Inligting

Hoe behandel ander primate hul vingernaels?

Hoe behandel ander primate hul vingernaels?


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.

Moet alle primate hul vingernaels op een of ander manier knip, of slyt sommige primate se vingernaels deur natuurlike gebruik?

Is konstante spykergroei ook algemeen vir alle primate?


Albei. Baie primate byt hul naels. Sommige doen nie. Dit is nie spesiespesifiek nie.

Sjimpansees, byvoorbeeld, byt gewoonlik hul naels; sommige verkies om hulle met rus te laat. Hulle groei wel voortdurend, en naels wat nie geknip gehou word nie, breek waarskynlik af (as ek na die dikte van daardie naels kyk, kry ek die indruk dat dit nogal pynlik kan wees as hulle te kort breek.)

Die byskrif vir die foto hieronder (geneem uit 'n sjimpansee-reservaat) sê

Annie trek graag Missy se neus op. Missy verdra dit maar lyk nie of sy dit geniet nie. Ek neem haar nie kwalik nie – Annie byt nie haar naels vas soos die ander sjimpansees nie.

Hulle byt ook hul toonnaels.


Hoekom byt sommige mense hul naels? Want, hulle is primate - dit is geërf manier om ons naels te behandel, genoem onychofagie. Alhoewel dit normaal is in sommige primate (en dit is die manier waarop hulle hul naels behandel), word dit by mense as abnormaal beskou.


Sjimpansees verstaan ​​en treur die dood, navorsing stel voor

Sjimpansees kan in stilte saamdrom om na 'n mede-aap in haar sterwensoomblikke te kyk, en sjimpansee-ma's in die natuur kan dalk weke lank hul babas se gemummifiseerde oorskot dra, volgens nuwe navorsing oor hoe die mensdom se naaste lewende familielede die dood van diegene wat naaste is, hanteer hulle.

Insigte oor hoe sjimpansees reageer op die dood van een van hul eie is skaars. Een so 'n geval het gekom met die laaste ure van Pansy, 'n sjimpansee meer as 50 jaar oud wat in 'n Skotse safaripark gewoon het.

In die dae voor die bejaarde sjimpansee se vreedsame dood in 2008, was haar groep baie stil en het naby haar gaan slaap, het die navorsers bevind. Onmiddellik voor Pansy se dood het ander haar gereeld versorg en gestreel. Een manlike sjimpansee, Chippie, het haar glo vir tekens van lewe getoets toe sy gesterf het deur haar mond noukeurig te inspekteer en haar ledemate te beweeg.

"Toe die volwasse mannetjie hom gedra het asof hy Pansy vir tekens van lewe toets, het dit opgeval dat die sjimpansees inderdaad 'n groter bewustheid van die verskil tussen lewe en afwesigheid van lewe kan hê as wat ons voorheen gedink het," sê navorser James Anderson, 'n primatoloog. aan die Universiteit van Stirling in Skotland.

Kort nadat Pansy gesterf het, het die meeste van die sjimpansees vertrek, maar haar dogter Rosie het teruggekeer en die hele nag by haar ma gebly.

"Verskeie verskynsels is op een of ander tyd beskou as om mense van ander spesies te onderskei en byvoorbeeld redeneervermoë, taalvermoë, gereedskapgebruik, kulturele variasie en selfbewustheid, maar die wetenskap het sterk bewyse gelewer dat die grense tussen ons en ander spesies is nie naastenby so duidelik gedefinieer as wat baie mense gedink het nie,” het Anderson gesê. "Die bewustheid van die dood is nog so 'n sielkundige verskynsel."

In die verlede, toe navorsers gesien het hoe volwasse sjimpansees verlore geraak het deur een of ander skielike trauma soos 'n val van 'n boom of 'n luiperdaanval, het ander ape dikwels met 'n groot mate van rumoer gereageer.

"In teenstelling met die woedende, raserige reaksies op traumatiese volwasse sterftes, was die sjimpansees wat die vrou se dood in ons geval gesien het, meestal kalm," het Anderson gesê.

Frustrasie en vertroosting

Tog, nadat Pansy gesterf het, het Chippie die lyk drie keer kort aangeval en op die liggaam gespring of gestamp. Dit was dalk pogings om haar by te bring, het die navorsers bespiegel, of dalk uitdrukking van woede of frustrasie oor haar dood. Daarna het sy ma, Blossom, hom vir 'n buitengewone tyd versorg, miskien 'n teken van vertroosting en ondersteuning.

“Ons weet dat gevoelens van ontkenning en woede teenoor die oorledene redelik algemene elemente is in ons eie reaksie op rou,” het Anderson gesê. "Dit kan moontlik wees dat Chippie iets soortgelyks uitgespreek het, op manlike sjimpansee-manier, met betrekking tot Pansy."

Die sjimpansees het Pansy die volgende dag skoongemaak deur strooi van haar lyf af te haal, en stilweg gekyk toe bewaarders haar oorskot verwyder het. Hulle het etlike dae lank vermy om op die platform te slaap waar sy gesterf het, al was dit gewoonlik 'n gunsteling slaapplek, en het vir weke na die dood stil en ingetoë gebly en minder geëet.

"Oor die algemeen het ons verskeie ooreenkomste gevind tussen die sjimpansees se gedrag teenoor die sterwende wyfie, en hul gedrag na haar dood, en sommige reaksies van mense wanneer hulle gekonfronteer word met die afsterwe van 'n bejaarde groeplid of familielid, selfs al het sjimpansees nie godsdienstige oortuigings of rituele rondom die dood,” het Anderson gesê.

"Die bevindings wat ons beskryf het, tesame met ander waarnemings van hoe sjimpansees reageer op dooie en sterwende metgeselle, dui daarop dat hul bewustheid van die dood waarskynlik meer ontwikkel is as wat dikwels voorgestel word," het hy bygevoeg. "Dit kan verband hou met hul gevoel van selfbewustheid, getoon deur verskynsels soos selferkenning en empatie teenoor ander."

Altesaam, hierdie bevindinge "wek vrae oor die oorsprong van sommige van ons eie maniere om sterwende individue te hanteer," het Anderson aan LiveScience gesê.

Gemummifiseerde babas

Gevoelens wat sjimpansees vir die dooies het, word ook in die natuur gesien.

Wetenskaplikes het 'n gemeenskap van sjimpansees in die woude rondom Bossou, Guinee, vir meer as drie dekades gevolg. 'n Griepagtige respiratoriese kwaal in 2003 het die lewens van vyf van die ape geëis, insluitend twee jong babas &mdash Jimato, 'n 1,2-jarige man, en Veve, 'n 2,6-jarige vrou.

Die sjimpansee-moeders het 'n merkwaardige reaksie op die dood van hul nageslag getoon, het die dierkundige Dora Biro aan die Universiteit van Oxford in Engeland onthou. “Hulle het na die dood vir weke, selfs maande, aangehou om die lyke te dra,” het sy gesê.

Gedurende daardie tyd het die lyke heeltemal gemummifiseer, met die liggame wat uitdroog en al hul hare verloor het. Tog het die moeders steeds die liggame versorg op maniere wat herinner aan hoe hulle in die lewe behandel is, al het die oorskot afgebreek. Hulle het hulle oral tydens hul daaglikse bedrywighede gedra, hulle versorg, hulle in hul dag- en nagneste geneem wanneer hulle gerus het, en vlieë wat om die kadawers omring, verjaag.

"Natuurlik was daar 'n element van die makabere, maar terselfdertyd was ons ook baie hartseer &mdash dit is 'n gemeenskap wat ons jare lank bestudeer het, ons het elke individu baie goed geken, ons het gesien hoe die babas groei, en ons het gekyk hulle swig aan die siekte oor 'n tydperk van weke," het Biro gesê. “Hul dood en die moeders se volharding om die lyke te dra was inderdaad vir ons tragiese gebeure.”

Met verloop van tyd het die moeders die babas geleidelik agtergelaat, het Biro en haar kollegas bevind.

Hulle het toegelaat dat ander sjimpansees in die groep hulle meer en meer gereeld hanteer en langer tydperke van skeiding van hulle geduld, insluitend tye wanneer ander babas en jeugdiges toegelaat is om weg te dra en met die lyke te speel. Vuavua, die ma van Veve, het uiteindelik ná 19 dae laat gaan, terwyl Jire, Jimato se ma, dit ná 68 dae gedoen het.

"Ek vermoed dat die moeders ten minste mettertyd geleidelik die finaliteit van die situasie meer en meer begin waardeer het, veral omdat die babas al hoe minder soos regte babas gelyk het," het Biro aan LiveScience gesê. "Hul volharding om vas te hou kon 'n neweproduk gewees het van die uiters sterk band wat tussen sjimpansee-ma's en hul babas bestaan, 'n band wat onder normale omstandighede seker maak dat die ma van 'n lewende baba dit nooit laat vaar voordat dit gereed is om onafhanklik wees. Of dit kon hul manier gewees het om die dood te hanteer. Laasgenoemde is op een of ander manier soortgelyk aan een van die reaksies wat ons het op die verlies van ons geliefdes &mdash gevoelens van 'n weiering om te laat gaan, selfs as ons nie optree nie daarop op dieselfde manier as wat hierdie sjimpansee-ma's gedoen het."

Byna sonder uitsondering het die ander sjimpansees geen afkeer teenoor die lyke getoon nie, ten spyte van die intense reuk van verrotting en hul ontbinde voorkoms. Elders is dit bekend dat sjimpansees dooie babas aanrand en selfs kannibaliseer, maar geen sulke geweld is hier gesien nie, miskien weens die grootliks vegetariese aard van hierdie groep sjimpansees by Bossou.

"Hulle jag nie ape soos sjimpansees by baie ander plekke doen nie, want daar is nie een in hul habitat nie, en net baie af en toe vang hulle ander klein soogdiere as prooi," het Biro verduidelik. "So Bossou-groeplede kon minder geneig gewees het om die liggame as potensiële kos te beskou."

Biro het opgemerk dat 'n lid van haar span 'n baie soortgelyke episode gesien het van 'n dooie baba wat in 1992 teruggedra het nadat Jire 'n baba, 'n 2,5-jarige vrou genaamd Jokro, vir die eerste keer verloor het, ook aan 'n respiratoriese siekte. Jokro se verlies het dalk 'n rol gespeel in hoekom Jire haar tweede dooie baba Jimato so lank gedra het, het Biro gesê, "maar daar is twee ander moontlikhede," het sy bygevoeg.

Een het te make met Jire se ervaring om sewe ander babas groot te maak, van wie ses oorleef het, waarvan een verdwyn het, lot onbekend. "In elke geval sou dit lang tydperke &mdash jare &mdash van voltydse sorg behels het, om nie die baba te laat vaar voordat hy gereed was om te vertrek nie," het Biro gesê. "Sy kon dus gewoond geraak het aan die feit dat die dra en beskerming van 'n nageslag gelykstaande was aan baba-oorlewing. Dit is hoekom ons dink sy het dalk haar baba se oorskot aansienlik langer gedra as die ander eerstekeer-ma, Vuavua."

Nog 'n moontlike faktor agter hoekom Jire langer aan Jimato gehang het as wat Vuavua Veve gedra het, was omdat Jimato jonger as Veve was toe hy gesterf het, toe Jimato nog baie op sy ma aangewese was. "Jire het dalk op 'n ouderdomsgepaste manier gereageer, nog minder gewillig om die baba agter te laat," het Biro gesê.

Persepsie van doodsbekoring

Toekomstige navorsing moet daarop gemik wees om lig te werp op die mate waarin sjimpansees verstaan ​​en geraak word deur die dood van 'n nabye familielid of kohort, het Biro gesê.

"Hoe hulle die dood waarneem, is 'n fassinerende vraag, en min data bestaan ​​tot dusver oor sjimpansees se reaksies op die afsterwe van bekende of verwante individue, hetsy in gevangenskap of in die natuur," het Biro gesê. "Dit sal beide implikasies hê vir ons begrip van die evolusionêre oorsprong van menslike persepsies van dood en insig gee in die manier waarop sjimpansees die wêreld rondom hulle interpreteer."

Dit is bekend dat ander primate ook babalyke dra, insluitend ringstert-lemurs en berggorillas, al is dit net vir 'n paar dae. 'n Sterk ma-baba-band is eintlik 'n kenmerk van primate in die algemeen &mdash "primaatbabas word heeltemal hulpeloos gebore en ondergaan 'n stadige proses van rypwording waartydens hulle heeltemal op die ma staatmaak," het Biro gesê. "Dus die feit dat dooie baba-dra by ander spesies primate gesien word, is nie so verbasend nie."

Sjimpansees is mense se naaste lewende evolusionêre familielede, "en daar is reeds gewys dat hulle in baie van hul kognitiewe funksies soos ons lyk en hulle het empatie met ander, het 'n sin van regverdigheid en kan saamwerk om doelwitte te bereik," het Biro gesê. "Ons waarnemings bevestig die bestaan ​​van 'n uiters kragtige band tussen moeders en hul nageslag wat kan voortduur, merkwaardig, selfs na die dood van die baba."

Albei spanne wetenskaplikes het hul bevindings in die uitgawe van 27 April van die joernaal Current Biology uiteengesit.


Hoe behandel ander primate hul vingernaels? - Biologie


Die meeste primate spandeer hul lewens in komplekse, diggeweefde samelewings en moet gereeld met mekaar kommunikeer. Hulle kommunikeer met reuke, klanke, visuele boodskappe en aanraking. Nie-menslike primate beklemtoon die gebruik van lyftaal. Menslike kommunikasie is baie meer gefokus op die gebruik van mondelinge klanke. Ons spraak verskil radikaal van die gehuil, gehuil, gefluit, blaf, klap op die grond en ander geluide wat deur nie-menslike primate gebruik word om te kommunikeer. Ons tale is kompleks simboliese sisteme . Dit wil sê, ons woorde is kombinasies van klanke waaraan ons arbitrêr 'n spesifieke betekenis toeken. Soos alle simbole, kan die betekenis van woorde nie onderskei word deur na die klanke te luister nie. Hulle moet verduidelik word. Dit is baie anders as 'n universeel verstaanbare uitroep van pyn of vrees.

Menslike kommunikasie deur gebruik te maak van 'n sisteem van simbole vir mondelinge en geskrewe taal

Menslike taal het ook die kenmerke dat dit beide oop en diskreet is. Openheid verwys na die vermoë om oor totaal nuwe dinge en idees te kommunikeer. Daarteenoor kommunikeer ander primate byna uitsluitlik hul huidige emosionele bui en bedoelings. Hulle is gefokus op die hier en nou. Diskreetheid verwys na gesproke woorde wat individueel van ander onderskei word in dieselfde frase of sin - hulle meng nie saam nie. Die mondelinge klanke van sommige ape en ape is ook soms ietwat diskreet. Anders as ons, behels hul kommunikasie egter nie verplasing . Dit wil sê, hulle "praat" nie oor dinge en gebeure wat nie hier en nou is nie. Mense bespreek dinge soos hoe die wêreld twee eeue gelede was. Daar is geen bewyse dat nie-menslike primate dit doen nie.

Kan nie-menslike primate mensetale aanleer en gebruik? Het hulle die verstandelike vermoë om 'n simboliese kommunikasiesisteem te begryp en om dit kreatief te gebruik? Navorsing met sjimpansees, bonobo's en gorillas om hierdie vrae te beantwoord is aan die gang sedert die 1960's. Dit is nou duidelik dat ten minste die Afrika-ape 'n vereenvoudigde weergawe van die Amerikaanse Gebaretaal vir Dowes (ASL) kan aanleer en gebruik. Daar word egter nie algemeen saamgestem dat hulle dit op 'n innoverende manier kan doen soos volwasse mense nie. Een van die sterre in hierdie navorsing was 'n manlike bonobo met die naam Kanzi. Luister na die video- en oudio-skyfievertoning wat hieronder geskakel is en maak jou eie besluit oor hoe goed hy taal gebruik.

Die (Aap) Besigheid om Woorde te Herken—Bobbejaan se vermoë om te herken
geskrewe Engelse woorde. Hierdie skakel neem jou na 'n eksterne webwerf.
(lengte = 3 min, 57 sek.)
Hoe diere taal leer--TYD tydskrifwetenskapskrywer Jeffrey Kluger
besoek die Groot Ape Trust om Kanzi te ontmoet.
Hierdie skakel neem jou na 'n eksterne webwerf. (lengte = 3 min, 14 sek.)
Kanzi die Bonobo--primatoloog Sue Savage-Rumbaugh praat oor Kanzi's
vermoë om mensetaal te leer en te gebruik
Hierdie skakel neem jou na 'n 5-deel oudio-skyfievertoning by 'n eksterne webwerf.
(totale lengte van die 5 dele = 6 min, 15 sek.)


Nie-menslike primaatkommunikasie

Sjimpansee smeek gebaar
en gesigsuitdrukking

O dors, vokalisering, gebare en gesigsuitdrukkings word deur nie-menslike primate gebruik om ander in te lig oor hul sielkundige toestand en huidige bekommernisse, wat 'n belangrike leidraad is vir wat hulle waarskynlik volgende gaan doen. In die prent aan die linkerkant is die uitgestrekte hand en smekende gesigsuitdrukking wat na 'n ander groeplid gerig is duidelike aanduidings van hierdie sjimpansee se appèl om te deel. Dit weerspieël en versterk ook waarskynlik sy of haar laer posisie op die dominansiehiërargie binne die gemeenskap.

Primatoloë het opgemerk dat sommige kommunikasiepatrone algemeen deur baie primaatspesies gebruik word. Dit word hieronder bespreek.

Prosimians het uitstekende reukwaarnemingsvermoëns. Dit is dus nie verbasend dat hulle gewoonlik liggaamsreuke gebruik om te kommunikeer nie. Volwasse manlike ringstert-lemurs merk gereeld hul bosgebiede af met chemikalieë wat deur reukkliere in hul polse geproduseer word. Dit is soortgelyk aan honde, wolwe en katte wat hul gebiede met urine merk. In beide gevalle word die geur as 'n persoonlike handtekening erken. Tamaryne en marmosette gebruik ook geurige urine om die gombome te merk wat belangrike voedselbronne in hul gebiede is. In al hierdie spesies, geurmerk is 'n manier om grondgebied op te eis en indringers te waarsku.

Die gebruik van reuk om te kommunikeer is nie uniek aan prosimians nie. Alle primate, insluitend mense, doen dit tot 'n mate. Mense merk nie grondgebied met geur of beveg mekaar daarmee nie, maar ons produseer wel reuke wat ander kan aantrek of afstoot. Dink aan die effek wat jy op jou vriende kan hê as jy vir 'n paar dae nie gebad of stort nie. Mense het geleer om liggaamsreuke met parfuum en ander produkte te bedek. Ons kulture vertel ons dat sommige van hierdie reuke aantreklik is. Ons liggame produseer egter ook feromone, wat chemikalieë is wat kragtige, dikwels subliminale, reuke afgee wat uitwerking op die fisiologie en gedrag van ander in ons spesie het of hulle daarvan bewus is of nie. Baie belangrik, daar is verskillende manlike en vroulike feromone wat 'n rol speel in seksuele aantrekkingskrag en ovulasieregulering. Dit is waarskynlik dat alle primate sulke feromone produseer.

Die meeste primaatspesies, insluitend mense, gebruik dreigende gebare, staar en houdings om ander te intimideer. Primatoloë verwys na hierdie spesifieke gebruik van lyftaal as agonistiese vertonings . Onder nie-menslike primate is hulle gewoonlik voldoende om fisiese bakleiery te voorkom. Trouens, fisies gewelddadige ontmoetings is skaars onder hulle. Die dominante mannetjie in 'n aap- of aapgemeenskap kan gewoonlik groot konflikte voorkom en orde hou deur die gebruik van dikwels subtiele agonistiese vertonings. Byvoorbeeld, manlike bobbejane flits hul ooglede wanneer hulle kwaad is en ander wil intimideer. As dit nie voldoende is in sy effek nie, maak hulle hul monde wyd oop op 'n manier wat lyk soos 'n mens wat gaap. Dit is gewoonlik die laaste waarskuwing voor aanval. Aangesien die marmosette en tamarins nie hul gesigsuitdrukkings aansienlik kan verander nie, is hul agonistiese vertonings anders. Volwasse mannetjies tjirp herhaaldelik en draai om om hul geslagsdele van agter te wys. Dit is die uiteindelike bedreiging vir hulle.

Die meeste primaatspesies kommunikeer liefde en verminder groepspanning met wat bekend staan ​​as affiliatiewe gedrag. Dit sluit in om rustig naby mekaar te sit, aan te raak en wedersyds te versorg. Laasgenoemde word na verwys as allogrooming in teenstelling met self of autogrooming . Allogrooming is 'n kragtige instrument vir kommunikasie. Dit word deur beide ape en ape gebruik om manlike-vroulike maatbande sowel as dieselfde geslag vriendskapsbande te versterk. Sjimpansees het dikwels ekstatiese aanvalle van allogrooming wat ure lank aanhou wanneer 'n ou bekende weer by die gemeenskap aansluit. Hulle doen dit ook om emosies te kalmeer na wilde, aggressiewe uitbarstings deur woedende volwasse mannetjies. Dit lyk of die meeste lede van die gemeenskap dit ook baie geniet om babas te versorg en mag dalk vir die geleentheid meeding.

Allogrooming het gewoonlik meetbare fisiologiese effekte op beide die individu wat versorg word en die een wat die versorging doen. Dit kan die vrystelling van endorfiene in die bloed veroorsaak. Dit is hormone wat opiaatagtige effekte op die liggaam het - dit verminder die sensasie van pyn en veroorsaak 'n aangename emosionele toestand.

Allogrooming sjimpansees, douc langurs, en krap-eter makake

Dit is duidelik dat allogrooming beide sosiale en sielkundige voordele vir nie-menslike primate tot gevolg het. Dit dien dikwels dieselfde doeleindes vir mense, of dit nou in die privaat omgewing van 'n gesin by die huis is, waar 'n ouer 'n kind se hare kan borsel, of in 'n openbare skeerwinkel of skoonheidsalon. Die ervaring om iemand met hul vingers deur jou hare te laat hardloop en jou kop in die proses te masseer, is gewoonlik fisies aangenaam, en dit bied gewoonlik 'n tydperk wat verwyder word van werk of skoolprobleme wanneer ontspanne, toevallige gesprek plaasvind.

Onder sommige spesies primate, insluitend mense, is die drang om te allogroom so sterk dat dit lei tot versorging van diere van ander spesies. Onder nie-menslike primate vind interspesie allogrooming soms plaas wanneer hulle in gevangenskap is en die geleentheid ontneem word om hul eie soort te versorg. Hulle is selfs bekend om mense te versorg. Dit blyk egter nie 'n patroon van wilde nie-menslike primate te wees nie.

Om 'n gewillige, waarderende hond te troetel, is in eksperimente getoon om die bloeddruk van mense te verminder. Hierdie verrassende sielkundige effek het moontlik mediese implikasies.


Nie-menslike primate verteenwoordig 'n diverse populasie soogdiere wat taksonomies soortgelyk aan mense is. Hierdie ooreenkomste met mense in anatomiese en fisiologiese funksies het die evaluering van nie-menslike primate 'n integrale deel van die bevordering van biomediese navorsing gemaak. Die doel van hierdie boekhoofstuk is om 'n oorsig te gee van die primêre nie-menslike primaatspesies wat in die biomediese navorsingsgemeenskap geëvalueer en benut word. In hierdie hoofstuk het ons ook verwysings verskaf wat die omvattende studie van geselekteerde areas van belangstelling sal vergemaklik.

Taksonomie

Die orde Primate is opgedeel in drie subordes, Prosimii, Tarsioidea en Anthropoidea. Die Anthropoidea-suborde sluit die Platyrrhini (Nuwe Wêreld-ape) en die Catarrhini (Ou Wêreld-ape) in, wat 'n wye verskeidenheid aapspesies omhul. Tarsioidea behoort tot 'n onlangs erkende suborde van Primate, en daar word geglo dat hulle in die evolusionêre middeweg tussen die Anthropoidea en Prosimii val. Die Prosimii (of prosimians) word oor die algemeen beskou as "pre-primate", wat meer primitiewe eienskappe besit in vergelyking met die ander subordes wat voorheen genoem is [1].

Kenmerkende kenmerke van infraorders

Prosimian Lemuriformes het katagtige gesigte met 'n gesplete bolip en 'n klam, haarlose snoet (rhinarium), en word nie as ape beskou nie. Lemuriformes het 'n tandkam (onderste snytande en hoektande) en 'n "toiletklou" om te help met versorging. Hulle is inheems aan Suidoos-Asië, Indië en Afrika, en almal het epitheliochriale plasentas [2]. Lemuriformes word nie tradisioneel in navorsing gebruik nie, daarom sal hulle nie breedvoerig bespreek word nie.

Tarsioidea is as Prosimians beskou tot onlangs toe hulle hul eie suborde geword het. Hulle deel sommige kenmerke met Prosimians, en sommige met Anthropoidea. Tarsioidea is nagdierlik, soos die meeste Prosimians en het hemochorie plasentas soos Anthropoidea [2]. Hulle word ook nie tradisioneel in navorsing gebruik nie.

Platyrrhine, of Nuwe Wêreld-ape (NWM), is boomagtige primate inheems aan Sentraal- en Suid-Amerika. Hulle beskik oor afgeplatte snuit met ronde, wydverspreide neusgate, en sommige het grypsterte. Die Callitrichidae-familie, insluitend marmosette en tamarins, het skerp kloue, anders as die res van die primate, wat lang, geboë naels besit. Anders as Ouwêreldse ape (OWM), het NWM nie ischiale eelte of wangsakkies nie. Alle Platyrrhine is daagliks, behalwe Aotus, en het hemochoriale plasentas. Cebus menstrueer, maar alle ander Platyrrhine het estrus siklusse. Nuwe Wêreld-ape kan nie vitamien D 2 omskakel nie, daarom benodig hulle vitamien D 3 in hul dieet. Callitrichidae (marmosette en tamarins), Aotus (uilape) en Saimiri (eekhoringape) is die Nuwe Wêreld-ape wat gereeld in biomediese navorsing gebruik word.

Catarrhine (Ou Wêreld) ape is inheems aan die uiterste suidelike punt van Europa, Asië en Afrika en is die primate wat die meeste soortgelyk is aan mense. Een van hul onderskeidende kenmerke is die langwerpige snuit met nou gespasieerde kommavormige neus. Sommige OWM het wangsakkies, en sommige het ischiale eelte vir beskerming wanneer hulle sit, en baie het seksvel wat swel rondom die tyd van ovulasie. Hulle besit nie grypsterte nie, al is sommige spesies hoofsaaklik boomagtig. Alle OWM is daagliks, het hemochorie plasentas, en is in staat om vitamien D 2 in vitamien D 3 te metaboliseer. Ouwêreldse ape wat die meeste in biomediese navorsing gebruik word, is Macaca mulatta (rhesus-ape), Macaca fascicularis (cynomolgus-ape), Papio-spesies (bobbejane) en Pan troglodiete (sjimpansees).

Biologiese data van Callitrichidae

Callithrix jacchus jacchus (gewone of getinte marmoset) is die spesie in hierdie familie wat die meeste vir navorsing gebruik word. Abbott et al. het onlangs 'n volledige oorsig gepubliseer oor die basiese biologie en lewensgeskiedenis van die gewone marmoset wat in biomediese navorsing gebruik word [3]. Volwasse manlike marmosette weeg 225 tot 493 gram (g) terwyl volwasse wyfies 182 tot 387 g weeg [1,4]. Twee tamarienspesies word gereeld in laboratoriumnavorsing gebruik: Saguinus oedipus oedipus (katoenbo-tamarien) weeg 425 tot 550 g, en S. mystax (snortamarien) weeg 600 tot 650 g, met baie min seksuele dimorfisme in óf [1,5] ]. Callitrichidae is daaglikse ape wat gewoonlik insekte, vrugte en groente in die natuur eet, maar vrugte en chow in die laboratorium-omgewing gevoer word. Die meeste het sterte wat nie vatbaar is nie, lang bene, nie-opponerende duime en, behalwe vir 'n plat spyker op hul groottone, het kloue [6-8]. Alle Callitrichidae besit 32 tande met die formule 2.1.3.2 / 2.1.3.2[6].

Die estrus-siklus van C. jacchus is ongeveer 28,6 dae, met die follikulêre siklus wat agt en 'n half dae duur, en die luteale fase wat 19 tot 21 dae duur [2]. Estrus vind in die middel van die siklus plaas, waarin seksuele aktiwiteit toeneem, en marmosette menstrueer nie [5]. Die estrussiklus kan glo gemonitor word deur veranderinge in hormoonvlakke in urine, ontlasting of die bloed op te spoor [2].

Callitrichidae sosiale groepe verskil in samestelling tipies is daar twee tot 15 lede, met die hoogste rangorde mannetjie en wyfie die enigste broeipaar [2,4]. Groepe kan een wyfie-multi-man, een man-multi-vrou, of multi-vrou-meerling wees, en is geneig om verskeie nageslag en 'n paar immigrant diere in te sluit. Fietsry in nie-dominante vroulike marmosette en tamarins in 'n groep is dikwels nie-bestaande as gevolg van reukmerke deur die dominante wyfie, hoewel fietsry binne 'n kwessie van dae sal plaasvind wanneer 'n nie-dominante wyfie in 'n paring met 'n onverwante mannetjie geskuif word. . Tweeling is uiters algemeen in beide marmosette en tamarins in die natuur (C. jacchus, 80%), en dit is onlangs gedokumenteer dat drieling die mees algemeen geproduseerde werpselgrootte is onder gevestigde kolonies wat in gevangenskap grootgemaak is [2]. Tardif et al. het onlangs 'n volledige oorsig oor die voortplantingsbiologie van die gewone marmoset in aanhouding gepubliseer [9]. Callithrix is ​​in staat om swanger te raak binne twee tot vier weke na geboorte, en word bygestaan ​​deur mannetjies en ander nageslag tydens die ses maande speenproses. Hierdie ander versorgers speel 'n prominente rol om die jong nageslag te dra en dit van vaste kos te voorsien [10]. Met 'n swangerskap van 145 dae is dit algemeen dat Callithrix-moeders twee swangerskappe per jaar het [5]. Paring vind die hele jaar plaas. Saguinus het 'n swangerskapperiode van 140 dae, met tot 100 g gewigstoename tydens swangerskap [6]. Tweeling is algemeen in die natuur, maar enkellinge is die norm in gevangenskap onder Saguinus.

Biologiese data van Aotus

Aotus (Uil-ape) is die enigste nagtelike Nuwe Wêreld-primaatgenus, en volwassenes weeg ongeveer een kilogram, met baie min seksuele dimorfisme (Fig. 1) [11]. Hierdie vierpotiges het lang agterste ledemate, wat hulle in staat stel om van boom tot boom in die woud te spring, met hul kloue om aan die bas van bome vas te klou [12]. Cebidae (Aotus en Saimiri) besit 36 ​​tande met die formule 2.1.3.3 / 2.1.3.3 [8].


Figuur 1 . Aotus tivirgatus (Uil-aap) [11].

Uileape gebruik 'n aantal kommunikasiemiddele. Hulle sal op hul hande urineer en dan hul hande op takke en ander items vryf om seksuele aantrekkingskrag te kommunikeer. Hulle ruik mekaar ook tydens die eerste ontmoeting en voor paring. Aotus sp. is baie vokale kommunikeerders, wat geluide maak wat wissel van piep en hoë trillings wat babas toelaat om hul ma's op te spoor, tot gille wat volwassenes toelaat om groeplede te waarsku oor dreigende gevaar. Uil-aapspesies toon aggressie deur hul rug te buig, hetsy vanuit 'n viervoet- of tweevoethouding, en hulle ontmoedig roofdiere om aan te val deur vinnig heen en weer te swaai, wat dit vir die roofdier duidelik maak dat die aap bewus is van sy teenwoordigheid [12].

Die tipiese uil-aapgroep bestaan ​​uit 'n monogame broeipaar en hul nageslag, wat by die groep bly totdat hulle twee en 'n half tot drie en 'n half jaar oud word, op watter tydstip hulle uiteengaan om hul eie maats te vind [12]. Die vader neem die versorgerrol aan, en in die geval van sy dood sal ander nageslag, nie die moeder nie, sy rol aanvaar.

Sosiale versorging vind slegs voor en ná paringspogings plaas, ongeag hul sukses, en dit behels die gebruik van een dier se hande en tande om dooie vel, hare en insekte uit die pels van sy maatdier te verwyder. Paring vind plaas nadat die paar mekaar snuif, in die dorso-ventrale posisie, en ejakulasie vind plaas na drie tot vier bekkenstoot [12]. Dragtigheid in Aotus is 133 dae, en hierdie genus moet gekariotipeer word voor teling, as gevolg van variasie in chromosoomgetal en homologie onder die taksa [5,13].

Biologiese data van Saimiri

Volwasse mannetjie Saimiri sciureus (gewone eekhoringaap) weeg 700 tot 1100 g, terwyl wyfies 500 tot 750 g weeg [14]. Eekhoringape vertoon 'n mate van seksuele dimorfisme mannetjies is geneig om te oorheers in gewig en liggaamslengte, terwyl wyfies geneig is om langer sterte te besit (Fig. 2) [6,11]. Mannetjie S. sciureus het ook langer hondetande as wyfies. Hul bene is langer as hul arms, wat af en toe tweevoetigheid moontlik maak, en hulle gebruik soms hul nie-grypsterte as ankers wanneer hulle regop staan. By babas is die swartpuntsterte vatbaar, maar hulle verloor hierdie vermoë soos die ape tot volwassenheid groei. Eekhoringape het pseudo-opponerende duime en het indrukwekkende tasbare sensitiwiteit getoon [5,14].


Figuur 2 . Saimiri sciureus (gewone eekhoringaap) [11].

Dit is bekend dat eekhoringape in groepe van meer as 500 individue in die natuur leef, maar word onderverdeel in groepe volwasse mannetjies, moeders en babas, en jeugdige bande wat tydens paarseisoen weer bymekaarkom [5,6]. Manlike oorheersing word getoon in 'n uitgebreide penisvertoning, eerder as die toenemende vertoning wat deur Ouwêreldse ape verkies word. Wedersydse versorging is skaars en word nie met seksuele gedrag geassosieer nie. Babas klou sonder hulp aan die rug van hul ma's en kruip na haar bors om te verpleeg. Hulle hou aan om vas te klou selfs wanneer hulle slaap. Swangerskap is 168 - 182 dae, en tweeling is skaars [6]. Mans bereik seksuele volwassenheid op vier jaar, en wyfies op twee en 'n half jaar oud [5]. Lewensverwagting in gevangenskap is ongeveer 20 jaar [5].

Biologiese data van Macaca

Macaca mulatta (rhesus macaque) en Macaca fascicularis (cynomolgus, lang stert, of krap-etende macaque) is die lede van die Macaca genera wat die meeste in navorsing gebruik word (Fig. 3) [11]. Albei spesies is daagliks en seksueel dimorfies en het sakke in hul wange waarin hulle kos kan stoor terwyl hulle vreet. Volwasse wyfies weeg drie tot vier kilogram, en mannetjies van albei spesies weeg sowat ses kilogram [15,16]. Makake besit ischiale eeltheid, wat verharde, haarlose pads is wat aan die ischiale bene saamgesmelt is. By mans is dit by die middellyn saamgesmelt, en by wyfies is dit twee afsonderlike stukke, geskei deur die geslagsdele [17]. Makake gebruik vokale seine, koer en blaf om mekaar en hul hanteerders te sein, maar hulle is geneig om veral ekspressief te wees in hul gebruik van lyftaal en gesigsuitdrukkings. They will retract their lips while clenching their teeth together in a display meant to reduce aggression in tense encounters. Additionally, maintaining eye contact (staring) is a threatening behavior, and a macaque will stare while holding his mouth open, but covering his teeth with his lips. Males are known to smack their lips as an invitation to a female in estrous to copulate [15,16].


Figuur 3 . Macaca mulatta (Juvenile rhesus macaque) [ 11 ].

Both species have multimale-multifemale social systems and are promiscuous, but in cynomolgus societies, the alpha male dominates the sexual activities. Sex skin, which can involve swelling and engorgement of the vulva, thighs, perineal region and hairless areas of the chest neck and face is more active in younger rhesus females than in more mature females, and both genders normally have reddish buttocks. Male M. mulatta also experience further reddening of the buttocks and back of the legs during mating season when in the presence of menstruating females [16]. Females reach sexual maturity by three and a half years and males by four years, but males contribute little as breeders in their first few years of sexual maturity [1]. Full growth is attained at six and ten years, respectively [5]. The rhesus has a gestational duration of 165 to 178 days, with a mean birth weight of 475 g, while M. fascicularis has a slightly shorter gestation of 155 to 165 days and a mean birth weight of 345 g [1,8].

Biological Data of Papio

Baboons are diurnal nonhuman primates with a wide range of habitats and food sources, with species ranging over the continent of Africa and throughout the Middle East. All species of Papio exhibit varying degrees of sexual dimorphism. The male olive baboon ( P. anubis ) weighs around 25 kg, while the females weigh about 14 kg [18] (Fig. 4) [11]. Hamadryas baboons ( P. hamadryas ) weigh between 20 and 30 kg for males, and around ten to 20 kg for females [19]. Baboon hair occurs in a range of shades from olive-gray to an orangey-brown, and the males of some species have manes of long hair surrounding their faces. Like macaques, baboons have ischial callosities fused to their ischial bones, which are connected at the midline in males, and are separated into two pieces by the genitalia in females. In the wild, hamadryas typically live in groups consisting of single males with harems of females that gather with other groups at night to sleep on rocky outcroppings, while P. anubis live in promiscuous multimale-multifemale groups [18].


Figuur 4 . Papio anubis (Adult male olive baboon) [ 11 ]

Baboons communicate with each other and their handlers both vocally and by physical means. Papio anubis , males in particular, are capable of a number of bark-like vocalizations. Their vocalizations can convey aggression among animals, toward handlers, or as warning to the other animals. Captive baboons show aggression toward their human handlers with expressions similar to those they use toward other animals: they will yawn widely, revealing their sharp canine teeth, which is often done while raising the eyebrows and scalp, revealing a contrasting lighter shade on their eyelids. An adult male will sit with his erect penis in view, as a reminder to others of his presence. Baboons also will "present" their back ends in a submissive posture when threatened [18]. The menstrual cycle of P. anubis lasts 30 - 37 days, with menstruation lasting from one to six days [1]. In female P. anubis , sexual maturity is reached in three to four years, and 3.5 to 4.5 years in males [1]. The perineum of P. anubis turns a bright red during pregnancy. The gestational period for the olive baboon is 173 to 193 days, with a mean birth weight of 865 g. Infants are weaned between six and 15 months of age, but the olive baboon’s inter-birth interval is 18 to 24 months, allowing time for the offspring to learn from its family group [1]. Infanticide has been observed in the olive baboon [18]. The life span for baboons is 30 to 40 years [5].

Biological Data of Pan

The common chimpanzee ( Pan troglodytes ) exhibits sexual dimorphism the males weigh about 40 kg, while the females weigh 30 kg. At around 85 cm in length, males are about 8 cm taller than females [5]. Chimpanzees have light or mottled skin with black hair and no tail or ischial callosities infants and youth have tufts of white fur on the anal area (Fig. 5) [11]. These apes use the knuckles of their hands for quadrupedal motion, but are capable of bent-knee bipedalism and many of the tree-top acrobatic activities of monkeys. Chimpanzees have long fingers, and a short fully opposable thumb, which prevents them from performing a precision grip, much like humans use to hold a pencil. They are capable of creating a variety of tools out of natural objects in order to more easily access water, live food, or to clean themselves. The dental formula of P. troglodytes and all apes is 2.1.2.3 / 2.1.2.3 = 32 , and the males possess longer canines than the females [6]. Both sexes have a tendency toward baldness, females in particular, and all have heavy brow ridges and prominent ears. The genitalia of male P. troglodytes is in direct view [5,6].


Figuur 5 . Pan troglodytes (common chimpanzee) [ 11 ].

The menstrual cycle of P. troglodytes is about 37 days, with estrus lasting ten to 14 days [20]. Mid-cycle ovulation is marked by pink perineal swelling, signaling increased fertility and the time to mate. Gestation is 228 days, and singletons are the norm. Weaning occurs after five years, and wild females reach puberty around eight or nine years [5]. In captivity, great ape females reach menarche around six or seven due to better nutrition [20]. Females produce their first offspring around 11 or 12 years of age, but males are not fully mature until they reach 15 years of age. The life span for P. troglodytes in the wild is 50 years [5].


Primate societies

Primate societies are made up of three distinct parts: Social organization, mating system, and social structure. Social organization describes the size, sex ratio, and cohesion of a society. Mating systems describe which individuals mate with one another and the consequences for reproduction and genetics. Social structure describes the relationships and interactions among group members.

There are three basic types of social organization: solitary, pair-living, and group living. Solitary primates are still social with one another, but spend most of their time alone. Some examples of solitary primates are orangutans, tarsiers, and most nocturnal strepsirrhines such as mouse lemurs and lorises.

Pair-living primates are primates where one male and one female live together in a permanent pair. This is the rarest form of social organization among the primates. Some examples of pair-living primates are titi monkeys, owl monkeys, and gibbons.

The most common social organization in primates is group living. Group living primates are mixed groups of males and females with three or more adults.

There are four types of mating systems in primate societies: Monogamy, polyandry, polygyny, and polygynandry. Monogamy is when males and females mate with only one member of the opposite sex. Most pair living species are monogamous, however genetic evidence shows that most pair living species exhibit sneak matings, and only owl monkeys are truly monogamous.

Polyandry is when one female mates with multiple males and each male only mates with her. This is the rarest mating system and is only seen in marmosets and tamarins.

Polygyny is when one male mates with multiple females, and prevents other males from mating with those females. Some examples of polygynous primates are gorillas, geladas, and hamadryas baboons.

Polygynandry is when multiple males mate with multiple females. Chimpanzees, bonobos, and most monkeys are in multi-male multi-female polygynandrous groups.

Generally speaking, primate social structure is driven by food. Females are thought to organize themselves depending on the distribution of food in the environment, and males are thought to organize themselves around females. The amount and distributions of food leads to different amounts of females and different levels of competition amongst females. Competition shapes female dominance hierarchies. Access to females and female preference dictates competition between males and male-male interactions. These interactions shape male dominance hierarchies.


Strongest Evidence of Animal Culture Seen in Monkeys and Whales

Until fairly recently, many scientists thought that only humans had culture, but that idea is now being crushed by an avalanche of recent research with animals. Two new studies in monkeys and whales take the work further, showing how new cultural traditions can be formed and how conformity might help a species survive and prosper. The findings may also help researchers distinguish the differences between animal and human cultures.

Researchers differ on exactly how to define culture, but most agree that it involves a collective adoption and transmission of one or more behaviors among a group. Humans' ability to create and transmit new cultural trends has helped our species dominate Earth, in large part because each new generation can benefit from the experiences of the previous one. Researchers have found that similar, albeit much simpler, cultural transmission takes place in animals, including fish, insects, meerkats, birds, monkeys, and apes. Sometimes these cultural traits seem bizarre, such as the recently developed trend among some capuchin monkeys to poke each other's eyeballs with their long, sharp fingernails—a behavior that originated among a small group of individuals and which has spread over time.

In humans, once a new fad arises, everyone starts doing it, and in tomorrow's issue of Wetenskap, two back-to-back papers find this to be true among animals, too. Two international teams led by researchers at the University of St. Andrews in the United Kingdom report new evidence for the strength of cultural conformity in two very different species suspected to exhibit cultural behavior: vervet monkeys and humpback whales.

In the first study, a research group led by psychologist Andrew Whiten of St. Andrews tried to induce conformity in four groups of wild monkeys, 109 animals in total, living in a private game reserve in South Africa's KwaZulu-Natal province. The team gave each group two plastic trays filled with corn the corn was dyed blue in one tray and pink in the other. (These colors were chosen because they are prominent in the genitals of male vervets and so were likely to draw the monkeys' attention.) One set of corn was soaked in bitter aloe leaves and made distasteful to the monkeys. In two groups, the blue corn was made bitter, while the other two groups got bitter pink corn. Over a period of 3 months, the monkeys easily learned to entirely avoid the bitter-tasting food.

Four months later, after 27 baby monkeys had been born and were old enough to eat solid food, the monkeys were again offered pink and blue corn, although this time neither had the bitter taste. During the next 2 months, both adults and infant monkeys strongly preferred the same color as before—even though both trays were now edible. Indeed, 26 of the 27 infants ate only the corn preferred by their mothers, ignoring the other tray. Moreover, during the period of the experiments, 10 male monkeys migrated from a group that had preferred one color of corn to a group that preferred the opposite color. Seven of the 10 immediately took up the color choice of their new, adopted group, suggesting that they were influenced by the norms of that cohort.

The study demonstrates that learning from others and cultural conformity play an important role in the behavior of animals as well as humans, Whiten and his colleagues conclude. Deferring to the experiences of others—rather than relying on only personal experience—can help animals adapt.

In the second study, a different research team led by St. Andrews marine biologist Luke Rendell, the researchers studied a tradition—invented by humpback whales themselves—involving a fishing method called bubble-feeding: The whales blow bubbles around schools of fish, confusing the fish and herding them together, and then charge into the bubbles and gobble up their prey. In 1980, one whale was observed to have invented a new twist on this technique, striking the water surface several times with its tail before blowing the bubbles, a strategy now called lobtail feeding. Researchers don't know what advantage this gives the whales, but lobtail feeding arose at the time of a crash in the population of the whales' preferred prey, herring, and the rise of another fish, the sand lance. The team speculates that striking the water helps herd the sand lance together.

Observers had the impression that lobtail feeding was spreading, but there was no solid evidence. So the team analyzed a 27-year database on whale behavior collected in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary, in the mouth of Massachusetts Bay between Cape Cod and Cape Ann. It entered 73,790 sighting records into the computer, involving 653 whales that had been spotted at least 20 times. Over the years, lobtail feeding had spread to 37% of the population, and up to 87% of the whales that adopted the technique appeared to have done so by being in close association with another whale that was already clued in to the method. (Individuals were counted as "associated" if they came within two body lengths of each other and demonstrated coordination in their behavior.)

Outside researchers say that the two studies serve as a milestone: "Their back-to-back publication marks the moment where we can finally move on to discuss the implications of culture in animals," rather than simply whether culture is present or absent, says Carel van Schaik, a primatologist at the University of Zurich in Switzerland. The vervet monkey findings are a "big surprise," he says, because the animals "gave up existing preferences when they [entered] a group with a different preference." Previously, researchers had assumed that such choices were dictated primarily by a drive to get at the most nutritious food, rather than by social factors. "In retrospect, that monkeys rely on the wisdom of the local crowd makes perfect sense."

The whale study also gets a thumbs up. It's "an amazing compilation of … data," says Susan Perry, an anthropologist at the University of California, Los Angeles. "I find this to be a highly convincing case for a foraging tradition in a cetacean."

Nevertheless, van Schaik, Perry, and other researchers say, there is still a lot of work to be done to figure out how much cultural transmission in animals resembles that in humans. "Both these papers show that animals pay attention to and are influenced by what other animals are doing," says Mark Pagel, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Reading in the United Kingdom. But neither study demonstrates the kind of sophisticated copying typical of humans and which demarcates humans from other animals, Pagel says. Without the ability to truly copy others, Pagel adds, animals cannot develop the increasingly sophisticated behaviors that have ratcheted human culture to such a high level.


What is the study of nonhuman primates called?

Primatology is the study of nonhuman primates. It is a diverse discipline, and primatologists can be found in biologie, anthropology, psychology and other departments. Some primatologists focus exclusively on nonhuman primates, while others study human primates as models for diseases or as part of complex ecosystems.

Subsequently, question is, what does non human primates mean? pri·mate. (prī&primemĭt, -māt&prime) 1. (prī&primemāt&prime) Any of various mammals of the order Primate, which consists of the lemurs, lorises, tarsiers, New World monkeys, Old World monkeys, and apes insluitend mense, and is characterized by nails on the hands and feet, a short snout, and a large brain. 2.

Regarding this, why do we study non human primates?

Studie van nonhuman primates has also contributed to our understanding of basic biological phenomena such as reproduction to better understanding of diseases such as AIDS and to the development of drugs, treatments, and vaccines for the promotion of better health for mens en nonhuman primate alike.


Dier Diversiteit Web

The Primates are an ancient and diverse eutherian group, with around 233 living species placed in 13 families. Most dwell in tropical forests. The smallest living primate is the pygmy mouse lemur, which weighs around 30 g. The largest is the gorilla, weighing up to around 175 kg.

Primates radiated in arboreal habitats, and many of the characteristics by which we recognize them today ( shortened rostrum and forwardly directed orbits, associated with stereoscopic vision relatively large braincase opposable hallux and pollex unfused and highly mobile radius and ulna in the forelimb and tibia and fibula in the hind) probably arose as adaptations for life in the trees or are primitive traits that were retained for the same reason. Several species, including our own, have left the trees for life on the ground nevertheless, we retain many of these features.

Primates are usually recognized based on a suite of primitive characteristics of the skull, teeth, and limbs. Some of these are listed above, including the separate and well-developed radius and ulna in the forearm and tibia and fibula in the hindleg. Others include pentadactyl feet and presence of a clavicle. Additional characteristics (not necessarily unique to primates) include first toe with a nail, while other digits bear either nails or claws, and stomach simple in most forms (sacculated in some leaf-eating cercopithecids). Within primates, there is a tendency towards reduction of the olfactory region of the brain and expansion of the cerebrum (especially the cerebral cortex), correlated with an increasing reliance on sight and increasingly complex social behavior.

The teeth of primates vary considerably. The dental formula for the order is 0-2/1-2, 0-1/0-1, 2-4/2-4, 2-3/2-3 = 18-36. The incisors are especially variable. In some forms, most incisors have been lost, although all retain at least 1 lower incisor. In others, the incisors are intermediate in size and appear to function as pincers or nippers, as they commonly do in other groups of mammals. In some, including most strepsirrhines (see next paragraph), the lower incisors form a toothcomb used in grooming and perhaps foraging. In the aye-aye ( Daubentoniidae), the incisors are reduced to 1 in each jaw and are rodent-like in form and function. Canines are usually (but not always) present they vary in size, including within species between males and females. Premolars are usually bicuspid (bilophodont), but sometimes canine-like or molar-like. Molars have 3-5 cusps, commonly 4. A hypocone was added early in primate history, and the paraconid was lost, leaving both upper and lower teeth with a basically quadrate pattern. Primitively, primate molars were brachydont and tuberculosectorial, but they have become bunodont and quadrate in a number of modern forms.

Living primates are divided into two great groups, the Strepsirrhini and the Haplorrhini. Strepsirrhines have naked noses, lower incisors forming a toothcomb, and no plate separating orbit from temporal fossa. The second digit on the hind foot of many strepsirrhines is modified to form a " toilet claw" used in grooming. Strepsirrhines include mostly arboreal species with many primitive characteristics, but at the same time, some extreme specializations for particular modes of life. Haplorrhines are the so-called "higher" primates, an anthropocentric designation if ever there was one. They have furry noses and a plate separating orbit from temporal fossa, and they lack a toothcomb. Haplorrhines include many more species, are more widely distributed, and in most areas play a more important ecological role. Haplorrhines are further divided into two major groups, the Platyrrhini and the Catarrhini. Platyrrhines have flat noses, outwardly directed nasal openings, 3 premolars in upper and lower jaws, anterior upper molars with 3 or 4 major cusps, and are found only in the New World. Catarrhines have paired downwardly directed nasal openings, which are close together usually 2 premolars in each jaw, anterior upper molars with 4 cusps, and are found only in the Old World ( Cercopithecoidea, Hominoidea).

Most primate species live in the tropics or subtropics, although a few, most notably humans, also inhabit temperate regions. Except for a few terrestrial species, primates are arboreal. Some species eat leaves or fruit others are insectivorous or carnivorous.

Here, we follow Anderson and Jones (1984) in formally dividing living primates into two suborders, the Strepsirrhini and the Haplorrhini. We differ, however, in that we place humans and their close relatives, the chimpanzee, gorilla, and orang in the family Hominidae.

Literature and references cited

Feldhamer, G. A., L. C. Drickamer, S. H. Vessey, and J. F. Merritt. 1999. Mammalogy. Adaptation, Diversity, and Ecology. WCB McGraw-Hill, Boston. xii+563pp.

Thorington, R. W., Jr., and S. Anderson. 1984. Primates. Bl. 187-217 in Anderson, S. and J. K. Jones, Jr. (eds). Orders and Families of Recent Mammals of the World. John Wiley and Sons, N.Y. xii+686 pp.

Savage, R. J. G. and M. R. Long. 1986. Mammal Evolution, an Illustrated Guide. Facts of File Publications, New York. 259 pp.

Vaughan, T. A. 1986. Mammalogy. Derde Uitgawe. Saunders College Publishing, Fort Worth. vii+576 pp.

Vaughan, T. A., J. M. Ryan, N. J. Czaplewski. 2000. Mammalogy. Fourth Edition. Saunders College Publishing, Philadelphia. vii+565pp.

Wilson, D. E., and D. M. Reeder. 1993. Mammal Species of the World, A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference. 2de uitgawe. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington. xviii+1206 pp.

Click on the name of a family below to learn more:

  • Family Lemuridae
  • Family Cheirogaleidae
  • Family Indriidae
  • Family Daubentoniidae
  • Family Galagonidae
  • Family Lorisidae
  • Family Lepilemuridae

Bydraers

Phil Myers (author), Museum of Zoology, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor.

Woordelys

met liggaamsimmetrie sodanig dat die dier in een vlak in twee spieëlbeeldhelftes verdeel kan word. Diere met bilaterale simmetrie het dorsale en ventrale sye, sowel as anterior en posterior punte. Synapomorfie van die Bilateria.

gebruik reuke of ander chemikalieë om te kommunikeer

diere wat metabolies gegenereerde hitte gebruik om liggaamstemperatuur onafhanklik van omgewingstemperatuur te reguleer. Endotermie is 'n sinapomorfie van die Mammalia, hoewel dit moontlik in 'n (nou uitgestorwe) sinapsied-voorouer ontstaan ​​het, onderskei die fossielrekord nie hierdie moontlikhede nie. Konvergent by voëls.

met die vermoë om van een plek na 'n ander te beweeg.

voortplanting wat die kombinasie van die genetiese bydrae van twee individue, 'n man en 'n vrou, insluit


A primaat is any member of the biological order Primate, the group that contains all lemurs, monkeys, apes, and humans. The English singular primaat is a back-formation from the Latin name Primate, which itself was the plural of the Latin primas (&ldquoone of the first, excellent, noble&rdquo). Colin Groves lists about 350 species of primates in Primate Taxonomy.

All primates have five fingers (pentadactyly), a generalized dental pattern, and a primitive (unspecialized) body plan. Another distinguishing feature of primates is fingernails. Opposing thumbs are also a characteristic primate feature, but are not limited to this order&hellip. In primates, the combination of opposing thumbs, short fingernails (rather than claws) and long, inward-closing fingers is a relic of the ancestral practice of brachiating through trees. Forward-facing color binocular vision was also useful for the brachiating ancestors of humans, particularly for finding and collecting food. All primates, even those that lack the features typical of other primates (like lorises), share eye orbit characteristics that distinguish them&hellip


Dr. Jane Goodall touched by Jou Jou
Photo: © Michael Nichols from Brutal Kinship (Aperture)

Chimpanzees and humans share a common ancestry that is evident in our genes, intellect, emotions, and behaviors. We are different branches of the same evolutionary tree.

Common origins

Humans and chimpanzees evolved in Africa from a common ancestor millions of years ago. 1 Years of study have traced and documented our shared origins. Our understanding of chimpanzees has enhanced our knowledge of not only them but also ourselves.

Chimpanzees are the closest species to human beings. Fossil and genetic evidence show that human and chimpanzee DNA are approximately 96-98 percent identical. Chimpanzees are more closely related to humans than to gorillas. As a result, chimpanzees and humans share physiological, emotional, and behavioral traits.

Anthropologists estimate that modern human and chimpanzee species diverged from a common prehistoric ancestor between 5 and 10 million years ago (a theory Charles Darwin first proposed in 1871). 2 Some scientists believe that chimpanzees&mdashboth the common and pygmy (bonobos)&mdashshould be classified in the same genus (Homo) as human beings instead of being classified alongside orangutans, gibbons and gorillas. Physiologist Jared Diamond went so far as to call humans &ldquothe third chimpanzee.&rdquo 3

Like human children, young chimpanzees learn life skills via observation and imitation. They in turn pass these lessons on to their children, resulting in a complex socio-cultural system.

Bodies and health

Biologically, chimpanzees and humans are very much alike. Our bodies are similar in structure, although chimpanzees have significantly more muscle mass, bone density, and consequent strength. An adult male chimpanzee has six to eight times the strength of an adult man.

Both species have relatively long life spans&mdashchimpanzees can live 50 years or longer. 4 (Presently the oldest known living chimpanzee, Cheeta, is 77 years old.) Generations of chimpanzees live and form long-term relationships with each other, fostering chimpanzee culture.

As do humans, chimpanzees have self-awareness. They can recognize themselves in a mirror. 5 Given this keen sense of self, chimpanzees&rsquo individuality is as diverse as it is in humans. There are chimpanzees who show enormous kindness or intelligence and those who would be described as &ldquoslow&rdquo or more selfish. Some are gentle and nurturing, while others are bullies. The richness of their personalities is strikingly similar to that of humans, and makes for their complex emotional needs and the rich social fabric of their lives. Along with their self-awareness comes their self-interest. Chimpanzees have the challenge of establishing their place within their society. Some are better skilled at accomplishing this than others. But, within chimpanzee society, there is a place for each member&mdashbe it one of status or marginal involvement.

The link between physical and mental health has been observed in both humans and chimpanzees. Adverse mental states such as grief or depression have detrimental effects on physical health in both species. Conversely, positive emotions boost general well-being. 6 Conflicts arise in chimpanzee society just as they do in human society, and chimpanzees are as capable of joyful reconciliation as they are of confrontation.

Chimpanzees and humans share long life spans and high intelligence. They also share the capacity for establishing long-term relationships and accumulated memories, and a sense of time.


The nail matrix is responsible for nail plate growth.[13] The proximal nail matrix produces the dorsal nail plate, and the distal matrix produces the ventral nail plate, possibly with a minor contribution from the nail bed.[46] Thus, in the case of melanonychia, the depth of the pigment suggests the biopsy site. If the melanin remains confined to the ventral nail plate, a distal matrix biopsy is sufficient, and a proximal matrix biopsy is required if the dorsal nail plate is involved. The distal matrix is more often involved in longitudinal melanonychia because its melanocyte population possesses more potential activity.[9] Fingernails grow at a rate of approximately 3 mm per month, while toenails grow a bit slower at around 1 mm per month.[47] Several factors influence the rate of growth. Lowered temperatures, female sex, non-dominant hand, first and fifth digits, certain disease states, and many medications are associated with a slower growth rate.[47] A variety of changes can appear on the nail plate as a result of nail matrix injury. The਍ystrophy of the nail plate depends on the severity, duration, and location of the nail matrix insult.[48] A mild, transient, diffuse injury to the nail matrix manifests in a transverse depressionꂬross the nail plate, known as Beau’s line. Along the same spectrum, onychomadesis, a transverse separation of the nail plate, can ensue if the diffuse insult to the matrix is more severe. In comparison, a focal, prolonged insult can produce longitudinal leukonychia.[48]

Often underutilized, nails can offer an important clue in many clinical scenarios. Not only can they reveal a recent health history, but they can also act as a window to internal pathology. For instance, in the case of hypoxia, under-perfusion, iron-deficiency anemia, and endocarditis, the nails can display clubbing, delayed capillary refill, spooning, and splinter hemorrhages, respectively. Nail dystrophy can be the first sign of inflammatory diseases such as lichen planus and psoriasis.[8][49] The nails can be a site of aggressive conditions like melanoma. A histopathologic analysis is mandatory in the setting of suspicious melanoma. A helpful mnemonic that highlights clinical features associated with subungual melanoma is the ABCDEF rule, which stands for[50]:

In addition to pigmented lesions, nail biopsies can help differentiate other similar-appearing entities, such as subungual verruca and subungual squamous cell carcinoma, as well as psoriasis and onychomycosis.[34] Now fully equipped with an understanding of normal nail histology, abnormal histologic findings can be explored and linked to clinical diagnoses.

Diseases of the Nails and Associated Histopathologic Findings[8][34][1][49][51][52][53][52][1][34]: