for a large purchase, or you may even be looking ahead to retirement. If you work for a company with a 401(k) retirement plan, contribute as much as you can every pay period.

Become Financially Literate
Most Americans have not received any basic financial training. For this reason, the U.S. government has established the Financial Literacy and Education Commission (MyMoney.gov) to help Americans learn how to save, invest, and manage money better. Developing lifelong financial skills should begin in early adulthood, during the college years, if not earlier, as money-management experience appears to have a more direct effect on financial knowledge than does education. For example, when tested on their basic financial literacy, students who had checking accounts had higher scores than those who did not.

sources: Smith, C., and G. A. Barboza. 2013. The role of trans-generational financial knowledge and self-reported financial literacy on borrowing practices and debt accumulation of college students. Social Science Research Network (http://ssrn.com/abstract=2342168) Plymouth State University. 2013. Student Monetary Awareness and Responsibility Today! (http://www.plymouth.edu/office/financial-aid/smart/) U.S. Financial Literacy and Education Commission. 2013. MyMoney.gov (http://www.mymoney.gov) Sparshott, J. 2015. Congratulations, Class of 2015. You're the most indebted ever (for now). Wall Street Journal, May 8, 2015 (http://blogs.wsj.com/economics/2015/05/08/congratulations-class-of-2015-youre-the-most-indebted-ever-for-now/) EverFi. 2016. Money Matters on Campus: Examining Financial Attitudes and Behaviors of Two-Year and Four-Year College Students (www.moneymattersoncampus.org).
Occupational Wellness
Occupational wellness refers to the level of happiness and fulfillment you gain through your work. Although high salaries and prestigious titles are gratifying, they alone may not bring about occupational wellness. An occupationally well person enjoys his or her work, feels a connection with others in the workplace, and takes advantage of the opportunities to learn and be challenged. Another important aspect of occupational wellness is recognition from managers and colleagues. An ideal job draws on your interests and passions, as well as your vocational skills, and allows you to feel that you are making a contribution in your everyday work.

New Opportunities for Taking Charge

Wellness is a fairly new concept. One hundred and fifty years ago, Americans considered themselves lucky just to survive to adulthood. A boy born in 1850, for example, could expect to live only about 38 years and a girl, 40 years. Morbidity and mortality rates (rates of illness and death, respectively) from common infectious diseases (such as pneumonia, tuberculosis, and diarrhea) were much higher than Americans experience today.
By 1980, life expectancy Page 6nearly doubled, due largely to the development of vaccines and antibiotics to fight infections, and to public health measures such as water purification and sewage treatment to improve living conditions (Figure 1.3). But even though life expectancy has increased, poor health will limit most Americans' activities during the last 15% of their lives, resulting in some sort of impaired life (Figure 1.4). Today a different set of diseases has emerged as our major health threat: Heart disease, cancer, and chronic lower respiratory diseases are now the three leading causes of death for Americans (Table 1.1). An obesity epidemic, beginning in the late 1970s, has also spurred predictions that American life expectancy will decline within the next several decades (see box "Life Expectancy and the Obesity Epidemic" on p. 8). Obesity and poor eating habits can lead to all of the major chronic diseases.

FIGURE 1.3 Public health, life expectancy, and quality of life. Public health achievements during the 20th century are credited with adding more than 25 years to life expectancy for Americans, greatly improving quality of life, and dramatically reducing deaths from infectious diseases. Public health improvements continue into the 21st century, including greater roadway safety and a steep decline in childhood lead poisoning. In 2013, the government mandated that all Americans be covered by health insurance, a protection already long established in most other industrialized countries.
sources: Kochanek, K.D., et al. 2016. Deaths: Final data for 2014. National Vital Statistics Reports 65(4) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2011. Ten great public health achievements—United States, 2001-2010. MMWR 60(19): 619-623 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1999. Ten great public health achievements—United States, 1900-1999. MMWR 48(50): 1141.

FIGURE 1.4 Quantity of life versus quality of life. Years of healthy life as a proportion of life expectancy in the U.S. population.
source: Kochanek, K. D., et al. 2016. Deaths: Final data for 2014. National Vital Statistics Reports 65(4). Nasionale Sentrum vir Gesondheidstatistiek. 2012. Healthy People 2010 Final Review. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics.
VITAL STATISTICS
Table 1.1 Leading Causes of Death in the United States, 2013
RANK
CAUSE OF DEATH
NUMBER OF DEATHS
PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL DEATHS
LIFESTYLE FACTORS
1
Hartsiekte
614,348
23.4

3
Chronic lower respiratory diseases
147,101
5.6

4
Unintentional injuries (accidents)
136,053
5.2

6
Alzheimer's disease
93,541
3.6

7
Diabetes mellitus
76,488
2.9

8
Influenza and pneumonia
55,227
2.1

10
Intentional self-harm (suicide)
42,773
1.6

11
Septicemia (systemic blood infection)
38,940
1.5

12
Chronic liver disease and cirrhosis
38,170
1.5

13
Hypertension (high blood pressure)
30,221
1.2

14
Parkinson's disease
26,150
1.0

15
Lung inflammation due to solids and liquids
18,792
0.7

note: Although not among the overall top 15 causes of death, HIV/AIDS (6,721 deaths in 2014) is a major killer. In 2014, HIV/AIDS was the 13th leading cause of death for Americans aged 15-24 years and the 8th leading cause of death for those aged 25-34 years.
source: Kochanek, K. D., et al. 2016. Deaths: Final data for 2014. National Vital Statistics Reports 65(4).
TAKE CHARGE: Life Expectancy and the Obesity Epidemic

Life expectancy consistently increased each decade in the United States since 1900 (see Figure 1.3). But is this trend continuing? Will children today live longer and healthier lives than their parents? The upward trend has slowed, and some researchers point to the significant increase in obesity among Americans as a potential cause. According to estimates released in 2016, 35% of American men and 40% of American women are obese. The problem isn't confined to the United States: The World Health Organization estimates that 2 billion adults worldwide are overweight or obese.

Along with increases in obesity come increased rates of diabetes, chronic liver disease, heart disease, stroke, and other chronic diseases that are leading causes of death. Of course, medical interventions for these conditions have improved over time, lessening the impact of obesity to date. Still, medical treatments may be reaching their limits in preventing early deaths related to obesity. Moreover, people are becoming obese at earlier ages, exposing them to the adverse effects of excess body fat over a longer period of time. The magnitude of the obesity problem has brought predictions that an overall decline in life expectancy will take place in the United States by the mid-21st century.

What can be done? For an individual, body composition is influenced by a complex interplay of personal factors, including heredity, metabolic rate, hormones, age, and dietary and activity habits. But many outside forces—social, cultural, and economic—shape our behavior, and some experts recommend viewing obesity as a public health problem that requires an urgent and coordinated public health response. A response in health care technology such as gastric bypass surgery, medications, and early screening for obesity-related diseases has helped in the past, but if obesity trends persist, especially among children, average life spans may begin to decrease.

What actions might be taken? Suggestions from health promotion advocates include the following:

Change food pricing to promote healthful options for example, tax sugary beverages and offer incentives to farmers and food manufacturers to produce and market affordable healthy choices and smaller portion sizes.
Limit advertising of unhealthy foods targeting children.
Require daily physical education classes in schools.
Fund strategies to promote physical activity by creating more walkable communities, parks, and recreational facilities.
Train health professionals to provide nutrition and exercise counseling, and mandate health insurance coverage for treatment of obesity as a chronic condition.
Promote expansion of worksite programs for improving diet and physical activity habits.
Encourage increased public investment in obesity-related research.
In addition to indirectly supporting these actions, you can directly do the following:

Analyze your own food choices, and make appropriate changes. Nutrition is discussed in detail in Chapter 12, but you can start by shifting away from consuming foods high in sugar and refined grains.
Be more physically active. Take the stairs rather than the elevator, ride a bike instead of driving a car, and reduce your overall sedentary time.
Educate yourself about current recommendations and areas of debate in nutrition.
Speak out, vote, and become an advocate for healthy changes in your community.
See Chapters 12-14 for more on nutrition, exercise, and weight management.

sources: Flegal, K. M., et al. 2016. Trends in obesity among adults in the United States, 2005-2014. JAMA 315(21): 2284-2291. Ludwig, D. S. 2016. Lifespan weighed down by diet. JAMA (published online April 4, 2016, DOI: 10.1001/jama.2016.3829) Olshansky, S. J., et al. 2005. A potential decline in life expectancy in the United States in the 21st century. New England Journal of Medicine 352(11): 1138-1145 National Center for Health Statistics. 2016. Health, United States, 2015: With Special Feature on Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics International Food Policy Research Institute. 2016. Global Nutrition Report 2016: From Promise to Impact: Ending Malnutrition by 2030. Washington, DC: International Food Policy Research Institute U.S. Department of Agriculture. 2015. Scientific Report of the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee (http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/2015-scientific-report).
The good news is that people have some control over whether they develop chronic diseases. People make choices every day that increase or decrease their risks for such diseases. For example, each of us can take personal responsibility for lifestyle choices regarding smoking, diet, exercise, and alcohol use. Table 1.2 shows the estimated number of annual deaths tied to selected underlying causes. For example, the estimated 90,000 deaths tied to alcohol includes deaths due directly to alcohol poisoning as well as a proportion of deaths from causes such as liver cancer and injuries. Similarly, sexual behavior is linked to a proportion of all Page 8deaths from HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer. As Table 1.2 makes clear, lifestyle factors contribute to many deaths in the United States.

VITAL STATISTICS
Table 1.2 Key Contributors to Deaths among Americans
ESTIMATED NUMBER OF DEATHS PER YEAR
PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL DEATHS PER YEAR
Tabak
480,000
18.3
Diet/activity patterns (obesity)*
400,000
15.2
Alkoholverbruik
90,000
3.4
Microbial agents**
80,000
3.0
Firearms
30,000
1.1
Illicit drug use***
25,000+
1.0
Motorvoertuie
20,000
0.8
Sexual behavior****
15,000
0.6
*The number of deaths due to obesity is an area of ongoing controversy and research. Recent estimates have ranged from 112,000 to 400,000.
**Microbial agents include bacterial and viral infections, such as influenza, pneumonia, and hepatitis. Infections transmitted sexually are counted in the "sexual behavior" category, including a proportion of deaths related to hepatitis, which can be transmitted both sexually and nonsexually.
***Drug overdose deaths have increased rapidly in recent years, making it likely that this estimate will rise.
****Estimated deaths linked to sexual behavior includes deaths from cervical cancer and sexually acquired HIV, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C.
sources: Kochanek, K. D., et al. 2016. Deaths: Final data for 2014. National Vital Statistics Reports 65(4), National Research Council, Institute of Medicine. 2015. Measuring the Risks and Causes of Premature Death: Summary of Workshops. Washington, DC: National Academies Press Stahre, M., et al. 2014. Contribution of excessive alcohol consumption to deaths and years of potential life lost in the United States. Preventing Chronic Disease: Research, Practice, and Policy 11: 130293 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2014. The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
The need to make good choices is especially true for teens and young adults. For Americans aged 15-24, for example, the leading cause of death is unintentional injuries (accidents), with the greatest number of deaths linked to car crashes (Table 1.3). Factors that influence wellness, including the choices we can all make to promote it, are discussed later in this chapter.

VITAL STATISTICS
Table 1.3 Leading Causes of Death among Americans Aged 15-24, 2014
RANK
CAUSE OF DEATH
NUMBER OF DEATHS
PERCENTAGE OF TOTAL DEATHS
1
Unintentional injuries (accidents):
Motor vehicle
All other unintentional injuries
11,836
6,959
4,877
41.1
24.2
16.9
2
Selfmoord
5,079
17.6
3
Homicide
4,144
14.4
4
Kanker
1,569
5.4
5
Hartsiekte
1,199
4.2
All causes
28,791
100.0
source: Kochanek, K. D., et al. 2016. Deaths: Final data for 2014. National Vital Statistics Reports 65(4).
Page 9
Ask Yourself

The Affordable Care Act (ACA), also called "Obamacare," was signed into law on March 23, 2010, and upheld by the Supreme Court in 2012 and 2015. The new law requires most people to obtain health insurance or pay a federal penalty. Here is a brief summary of the new law:

Health plans can no longer deny or limit benefits due to a preexisting condition.
If you are under 26, you may be eligible to be covered under your parent's health plan.
Insurers can no longer cancel your coverage because of honest mistakes in your application.
If your plan denies payment, you are guaranteed the right to appeal.
Kostes

Lifetime dollar limits are not permitted on most benefits you receive.
Insurance companies must now publicly justify rate hikes.
Your premium dollars must be spent primarily on health care—not administrative costs.
Omgee

Recommended preventive health services are covered with no copayment.
From your plan's network, you can choose the primary care doctor you want.
You can seek emergency care at a hospital outside your health plan's network.
Finding a Plan
Under the ACA, health insurance marketplaces, also called health exchanges, facilitate the purchase of health insurance in every state. The health exchanges provide a selection of government-regulated health care plans that students and others may choose from. Those who are below income requirements are eligible for federal help with the premiums.Page 10

Benefits to College Students
The ACA permits students to stay on their parents' health insurance plans until age 26—even if they are married or have coverage through an employer. Students not on their parents' plans who do not want to purchase insurance through their schools can do so through a health insurance marketplace.

If you're under 30, you have the option of buying a "catastrophic" health plan. Such plans tend to have low premiums but require you to pay all medical costs up to a certain amount, usually several thousand dollars. The insurance company would pay for essential health benefits over that amount.

Students whose income is below a certain level may qualify for Medicaid. Check with your state. Individuals with nonimmigrant status, which includes worker visas and student visas, qualify for insurance coverage through the exchanges. You can browse plans and apply for coverage at HealthCare.gov.

The Healthy People Initiative

The national Healthy People initiative aims to prevent disease and improve Americans' quality of life. Healthy People reports, published each decade since 1980, set national health goals based on 10-year agendas. The initiative's most recent iteration, Healthy People 2020, was released to the public in 2010 and envisions "a society in which all people live long, healthy lives" and proposes the eventual achievement of the following broad national health objectives:

Eliminate preventable disease, disability, injury, and premature death.
Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups.
Create social and physical environments that promote good health for all.
Promote healthy development and healthy behaviors across every stage of life.
In a shift from the past, Healthy People 2020 emphasizes the importance of health determinants—factors that affect the health of individuals, demographic groups, or entire populations. Health determinants are social (including factors such as ethnicity, education level, or economic status) and environmental (including natural and human-made environments). Thus one goal is to improve living conditions in ways that reduce the impact of negative health determinants.

Examples of individual health-promotion goals from Healthy People 2020, along with estimates of how well Americans are tracking toward achieving those goals, appear in Table 1.4.

Table 1.4 Progress toward Healthy People 2020 Targets
BASELINE (% IN 2008)
MOST RECENT (% IN 2013-2014)
TARGET (% BY 2020)
PROGRESS TOWARD GOAL
Increase proportion of people with health insurance
83.2
86.7
100.0
Significant progress
Help adults with hypertension get blood pressure under control
43.7
48.9
61.2
Significant progress
Reduce proportion of obese adults
33.9
37.7
30.5
Getting worse
Reduce proportion of adults who drank excessively in past 30 days
27.1
26.9
24.4
Insignificant progress
Increase proportion of adults who meet federal guidelines for exercise
18.2
21.3
20.1
Target met
Reduce proportion of adults who use cigarettes
20.6
17.0
12.0
Significant progress
source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Healthy People 2020 data search (https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/data-search/Search-the-Data).
Health Issues for Diverse Populations

We all need to exercise, eat well, manage stress, and cultivate positive relationships. We also need to protect ourselves from disease and injuries. But some of our differences—both as individuals and as members of groups—have important implications for wellness. These differences can be biological (determined genetically) or cultural (acquired as patterns of behavior through daily interactions with family, community, and society) many health conditions are a function of biology and culture combined.

As described in the previous section, eliminating health disparities is a major focus of Healthy People 2020. But not all health differences between groups are considered health disparities, which are those differences linked with social, economic, and/or environmental disadvantage. They affect groups who have systematically experienced greater obstacles to health based on characteristics that are historically linked to exclusion or discrimination. For example, the fact that women have a higher rate of breast cancer than men is a health difference but is not considered a disparity. In contrast, the higher death rates from breast cancer for black women compared with non-Hispanic white women is considered a health disparity.

You share patterns of influences with certain others, and information about those groups can help you identify areas that may be of concern to you and your family. Healthy People 2020 tracks health status and behaviors in relation to a number of demographic dimensions, including sex and gender, race and ethnicity, income and educational attainment, Page 11disability status, geographic location (rural and urban), and sexual orientation and gender identity. These are broad categories, and you should consider whether and to what degree issues associated with a particular group are relevant for you.

Sex and Gender
Sex refers to the biological and physiological characteristics that define men, women, and intersex people. In contrast, gender encompasses how people identify themselves and also the roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a given society considers appropriate for them. A person's gender is rooted in biology and physiology, but it is also shaped by how society responds to individuals based on their sex. (See Chapters 4 and 5 for more on sex, gender, and gender roles.) Examples of gender-related characteristics that affect wellness include the higher rates of smoking and drinking found among men and the lower earnings found among women (compared with men doing similar work). Although men are more biologically likely than women to suffer from certain diseases (a sex issue), men are less likely to visit their physicians for regular exams (a gender issue). Men have higher rates of death from injuries, suicide, and homicide, whereas women are at greater risk for Alzheimer's disease and depression. On average, men and women also differ in body composition and certain aspects of physical performance.

Race and Ethnicity
Among America's racial and ethnic groups, striking disparities exist in health status, access to and quality of health care, and life expectancy. However, measuring the relationships between ethnic or racial backgrounds and health issues is complicated for several reasons. First, separating the effects of race and ethnicity from socioeconomic status is difficult. In some studies, controlling for social conditions reduces health disparities. For example, a study from the Exploring Health Disparities in Integrated Communities project found that in a racially integrated community where blacks and whites had the same earnings, disparities were eliminated or reduced in the areas of hypertension, female obesity, and diabetes.

In other studies, even when patients shared equal status in terms of education and income, insurance coverage, and clinical need, disparities in care persisted. For example, compared with non-Hispanic whites, blacks and Hispanics are less likely to get appropriate medication for heart conditions or to have coronary artery bypass surgery they are also less likely to receive kidney transplants or dialysis.

Second, the classification of race (a social construct) itself is complex. How are participants in medical studies classified? Sometimes participants choose their own identities sometimes the physician/researcher assigns identities sometimes both parties are involved in the classification and sometimes participants and researchers may disagree.

Despite these limitations, it is still useful to identify and track health risks among population groups. Some diseases are concentrated in certain gene pools, the result of each ethnic group's relatively distinct history. Sickle-cell disease, for example, is most common among people of African ancestry. Tay-Sachs disease tends to afflict people of Eastern European Jewish heritage and French Canadian heritage. Cystic fibrosis is more common among Northern Europeans.

In addition to biological differences, many cultural differences occur along ethnic lines. Ethnic groups vary in their traditional diets the fabric of their family and interpersonal relationships their attitudes toward tobacco, alcohol, and other drugs and their health beliefs and practices. All these factors have implications for wellness.

In tracking health status, the federal government collects data on what they define as five race groups (African American/black, American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian American, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and white) as well as two categories of ethnicity (Hispanic or Latino not Hispanic or Latino) Hispanics may identify as being of any race group. Other researchers may use these or similar designations. Health concerns have been identified for each of the broad ethnic or racial minority groups.

African Americans have the same leading causes of death as the general population, but they have a higher infant mortality rate and lower rates of suicide and osteoporosis. Health issues of special concern for African Americans include high blood pressure, stroke, diabetes, asthma, and obesity. African American men are at significantly higher risk of prostate cancer than men in other groups.
American Indians and Alaska Natives typically embrace a tribal identity, such as Sioux, Navaho, or Hopi. American Indians and Alaska Natives have lower death rates from heart disease, stroke, and cancer than the general population, but they have higher rates of early death from causes linked to smoking and alcohol use, including injuries and cirrhosis. Diabetes is a special concern for many groups.
Asian Americans include people who trace their ancestry to countries in the Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent, including Japan, China, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Korea, the Philippines, India, and Pakistan. Asian Americans have lower rates of coronary heart disease and obesity. However, health differences exist among these groups. For example, Southeast Asian American men have higher rates of smoking and lung cancer, and Vietnamese American women have higher rates of cervical cancer.
Native Hawaiian and other Pacific IslanderAmericans trace their ancestry to the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, and other Pacific Islands. Pacific Islander Americans have a higher overall death rate than the general population and higher rates of diabetes and asthma. Smoking and obesity are special concerns for this group.
Latinos are a diverse group, with roots in Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and South and Central America. Many Latinos are of mixed Spanish and American Indian descent or of mixed Spanish, Indian, and African American descent. Latinos on average have lower rates of heart disease, cancer, and suicide than the general population areas of concern include gallbladder disease, obesity, diabetes, and lack of health insurance.
Page 12
Why do these disparities exist? Poverty and low educational attainment are key factors underlying ethnic health disparities, but they do not fully account for the differences. Access to appropriate health care can be a challenge, even as the Affordable Care Act has reduced the number of uninsured Americans. Non-white racial and ethnic groups, regardless of income, may live in areas that are medically underserved, with fewer sources of high-quality or specialist care. Language and cultural barriers, along with racism and discrimination, can also prevent people from receiving appropriate health services.

Not all the news is bad, however. Progress is being made on reducing health disparities and in developing effective strategies to tackle health issues that disproportionately affect specific population groups. See the box "Moving toward Health Equity."

DIVERSITY MATTERS: Moving toward Health Equity

In 2016, the National Center for Health Statistics released a special review of progress on racial and ethnic health disparities over a 15-year period. Although disparities persist, the gaps have shrunk in many key measures of health conditions, health behaviors, and access to and use of health care. Voorbeelde sluit die volgende in:

The life expectancy gap between whites and blacks dropped from 5.9 years to 3.4 years.
The percentage of adults without health insurance declined among all groups following the passage of the Affordable Care Act, with the greatest improvement seen among Latinos.
Infant mortality rates dropped among all groups the largest declines were for the two groups with the highest rates—African Americans and American Indian or Alaska Natives.
One key goal for collecting data by demographic characteristics is to better identify the population groups at risk and to target those groups with tailored strategies specifically designed to reduce health disparities. A 2016 report from the CDC highlighted a variety of successful interventions (see table). Public health professionals hope to identify and implement more such programs that promote health equity and help ensure that all Americans live long and healthy lives. You can help by supporting health promotion programs in your community.

TARGETED POPULATION
INTERVENTION AND RESULTS
Black and Hispanic children
Case management and home visits by community health workers decreased asthma-related hospitalizations.
Non-white racial/ethnic groups
Expanded vaccination recommendations eliminated some disparities in hepatitis A disease.
People living with disabilities
Curriculum for living well with a disability improved quality of life.
Mans wat seks met mans het
Personalized counseling reduced HIV risk behaviors.
American Indian and Alaska Native populations
Tribally driven efforts to reclaim traditional food systems facilitated dialogue about health.
Low-income populations and Alaska Natives
Client and provider reminders and patient navigators increased colorectal cancer screening rates.
Youth in high-risk communities
Programs and policies supporting better neighborhood conditions reduced violence.
Hispanic and Latino immigrant men
Lay health advisors reduced HIV risk behaviors.
sources: National Center for Health Statistics. 2016. Health, United States, 2015: With Special Feature on Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2016. Selected CDC-Sponsored Interventions, United States, 2016 (http://www.cdc.gov/minorityhealth/strategies2016/index.html).
Income and Education
Income and education are closely related. Groups with the highest poverty rates and least education have the worst health status. They have higher rates of infant mortality, traumatic injury, violent death, and many diseases, including heart disease, diabetes, tuberculosis, HIV infection, and some cancers. They are also more likely to eat poorly, be overweight, smoke, drink, and use drugs. And to complicate and magnify all these factors, they are also exposed to more day-to-day stressors and have less access to health care services. Researchers estimate that about 250,000 deaths per year can be attributed to low educational attainment, 175,000 to individual and community poverty, and 120,000 to income inequality.

Disability
People with disabilities have activity limitations or need assistance due to a physical or mental impairment. About one in five people in the United States has some level of disability, and the rate is rising, especially among younger segments of the population. People with disabilities are more likely to be inactive and overweight. They report more days of depression than people without disabilities. Many also lack access to health care services.Page 13

Geografiese ligging
About one in four Americans currently lives in a rural area—a place with fewer than 10,000 residents. People living in rural areas are less likely to be physically active, use seat belts, or obtain screening tests for preventive health care. They have less access to timely emergency services and much higher rates of some diseases and injury-related deaths than people living in urban areas. They are also more likely to lack health insurance. Children living in dangerous neighborhoods—rural or urban—are less likely to play outside and are four times more likely to be overweight than children living in safer areas.


Thousands of people could live in space colonies orbiting the Earth in 20 years, expert claims

Thousands of people could be living in floating space colonies orbiting the Earth in 20 years’ time, according to the head of a project by the British Interplanetary Society (BIS).

And, while life in space might sound unappealing to some, Jerry Stone believe it could actually be healthier than planet Earth, enabling people to live longer and, eventually, grow taller.

Mr Stone, author of the book One Small Step about the moon landings, and other members of the BIS have been updating research carried out in the US in the 1970s into how humans could start living in space in large numbers.

In a speech in Aberdeen as part of British Science Week, Mr Stone will claim humanity is now close to the point where such colonies could be built using material taken from the Moon and asteroids.

Aanbeveel

Speaking to The Independent, he said the space colonists would initially build and maintain solar panels that would be used to provide power on Earth.

This, he said, was much more efficient than collecting the sun’s energy on the Earth’s surface after it has passed through the atmosphere.

But other industries might later move into space to take advantage of the weightlessness and huge supply of energy from the sun.

The colonies would consist of a vast hollow cylinder, which would rotate to provide gravity for the people who would live on the inside.

Mr Stone said much would depend on private companies developing spacecraft that provided cheap and reliable access to space.

But asked when he thought the first major colony might be created, he said: “If we were to say start in 10 years’ time, we could potentially have this up and finished in 20 years from now, which is pretty amazing, isn’t it?”

The research in the 1970s was led by Princeton University physicist Professor Gerard O’Neill, who asked his students to come up with designs for space colonies.

They decided it would be better for them to float in space, rather than be attached to the Moon, for example.

They came up with a number of designed, calling them Island One, Two and Three.

Aanbeveel

While the project might sound far-fetched, Mr Stone said it could actually have been done 40 years ago.

“They [the Princeton team] deliberately restricted the design to the technology of the period, so nobody could say ‘this is very nice, but it depends on this, this and this that hasn’t been invented yet,’” he said.

“They could have done all this with 1970s technology. If we were to do this now we could probably to it far more efficiently than back in the 1970s – that’s why I started this project at the British Interplanetary Society.

“We’re not just playing around with it. Some of our group have been working specifically on the Island One design. They have decided that a short cylinder would be better than a sphere.”

The BIS team’s adapted design has been dubbed Island Zero.

As the gravity is created artificially, this led them to question whether the colonies should have the same level as found at sea level on Earth, 1G.

“Do they need to rotate to give 1G? How about 0.9G or 0.8G? That would mean less stress on the structure and less stress on the inhabitants,” Mr Stone said.

“They would probably live longer. And over longer periods of time, the inhabitants would be taller than those on Earth.

“We would need to take that into consideration – you’d need taller ceilings.

“But also at what point does lower gravity become a problem? The answer to that is nobody knows.

“On the International Space Station, people are completely weightless and that’s not what we want.


Longer Childhood

If these demigods live 6000 years, their "childhood" could be 300 years long. The effort to maintain and educate such a "child" would put a strain on the parents, and while some would have more kids and some would have less, the "scale" of the lifespan would balance out.

Becoming a Demigod is dangerous.

Perhaps whatever method is used to achieve that long lifespan is inherently dangerous. You grow until 40 years old as a normal human would, but then the demigods go through a biological change which has a high failure rate. Maybe it's an external drug, maybe it's some sort of symbiosis with another form of life on the planet, or some chemistry in the environment, or maybe it's just the end of this species "puberty."

Surviving that long is dangerous.

Another option is that the ruling pyramid of the Demigods use younger demigods as tools, like western gods use angels. In order to make it to your first 1000 years, you have to survive being sent to the front lines of every holy war the demigods fight surviving multiple trips back and forth to your realms, and your subjects learning that you're long lived but not immortal and trying to kill you.

Surviving your family is dangerous.

Maybe they DON'T do anything to reduce their child-rearing rate, but in order for a child to make it through to adulthood they have to live in a rough-and-tumble dog-eat-dog world, where only the strongest (and therefore healthiest) actually make it into the ranks of adulthood.

. and maybe this never stops, and even at 5500, you have to keep one eye open.


Kyk die video: planet Mars 2021 (September 2022).